So I turn to movement with my scholars in class, and they accompany me in what I feel is unchartered territory. Alice Blumenfeld, an NYU alumna and flamenco dancer and teacher, presents an intellectual autobiography of her relationship between words and movement. I save for last what is perhaps my greatest debt.
The cover to our issue—as well as one of the texts in this section—belongs to visual artist, writer, and dear friend Eduardo Lalo. The drawings that accompany his text are part of a new project on which he will be working throughout this year, of drawings on the pages of an agenda book that has already been marked with writing.
The drawings, done with fountain pen and ink, embody the very notion of writing as the movement of the body to the page, dancing on the page, which, in the text that he offers us, shows its inevitable political pulse. I have not spoken about the gaze: I will leave the gaze out. You, however, will not. Turns complicated, doesn't it? Es otro umbral este cuerpo devenido.
La mirada medita su alba inhala su vuelta. Sin ese umbral no hay voz, sin el cuerpo no se entra en la luz. El impacto del salto sobre el gozne es violento. La intensidad resulta de la libertad que la desata. La voz, hay que esforzarse porque no se rompa en el extremo de su disciplina o su fervor, al borde de su opio. Del otro, el tiempo que toma contemplarlo. Escribo con todo el cuerpo. Entre dos instantes el cuerpo se precipita, se lanza, clava en el papel. Se mantuvo en espera, pero la inminencia de un desbordamiento hizo al cuerpo saber que era ahora.
Es luz reflejada antes de hacerse negrura. La mano que sostiene la pluma baila con ella sobre la libreta. Anuda; anota. Corre; fija. La escritura corre fija. La imagen certera de la escritura se descubre en este momento: en la movilidad de un cuerpo, en las concreciones del papel y la tinta, en el acto puro. Prescindimos de la coexistencia con el tiempo de la escritura: su olor, su sonido, su imagen, su movimiento.
La escritura se ha esfumado y los tipos de imprenta abolen los signos originales y palpables. Las letras de imprenta elaboran descripciones higienizadas e incompletas de un acontecimiento: el de la llegada de la escritura. El cuerpo se mueve aun cuando use un teclado. La escritura es un dibujo. Un dibujo es una escritura. Su operador es un cuerpo. Un organismo que se desplaza, escucha, huele, observa. La imagen obtenida se convierte en palabras trazadas con tinta.
Blanco y negro o lo hecho con una caja de colores. Un espacio se husmea y palpa: se descubre y explora. Crean figuras de escritor, nombres que se convierten en marcas Como en todo monocultivo, se arrasa con la tierra. Luego de unas pocas zafras, se transforma el bosque en tierra yerma. Por esto es por lo que una robusta industria editorial puede destruir una literatura. Sobre ella se da la lucha de un escritor de fondo. Un cuerpo se inclina sobre una libreta, pero no se somete ni a ella ni al mundo. Esos hombres y mujeres trazaron signos, dibujaron animales, seres y cosas usando la sintaxis de las cavernas y las piedras.
Este estar en el mundo para marcarlo sigue vivo. Soy uno de ellos, tengo el cuerpo de los signos. El malogro propone que hay mejores maneras de abordar algo. El error es lo opuesto al buen manejo que a su vez deja una posibilidad abierta a ser enmendado. La mirada articula una distancia entre la manera en que percibimos nuestro propio cuerpo y el del ejecutante. Me refiero a ideas concebidas, conocidas y limitantes de la cultura del cuerpo que no reconoce el cuerpo propio y su conciencia.
O digamos que no fluye. Me identifico con su inquietud. Sin libreto en mano, encontramos en Santurce una casa que estaban derrumbando. Esta pieza intenta establecer una defensa y hasta una autoridad del cuerpo en un estado contemplativo vivo. Al principio, mi cuerpo aparece de perfil, acostado, flotando por un momento en una cama de agua en el interior de mi casa con pinches de ropa que aprietan mi vestuario.
En el exterior, al aire libre, que bien pudiera ser la misma casa en proceso de derrumbe, el cuerpo de la mujer celebra su derecho a la sexualidad privada y al movimiento.
Al final de la pieza, el cuerpo se quita los pinches de ropa con sus manos y aparece mi rostro extasiado y sonriente. Studying ancient Greek at NYU solidified my fascination with language and translation. I spent hours memorizing the vocabulary and writing out the forms of words over and over, then translating short phrases—which felt more like solving math problems than interpreting, as I worked out which words related to each other based on their forms.
The complexity of ancient Greek amazed me. I no longer remember the forms or much of the vocabulary, yet I hold on to my excitement towards language, to the act of translating, and even more so, to how the structures of our languages form, and at time limit, our thoughts. I see dance as an equally complex language, but without words, and in my experience it relies heavily on metaphors to be able to express anything at all.
I remember one metaphor in which she asked us to imagine we were a tube of lipstick rising up in a spiral; other metaphors came with stories from her own experiences. Other metaphors came from basic human experiences—a pose with our legs crossed as if we desperately had to use the bathroom, for example. After understanding her metaphor, and applying it to the steps, I felt I could interpret the movement; I could go further than simply carrying out the gestures as mechanical exercises and could give the steps meaning, or in other words, really dance.
In my experience, the best dance directors use metaphors to create their work I am not referring to a central metaphor, though that may also be true. Along with his ingenious choreographic ideas, he uses words to bring out the best in each dancer. Images, descriptions, and metaphors saturated his classes. With that, I entered into another world as I danced, where my imagination worked as much as my body. So if a dancer must interpret, the choreographer must create the metaphors and the meaning behind the steps.
And sometimes when a teacher gives no such direction, I still invent my own metaphor to give the movements meaning—what I would call making. What about directly translating words into movement? In some ways the exercise functioned as a subjective form of translating, or really transference of feeling. That process seems far off from my work in ancient Greek classes where a grammatically correct translation existed and I spent a great deal of time decoding the forms. But our bodies have limits. We have movement vocabularies, histories and sensations we harbor. Part of my work as a choreographer can include interpreting my own natural body language into metaphors so I can re-create the movements either on myself or other dancers.
I also work starting with the idea—the image, feeling, metaphor, etc. And I constantly work on breaking my movement habits and improving my technique in order to have freedom to express exactly what I want to transmit. It can be tedious work, much like the repetitive memorizing of vocabulary while I studied ancient Greek. When I find the right way to arrange the movements, or the metaphors behind the gestures, then I have a dance that can take the audience on a journey, transferring feelings and ideas without words.
In many ways I think of Deep Listening as an embodied search for missing links in the complex process of creating my identity as a Puerto Rican woman in the United States. I have been concerned with creating a culturally specific work that is not stereotypical or folkloric. I am exploring a juncture between folklore and abstract contemporary dance, between tradition and individual expression. My creative research for Deep Listening was centered on my study of the oldest Puerto Rican music and dance form, bomba, developed by enslaved people in Puerto Rico as far back as the seventeenth century Tatum , and characterized by its improvised dialogue between a solo dancer and a lead drummer Barton I found connections in both bomba and salsa to my own improvisation practice within contemporary dance1.
Improvisation and Listening Because Deep Listening is an improvisation, it presents an interesting conundrum: improvisation serves simultaneously as theory, methodology, and final product. It deals directly with the here and now and yet it is also in dialogue with the past and the future2. This process implies specific skills and a range of technical practices that, I would argue, inform our worldviews and how we act in the world4. My choice to investigate the potential integration of bomba in my work was not arbitrary.
Within those traditions lie lessons on how to think quickly on your feet figuratively and literally , how to allow intuition to lead while paying attention to very specific circumstances, how to communicate non-verbally, and how to recognize when it is time to move on. Dance scholar Brenda Dixon Gottschild identifies improvisation as one of the key characteristics of the Africanist aesthetic in Caribbean dance, providing a space for individuality within the collective 9— Improvisation can be understood as an embodied form of resistance that makes it possible to respond to life-threatening contexts.
It is significant that cultural forms that underscore improvisation survived the institution of slavery and continue to thrive in contemporary society. My own improvising now felt connected to a much broader legacy. To perform bomba you have to be willing to be seen and heard. Your individual voice is essential. Although it is just the two of us in the studio, this becomes excruciatingly difficult for me.
Time and time again I begin our bomba sessions with an apologetic body language, already embarrassed to be the center of attention, to be responsible for what is about to take place. And yet, I have asked to dance bomba! What is going on here? Elegance, dignity, and confidence. These are main characteristics of bomba—a form born out of, ironically, the conditions of slavery. Why do I refuse to wear a skirt to dance bomba? I want to move my torso low to the ground and move my hips sharply from side to side but Barez tells me I am dancing the Cuban rumba, not the Puerto Rican bomba.
Well, then I want to learn the intricate footwork traditionally performed by men. I feel rebellious! Barez laughs. We have a good time! My learning process was not a linear progression but rather a series of crossings and moving across styles and time. I began to understand what my body needed to re-member in 5. The paseo is a basic touch-toe step that is used to move around the circle before and in between piquetes. There are important regional variations of bomba dancing that point towards different genealogies and specific historical, geographical, and political contexts. Barring their differences, however, the main shared characteristics of the form include rhythmic clarity, firmness of delivery, and the improvisational dialogue between the solo dancer and the lead drummer.
On the one hand, I re-connected with the Flamenco dance training that I received from my mother in Puerto Rico as a child. I had to de-romanticize the form and embrace, through critical examination, the complex historical process that led to the creation of bomba in different locations, and perhaps even more importantly to efforts towards the preservation of the form. I must say that my studies of salsa during this time were instrumental. I brought these discoveries with me into my improvisation practice with Barez. What are the cultural lessons I am learning? I found solace in knowing I could count on that sound to orient me towards what would happen next.
The piquetes, on the other hand, offered a wide range of possibilities for expressing different moods, from graceful and sensual to playful and mischievous, to aggressive and challenging. A piquete called mariposa butterfly is one of my favorites. It combines a. She danced professionally in Spain. She had a dance studio on the first floor of our house in Puerto Rico where I began my dance training at age 3.
For an interesting discussion on racial homogeneity in postmodern dance see De Spain, Landscape of the Now, 6. I enjoy the juxtaposition of those seeming opposite qualities that in conversation become one expression. I found the turns, with sharp sudden beginnings and sharp definite endings, exhilarating. The weight of the bomba skirt added a density to the physicality of the turns.
It is difficult for me to name this feeling. Bomba Vanguardista avant garde bomba In my performance of Deep Listening, I felt elegant, confident, and bold. I sensed my back eloquent, my torso liquid, my hips sensual and my entire body sometimes filled with an arrogance that I associate with Flamenco dancers. Even during the opening of the piece in which I toss my body around in forceful circular motions, I felt strong, like a spiritual warrior.
My vulnerability was countered by my resilience and perseverance to get through la marea high tide. This is, I think, one of the lessons of bomba—the determination to survive. I was highly aware of every sound Barez made—sounds that responded to me, sounds that I could respond to, and sounds that gave me information about where we were headed. Do you hear me? In the section where we improvise inside a complicated, labyrinth-like 5 beat rhythm, I feel that we are holding on to each other for dear life, that we need each other in order to arrive at the open space that the bomba section promises.
Because I did not set out to perform pure bomba, I relished the liberties I took in reinterpreting the bomba vocabulary in our improvisation. There were two rules to the experimentation: 1 staying inside the rhythm; and 2 honoring the integrity of the relationship between movement and sound. I will mark a piquete when I see one. I was not intending to replicate the traditional form, nor was I negating it, I was intersecting with it out of my own experience and physicality.
The paseo, which had been so intimidating, now felt expansive, and maybe even profoundly political —an invitation to the audience to join me in an experience through this old and familiar road. That is, I think, my conversation with this cultural tradition. I am honoring the roots while experimenting with its possibilities. That was an avant garde bomba! Deep Listening is not a project about conservation of culture, nor folkloric representation. It is a proposal to look for ways to integrate historical and cultural legacies in order to learn new—or re-learn old—ways of how to be in the world.
In my improvisation practice and its. Not as an abstract idea, but as an embodied practice that is in itself a political act. Every time we improvise, we put ourselves on the line. It exposes our vulnerability and in doing so it also reveals new perspectives so desperately needed to face challenges ahead. This is what I am trying to do in my work.
I see it as a call for action in contemporary society. Quintero Rivera. San Juan: Banco Popular. Barton, Hal. Gainesville: University of Press of Florida, De Kent, Spain. New York: Oxford University Press, Durham and London: Duke University Press, Gottschild, Brenda Dixon. Nancy, Jean-Luc. Translated by Charlotte Mandell. New York: Fordham University Press, Tatum, Charles M.. Volume Three. Edited by Charles M. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, Las fotos que aparecen a lo largo de la entrevista combinan fotos de su labor como solista en el Ballet Nacional de Cuba con fotos recientes de su labor como docente.
Los primeros maestros que llegaron eran italianos. Por supuesto, los italianos estaban muy relacionados con Rusia —porque Cecchetti se va a Rusia—. Esos fueron los maestros que acabaron de pulir el entrenamiento de Alicia y de Fernando. En los hombres, son muy masculinos. Es casi como si estuvieran flirteando, casi que seduciendo Y las mujeres son muy sensuales y muy expresivas.
Tendues, grande battements, absolutamente todo. Era muy divertido. CM: A los nueve. CM: Oh, tres audiciones, porque se iban cortando y cortando. CM: No. Y ellas se ponen [se identifican] blancas. Ella me dio toda una serie de recomendaciones, o sea, que no fue justo. Yo no fui la primera. CM: Todo. A veces estaba en el bloque de la. No mirar. Pero aprendimos mucho. Aprendimos mucho. CM: Uy, era muy chiquita. Lo primero que hice fue chardas, en Coppelia.
En Lago de los cisnes lo primero que hice fue los bailes napolitanos. Hice todas esas. Era como ya estar bailando con ellos. CM: Y eso fue un poquito doloroso. CM: Creo que en Oro fue una cubana. Si ese caso fue horrible. Entonces nada. Muy feo. Fue muy muy muy feo. En el fondo era eso. Era un proyecto muy interesante. Ellos fueron alumnos de Martha Graham de primera mano. Entonces, y yo creo que eso fue importante. Que de pronto en un momento llegaron norteamericanos, Angela Davis, por ejemplo.
El problema era que mi pelo daba mucho trabajo. Ella tiene un pelo mezclado. Y entonces con ese pelo no podemos hacer nada. Ahorita no hubiera problema porque hay muchos productos, pero en aquel. Y bueno, tuve que empezar a luchar con mi pelo. Ellos fueron los primeros. Y lo hace de la mano de un director de teatro cubano, Nelson Dorr.
Muy conocido. De repente se convierte en un gran personaje. CM: Porque lo convirtieron en un personaje real e irreal. A veces es un personaje que observa la esclavitud. Y entonces se juega en toda la obra con el destino de Cecilia. Pero la audiencia va a ver lo que ve. No tiene nada que ver con la historia. CM: No, la estructura estaba ya preestablecida. Si estabas dentro del estilo, ella te dejaba. Para ella eso es sagrado. Coppelia es Coppelia, La bella durmiente es La bella durmiente y no te salgas del estilo. Si tu. Y para ella el romanticismo estaba muy cerca de la pintura.
Y es uno que tonto no lo ve. CM: Yo estaba en toda la obra. Yo no recuerdo si lo hice de forma consciente. O sea, se pasa de movimientos atacados a movimientos desacelerados, ciertos aspectos del baile del folklor cubano, para decir afro-cubano, pero nosotros folklor. Pero de pronto me paraba y empezaba a hacer vueltas. CM: Exacto. Tienes que estar haciendo y pensando en todo eso. Es muy rico hacerlo. CM: Bueno eso es algo que se hace mucho. Se ha hecho mucho. Y lo hizo suyo. CM: Cuando se lo dieron a la otra chica, no, no le fue bien. O sea, ellos piensan que el rol es tuyo y es tuyo.
Y a otras personas se les agradece pero no es lo mismo. Me dieron el papel de Nemesia. CM: Hay otras escenas de Cecilia. Yo tengo fotos. Cuando entra esta mujer es muchas cosas. CM: Fue muy importante. Es mucho verbo y poca sustancia. Fue una locura. CM: Me fui. Porque me discriminaron.
Era una cosa natural. Pero de todas maneras, hay gente que tiene eso y no sucede. Dicho por ellos. Fue la primera vez que me tuve que salir, irme a una esquina, porque casi vomitaba. Casi me muero. El nivel de exigencia en el ballet de Cuba era no bien ni mal, era excelente y si no era excelente estaba mal. Porque eso era Alicia, esas eran sus escalas. CM: Treinta. CM: Ballet Teatro de la Habana. Y la escuela de cine.
Ya era enero. Al final me fui en el diciembre del Se imponen en el circuito de la danza hasta que inevitablemente el espectador topa con ellas. Pero, para eso, primero hay que conocerlo. De hecho, se pudo hacer en Buenos Aires porque el vestuario ya estaba listo. Los materiales —muy caros, como la seda y los bordados— fueron reutilizados con apenas unos retoques. Me emociona ese personaje que muere solo, escupido, abandonado por el sistema. OA: Para el trabajo con el protagonista, Rodrigo Pardo, hizo un entrenamiento fuerte en boxeo.
En el fondo, ver a los boxeadores es ver una danza arriba del ring. OA: No. Torito no puede tener etiquetas. OA: Es algo que no me interesa aclarar.
El espectador no tiene que comprender. El espectador tiene que sentir, identificarse, alterarse, experimentar. Desde siempre yo pintaba. Una vez Elide Locardi vio mis dibujos. Es una obra hija de otras obras, una suma de antecedentes. Es un trabajo sobre el movimiento lento y ligado, digamos, mi especialidad. Todos hacen lo mismo, siguen las tendencias, las modas, y hacen una danza globalizada. Me dio vuelta. The current investment in objects, and the incredible proliferation of stuff and things that we find in recent works of dance, performance, and installation art, characterizes the current performance and dance scene.
In what follows, I propose that when displacing the prevalence of notions such as subject and object, performer and artwork, what emerges is the proposition for a deep link between performativity and thingliness. I offer nine preliminary theoretical variations on this phenomenon, which I believe to be less aesthetic than political. But, as Agamben proceeds by listing a series of apparatuses, it becomes clear that his conception of the term goes beyond the notion of apparatus as a general system of control, and approaches instead a very concrete, and specific understanding of apparatus as a thing that commands.
As we produce objects, we find ourselves being produced by objects. Firstly, because it uncovers a performativity in things, and secondly, because, since dance has an intimate relationship to the political and ethical question of obedience, of governing gestures, of determining movements, it is no wonder then that dance but also performance art, thanks to its openly political verve, and particularly its concern about how objects elicit actions must itself approach objects—since objects seem to be governing our subjectivity, seem to be subjecting us, under their apparatus-function.
But perhaps, there is more to it than just control It is not 1. Agamben, What is an Apparatus? En otras palabras: al producir objetos,. Indeed, the commodity dominates not only the world of things, but also the realm of the perceptible, the imperceptible, the sensible and the infra-sensible, the domain of desiring, even the domain of dreams.
The commodity governs, and so much so it even governs the very possibility of imagining governance. Moreover, the commodity governs not only subjects, but also the very life of objects, the life of matter—the life of life and the life of things. Under its domain, humans and things find their concrete openness for endless potentiality crushed or substantially diminished.
Even if the commodity is a material object, its power is to make sure that things are not left in peace. So perhaps, the counter-force of objects lies precisely in merely being a thing. When free, objects should gain another proper name: no longer object, no longer apparatus, no longer commodity, but simply thing.
Perhaps we need to draw from this force, learn how subjects and objects can become less like subjects and less objects and more thing. How do we decolonize the violent suturing of objects and subjects under the rabid violence of colonialism, 1. Debord, The Society of Spectacle, En la medida en que producimos objetos, terminamos siendo producidos por ellos.
En primer lugar, porque revela una performatividad en las cosas. Ao produzir objectos estamos a ser produzidos por objectos. The violence in this proposition forecloses the recognition of a radical alterity in things. I see some recent dance recognizing precisely the necessity to enact an ethics of things. Such an ethics implies being with things without forcing them into constant utilitarianism. And a thing the thingly element in any object and subject may actually be that which offers us vectors and lines of flight away from the imperial sovereignty of colonizing apparatuses.
In order to do so, things would have to be left in peace, allowed to become-thing once more—so as to actively counter their subjugation to a particularly detestable regime of the object the commodity-apparatus regime and a particularly detestable regime of the subject the personhood regime that imprisons both objects and subjects in mutual captivity.
Perhaps some recent dance has been preoccupied precisely with this mutual liberation: of things and of bodies, of subjectivities and objects. Bajo su dominio, los humanos y las cosas pierden —o ven severamente malograda— su apertura concreta para desarrollar su potencial infinito. In the s and early s, some important experiments by Vera Mantero, Boris Charmatz, and Xavier Le Roy, among others, seem to have privileged a becoming-animal as a line of flight for dance.
It is fundamental here to find other devices of visibility, where the object and the person does not occupy a center—thus other spaces must be invented, involving the viewer, dissolving the stage, scrambling distinctions. The lines-of-flight variation Of course objects have always been present on dance stages. From this interest came some sculpture to be used as props in productions of dance and theater, some to function as surrogate performers, and some to act as the on-stage generators of scenic effects.
Moreover, things are used in ways totally different from how Krauss had described the use of sculptures in theatrical and dance events. Rather, objects and bodies take place alongside each other and This simple act of just placing things in their quiet, still, and concrete thingliness alongside bodies, not necessarily together with the dancers, but just alongside, 1. Perniola, The Sex Appeal of the Inorganic, E uma coisa o elemento coisificado num dado objecto ou. This operation is not Duchampian, in the sense that it wants to affirm the everyday object as art, once the object is signed by an artist or brought into an art context.
Instead, this operation wants to affirm the object as thing, to liberate the thing captured in the object that had been trapped by instrumental reasoning and artistic apparatuses. To invest in things, not as proxies of the body, nor as signifying or representative elements of a narrative, but as co-partners in a sheer, co-determinant, co-presence—as coextensive entities in the field of matter—is to activate a fundamental change in the relationship between objects and their aesthetic effects in dance, theatre, performance art, and installation art.
This change is the political activation of the thing so that it may do what it does best—to dispossess objects and subjects from their traps called apparatus, commodity, person and self. I do not offer myself to the other but to the impersonal movement that at the same time displaces the other from himself and allows him in his turn to give himself as thing and to take me as thing.
Pero ahora lo que vemos sobre los escenarios de danza no son esculturas creadas por artistas. The body is a series of instruments to express, each one in its own way in contact with another part. First the knowledge of it… then try to use it as it is used in any condition. Jeux was an instant success, brought to life by a rare combination of imagination, skill, wit, and unity of vision that served the collaborators well.
Although Jeux is often mentioned by both dance and art historical sources, these accounts rarely refer to what actually occurred on stage—the interaction between choreography and design—and its relationship to the larger context of their work. By threading a nail with the movable vertebrae of a dog, or hanging a chickpea from a string, he moved into three-dimensional space while joining the mundane with the whimsical.
In these startling three-dimensional combinations, he often used objects to stand in for bodies or body parts, but this did not wholly satisfy his radical intentions. For Jeux, he would design costumes in colors that dissolved the outline of the bodies against the set design. They wear long black wigs and exaggerated female breasts formed of red balloons. Her imagination took her from the fantastical to the almost real—and this range of experience was part of the charm. They inhabit a magical, unfamiliar environment that, from the first instance, is a world completely apart from ours.
This marvel of a man that is Massine has come specifically from La Scala theater in Milan to collaborate with me; he is making prodigious choreography and finds solutions to make everything I give him dance. Magnificent dancers and ballerinas and with Kochno, a great theatrical experience that is serving me well. I treat everything like my latest things; the front cloth, first crochet that hits the spectator, like my paintings from this summer, with the same aggressiveness and violence.
Followed then by a rain of swings, uppercuts and direct hits from right to left in the stomach all over during the whole show—of 6. There are numerous sources on the controversy regarding the symphonic ballets. Two giant shapes at the back of the stage, a black cone with a wilting tip, and a white spherical shape that looked like a moon, dominate the scene. Malet Through a small square opening at the bottom of the cone, we see a pair of legs from the knees down, which begin to move as soon as the curtain goes up, a surrealist image that immediately puts viewers on notice that this was no ordinary ballet.
Simultaneously, a cobaltblue arm protrudes from a small, off-centered hole in the sphere, spins around like the hand of a clock, and disappears back inside. The white costumes with areas of bright color have the eerie effect of making the bodies disappear whenever they were in front of something white such as the moon , leaving only floating, amorphous shapes or limbs visible for a moment. As the Spirits dance, the moon-like shape at the back of the stage floats up, levitating three times, each time a little higher, then lowers back down to earth, surprisingly devoid of the weight it appears to have.
Kraus 14 In Head of a Catalan Peasant, each mark has multiple functions: the crossed lines can simultaneously represent a body, or divide the canvas into quadrants; the circles or spheres on the ends of the horizontal line emphasize an incoherent spatial orientation; one is smaller than the other, but they both exist on the same axis. They can also stand in for a pair of eyes, a defining characteristic of a head.
In Jeux, the set design—with its levitating moon and asymmetrical wings—also disrupts our spatial orientation. Indeed, Massine was not interested in escaping the physicality of the body; he believed the body had unlimited expressive possibilities, from conveying abstract notions such as Fate to depicting the shenanigans of a shoemaker. Human and object become one in the section titled La Toupie the Top. A childhood favorite, a top seems to spin indefinitely, after being tossed just the right way.
The turning ability of Tamara Toumanova the original dancer in the role, also in the film combined with the choreography and the costuming creates the illusion of rapid-speed spinning. As she turns, the bands appear to revolve around. Furthermore, her arms appear and disappear as she turns depending on what structure she faces , adding to the revolving sensation.
She bends forward with a flat back and walks straight-legged with flexed feet across the stage, swinging her arms back and forth, as a child imitating some bizarre, stiff animal. With her imagination as a gateway, she was clearly the strongest link between our world and theirs. Six literally burst on the stage from left to right, while they teeter-totter forward and back, from one foot to the other, in a rocking-horse motion, mechanically galloping across the stage in a strait vertical line that recalls racehorses just let out of the gate. A transitional section titled Le Volant Shuttlecock and Battledore follows, with increasingly balletic choreography and costumes, and a series of lifts designed to keep the female dancer going from one partner to the other almost without touching the ground.
She wore a pale, feather-laden bouncy short skirt that came very close to the balletic tutu, although one leg of her tights was red, and the other white, with a red garter around the knee. In spite of being sensually dressed, these women aggressively wield their shields and swords, moving them in all directions in mock battle, jumping and turning in geometric patterns.
Then, in a rare moment of total stillness, they mimic the objects around them by gathering together in the center stage behind their shields, their bodies forming what could be a Greek urn. In a sharp contrast with the weighted dance of the Amazons, an ensemble of women appear as nine Soap Bubbles. The choreography, with its rounded shapes of the arms, softly executed movements, and small jumps, such as small cabrioles, evoke lightness, if not floating. The dressmaker was Madame Karinska. As she swoons in his arms, one imagines the relationship that might have been, had she been older.
There are no traces of moving objects here, only a man of the world and a curious young girl on the cusp of womanhood. He never at any time tried to play down the sexual component, so much a part of the inner essence of the human being that he wanted the piece to contain and that can be found in fact in all his work. Malet This most human aspect of Jeux distinguished it from other ballets of the time, where love themes abound, but sexuality is rarely addressed directly.
Soon, the romantic, dreamy interlude with the Traveller, so different in feel from all the other sections, is abruptly interrupted by three Sportsmen, who come onstage one by one with energy and vigor, showing off their skills for everyone to see. Seeing the coordination of the colors and forms in his paintings, involuntarily one feels joy and the need to dance. The toys in this ballet had to possess a logic and innate ideal and what they would express through movement could not be done by some meticulous mechanism.
Eager to take risks, and seamlessly blending and staging their ideas about illusion, representation, and abstraction, they compellingly gave life to radical ideas that would impact both dance and visual art in the West for generations to come. Robert S. New York: Museum of Modern Art, , Bibliography Adamowicz, Elza.
Bellow, Juliet. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, Coton, A. A Prejudice for Ballet. Gaye, Pamela. Krauss, Rosalind E. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Lasarte, Joan Ainaud de. Lubar Robert S. New York: Museum of Modern Art, My Life in Ballet. Edited by Phyllis Hartnol and Robert Rubens. New York: MacMillan St. Un dibujo bidimensional de un cuadrado es capaz de representar a un cubo que existe en un plano tridimensional.
Un baile coreografiado consiste de una secuencia unidireccional de movimientos secuenciales. Cada gesto nuevo reemplaza al previo mientras lo hace desaparecer. El baile termina y sus momentos pasan a otro medio. Aunque representa el mismo. Estos dos tipos de gestos crean pausas naturales en el flujo del baile. Esas fotos contienen sus. Bibliography Agamben, Giorgio. Means Without End. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, Derrida, Jacques. Archive Fever. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Dance Collection. Phelan, Peggy.
Unmarked: The Politics of Performance. London: Routledge, Pollack, Barbara, and Charles Humphrey. Pennington, NJ: Princeton Book, Reason, Matthew. Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Aunque los movimientos del baile gitano no son nobles, Preciosa captura su belleza y talento en el baile y las personas nobles pueden verla y sentirse hipnotizadas por ella. Preciosa es una gitana y, por lo tanto, como sucede con los valores de esta sociedad tal como se explicitan al principio de la novela ejemplar, obtener dinero es esencial para su supervivencia y la de su grupo.
Ella experimenta un problema similar cuando don Juan incluye un regalo de cien escudos con su propuesta de matrimonio. Al aceptar la propuesta de matrimonio de don Juan, Preciosa establece ciertas. Es decir, el aprendizaje del arte del baile gitano le da credibilidad en esa sociedad y le permite entrar en ella. Al final, no es el baile lo que le da a Preciosa acceso real a los espacios de la nobleza, sino su identidad real como una mujer noble. Cuando nos damos cuenta que Preciosa es de nacimiento noble, todas las discrepancias en su identidad tienen sentido.
Pero al mismo tiempo, ambos son los mejores bailadores entre todos los gitanos. Igual que el resto del comportamiento. Igual que el resto del lenguaje. Haywood, Charles. This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol DAG oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. A significantly higher content of ash was observed in rats fed the two TAG diets. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta.
This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment dpt ], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation only elevated at 3 dpt.
Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol—vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol—cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats.
Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.
The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups.
It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage. The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness.
A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis. Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile.
The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory prof We investigate the foodborne illness outbreak affecting a national brand of peanut butter to determine how demand for the product category was affected. The illness outbreak coincided with growth in the quantity demanded for the peanut butter category. The negative impact on the category associated with the initiation of the product recall was significant and dissipated over time.
The recovery of the product category after the recall indicates that the information was correctly targeted and a Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter. Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations TDS.
Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate.
Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter. This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats.
Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings. Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process.
Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals.
Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. This work involved an evaluation of the stability of cashew nut butter obtained by grinding up broken cashew kernels with sugar, salt and soy lecithin. The influence of different packaging materials glass and polypropylene containers and antioxidants BHA, BHT and tocopherols on product quality was also evaluated.
Physicochemical water activity, acidity index, instrumental color and texture and microbiological characteristics total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids. Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids EFAs to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem.
Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. Effects of oil content on the sensory, textural, and physical properties of pecan butter Carya illinoinensis.
It has been difficult to produce acceptable pecan butters as the high oil content results in a product that flows and separates too easily. Acceptability varied most in terms of texture and spreadability, but not flavor. Under large deformation firmness varied from Yield stress decreased with oil content, ranging from 0. In conclusion, the rheological properties of pecan butter were quite sensitive to the amount of oil in the product. Differences in acceptability were primarily due to "texture" and "spreadability," suggesting there is a limited range of firmness and spreadability that consumers will deem acceptable.
There has been considerable demand for butters and spreads made from a variety of culinary nuts. In this study, some of the oil was removed to overcome this problem. The oil was relatively simple to remove from unroasted nuts, thus manufacturers could easily produce more acceptable pecan butter for the market.
Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter , milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic.
Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10—60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1—7 g kg Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence.
The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter , stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture. Acceptance and purchase intent of US consumers for nonwheat rice butter cakes. This study evaluated consumer acceptance and purchase intent of nonwheat butter cake formulations prepared with Thai jasmine rice flour.
A commercial wheat-based butter cake served as the control. Product A was neither liked nor disliked with an overall liking score of 5. The butter cake products were differentiated by textural acceptability overall texture, softness, and moistness with a canonical correlation of 0. Overall liking and taste influenced overall acceptance and purchase intent.
The odds ratio of overall liking was 3. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol elevation. Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher with cortisol-vegetable shortening than with cortisol-cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol-vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol-cocoa butter fishes.
In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are both viable techniques for cortisol manipulation in fishes in temperate climates, providing researchers with different options depending on study objectives. Development and performance evaluation of frustum cone shaped churn for small scale production of butter.
The present research was intended to develop a small scale butter churn and its performance by altering churning temperature and churn speed during butter making. Using appropriate conditions of churning temperature and churn speed, high quality butter can be produced at cottage scale. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat. Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction.
The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polimorph.
Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization. The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors Third, we investigated butter and phytanic acid effects on human T-cell polarization, both by in vitro incubation with phytanic acid, and by a 12 weeks intervention with intake of butter.
Finally, we performed two human interventions, first one with intake of butter and cheese Phytanic acid is one of these minor fatty acids, due to agonist activities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. To determine the effects of both Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake. Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste.
This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined.
As a precondition of every being and every thing it necessarily precedes both the subject and the object as these are also things in a general sense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Este dever se funda sobre a lei moral. En vez, me voy. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant. Me identifico con su inquietud.
The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality. Assessment of cocoa Theobroma cacao L. Cocoa fermentation is a crucial step for the development of cocoa aroma and precursors of high quality cocoa and by-products. This bioprocess has been studied for years to understand cocoa chemical changes but some matters concerning changes in fat content remain that are investigated in this work. Changes in the quantity free and total fat , extractability and composition of cocoa butter were assessed in samples from Madagascar, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador.
Increases in free fat content were highlighted in samples from each origin thanks to the use of the 'soxtec' solvent method, which preserves the integrity of the butter. Conversely, total fat content remained stable throughout fermentation. Protein and polyphenol contents decreases were linked to fat content augmentation by a strong negative interaction. The origin of fermentation had a predominant and significant impact on composition, revealed by PCA.
This work underlines and explains the importance of fermentation process in improving yield of fat that can be extracted while preserving the composition of this cocoa butter. This study highlights an interaction in cocoa unfermented or partially fermented beans. Therefore, fermentation appears to be also necessary to enhance the cocoa butter content extracted from the nibs. All rights reserved.
Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster. Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined.
The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil.
Modulation of saturation and chain length of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of cocoa butter -like lipids. Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter , a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics Demand for cocoa butter is increasing, yet T.
Alternative means of production of cocoa butter lipids CBLs are, therefore, sought after. Yeasts also store fatty acids Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides TAGs. One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter , consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS , is particularly rare in nature Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans.
Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control.
Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with 13 C-labelled cholesterol 45 mg and either an interesterified butter A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory profile. Generalized Procrustes Analysis is used to analyze the results. It is a relatively new technique Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences.
Background: This paper alms to analyse socioeconomic variation in the use of cheese and butter in Europe by reviewing existing dietary surveys. It explores whether socioeconomic differences in the intake of these foods follow a similar pattern in all countries. Methods: An overview of available s Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.
A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content The CF expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e for 1 kg of butter or blend assuming no product waste at consumer ranged from 5. When including product waste at the consumer level Cold-storage defects in butter and their relation to the autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.
In this thesis investigations are described of the identification of aroma compounds which are formed as a result of oxidative deterioration of butter during cold storage, producing a typical trainy fishy off-flavour. As these flavour defects are caused chiefly by autoxidative breakdown of. In parallel with mathematical modeling studies that have gradually drawn interest in recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the thought processes of fourth-grade students in the Butter Beans Problem and to identify possible challenges in this process.
For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted at a university-foundation…. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content.
An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta. Hoogenboom, M.
This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea- butter cake SBC were determined.
Impact of lactic acid bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid content and atherogenic index of butter. Full Text Available This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Sterptococcus thermophilus as thermophilic culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Fatty acid analysis with gas chromatography indicated that application of thermophilic and mixed culture decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid; whereas, the butters made with L.
Moreover, AI in the samples prepared with thermophilic cultures was the least. However, the butters prepared with thermophilic and mesophilic cultures had more desirable taste in comparison with the samples made with L. From the nutritional point of view, the adverse effect of butter could be diminished via the application of selected lactic acid bacteria. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau. Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants POPs along terrestrial food chains were conducted.
The food chain air—grass—yak butter in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau TP was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. Contamination of U. Our aim was to report the first known incidence of U.
Ten butter samples were individually analyzed for PBDEs. One of the samples and its paper wrapper contained very high levels of higher-brominated PBDEs. Dietary estimates were calculated using the U.
Higher-brominated PBDE congeners were likely transferred from contaminated wrapping paper to butter. A larger representative survey may help determine how frequently PBDE contamination occurs. Sampling at various stages in food production may identify contamination sources and reduce risk. From margarine to butter : predictors of changing bread spread in an year population follow-up. Finland is known for a sharp decrease in the intake of saturated fat and cardiovascular mortality. Since , however, the consumption of butter -containing spreads - an important source of saturated fats - has increased.
We examined social and health-related predictors of the increase among Finnish men and women. An year population follow-up. A representative random sample of adult Finns, invited to a health survey in Altogether persons aged years at baseline in were re-invited in The predictors included gender, age, marital status, education, employment status, place of residence, health behaviours, BMI and health. Multinomial regression models were fitted. Only a few of the baseline sociodemographic or health-related determinants predicted the change.
Finnish women were more likely to change to butter than men. Living with a spouse predicted the change among men. The change from margarine to butter between and seemed not to be a matter of compliance with official nutrition recommendations. Further longitudinal studies on social, behavioural and motivational predictors of dietary changes are needed. Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes.
Background: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Polyphenols, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in nuts may confer this observed protective effect. To our knowledge, no prospective study has evaluated the effect of nut consumption on esophageal and gastric cancers.
Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations between nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancers and their different subtypes. The median follow-up time was Intakes of nuts and peanut butter were assessed through the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Results: We identified incident cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas, cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cases of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and cases of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma.
Compared with those who did not consume nuts or peanut butter [lowest category of consumption C0 ], participants in the highest category of nut consumption C3 had a lower risk of developing gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0. This inverse association was also seen for peanut butter consumption [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0. We observed no significant associations between the highest and lowest intakes of nuts or peanut butter and the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Conclusions: Among older American adults, both nut and peanut butter consumption were inversely associated with the risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model.
The regiospecific fatty acid distribution Methods Rats were fed for 6 weeks from weaning either butter oil BO , a butteroil- rapeseed oil mixture Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter. The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C.
The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion.
It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C.
Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage.
Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl DPPH values Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from Para avaliar a qualidade de manteigas tipo extra com sal comercializadas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, cinco marcas nacionais e duas importadas, totaliza Pilot batch production of cocoa butter -like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification.
Under above parameters, the final pilot products had similar compositions to those of cocoa butter. There is a long term interest of lipase applications in lipid modifications because of the inherent advantages over chemical methods such as more specific reactions involved, less energy used, moderate reaction conditions and so on. In this work, cocoa butter -like fats CBF were produced using Based on the pilot batch plant, the total process is following: substrates, drying, reaction, filtration, fractionation, neutralisation, de-solventization and drying, and product. The fractionation process reduced the free fatty acid content to The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration.
Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria y and overall sensory evaluation x. The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria.
Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place.
Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.
Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids SFA and cholesterol, abundant in butter , the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases CVD epidemic exploded in North America from the years This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent.
The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity.
Butter , then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates BC , the pioneer of Western medicine, about years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CVD.
Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter : a randomized controlled study. There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated.
Objective: To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows G and conventionally fed cows C on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design: In a double Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed Quality of milk used in informal artisanal production of coalho and butter cheeses. Full Text Available Artisanal cheeses such as coalho and butter participate in the socio-cultural identity of people and deserve recognition. Like many artisanal cheeses, it is common to produce coalho and butter cheeses from raw milk.
For this reason, it is essential that the raw material from dairies is of good quality to minimize risks to consumers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of milk in artisanal cheese factories in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Fifty samples were collected from areas that stand out in dairy production in the state. These samples underwent microbiological and physical—chemical analysis, as well as antibiotic residue and fraud searches. Viable strict and facultative mesophilic bacteria were surveyed, in addition to total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella sp.
In general, all samples exceeded the limit established by law for mesophilic bacteria counting; Salmonella sp. Therefore, the quality of the milk used in informal artisanal cheese making in the state of Rio Grande do Norte is poor and may pose a risk to consumers, with the loss of quality of coalho and butter cheeses. Development of an ultrasonic shear reflection technique to monitor the crystallization of cocoa butter. The quasi-isothermal crystallization process of cocoa butter was monitored by an ultrasonic shear reflection technique utilizing a custom-built experimental set-up in a temperature controlled environment.
To facilitate the interpretation of the measurement results, the propagation of shear waves was first theoretically studied in different configurations of gas, liquid or solid layers with varying thickness for the case of normal incidence, yielding theoretical equations of the shear wave reflection coefficient swRC for different layering conditions.
The typical experimentally observed pattern of the swRC during quasi-isothermal cocoa butter crystallization was subsequently linked to the theoretical equations. The remarkable oscillatory damped response in the swRC as function of the crystallization time could be explained by constructive and destructive interference of a first reflection at the boundary between a plexiglass delay line and the crystallized cocoa butter and a second reflection occurring at the interface between crystallized and liquid substance.
This hypothesis was supported by the excitation frequency dependence of the oscillations. The quality of the fit of the theoretical model to the experimental results was very good and also the reproducibility between different independent measurements was acceptable. Moreover, this was also confirmed by the theoretical model, as a higher value of the crystallization rate parameter K, exhibited more rapid oscillations.
ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals The reason for this is that these chemicals and the PCs have sufficiently similar Hansen solubility parameters to allow surface conformational changes even though absorption is non-existent or extremely small. Method for the routine quantitative gas chromatographic analysis of major free fatty acids in butter and cream. A rapid quantiative method was developed for routine analysis of the major, even carbon-numbered free fatty acids in butter and cream.
Free fatty acids were isolated directly from intact samples by a modified silicic acid-potassium hydroxide arrestant column and were separated by gas chromatography with a 1. Purified, formic acid-saturated carrier gas was required for minimal peak tailing and extended column life.
The accuracy and reproducibility of the mmethod was established through quantitative recovery studies of free fatty acid mixtures, free fatty acids added to butter , and replicate analysis of butter and cream samples. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat Due to lower solid fat content formed upon churning at high temperatures, average water droplet size significantly increased from 5.
This did, however, not reflect To process or not to process? Factors enabling and constraining shea butter production and income in Burkina Faso. Processing of environmental products by rural households in developing countries is often considered a way to lift poor natural resource-dependent households out of poverty by increasing the returns to labour of their harvesting activities. Still, the bulk of environmental products in developing We demonstrate that, among members of a shea butter producer Union, women living in urban areas produce significantly larger quantities of shea butter for sale to the Union and earn We relate these urban—rural discrepancies to the physical and socio-economic conditions that characterise life in different localities and propose policy recommendations based on our findings Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction SPE after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake P cholesterol compared with the run-in period P.
Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter. In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.
Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.
Studies on the changes of biologically active complexes of sunflower oil, tard, and butter under gamma irradiation. Investigations of changes in the biologically active complex of sunflower oil, lard and butter under the influence of gamma rays: The points examined are the effect of small, medium and large doses 10 4 , 10 6 and 10 7 of gamma rays Co 60 and the after-effect on the carotenes, tocopherols, sterols and linoleic acid in sunflower oil, lard and butter. Under these conditions, only the carotenes and tocopherols are subjected to changes to the point of destruction.
What was found is a good correlative connection between the changes in the tocopherols and the degree of oxidation of the corresponding fats.
The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.
We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss Crystallisation in water-in-cocoa butter emulsions: Role of the dispersed phase on fat crystallisation and polymorphic transition.
The present work is one of the first to focus on the role of emulsified water droplets on the crystallisation behaviour of water-in-cocoa butter emulsions under quiescent conditions i. Information on the crystallisation kinetics a Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter Vitellaria paradoxa using response surface methodology and its characterization.
Shea butter SB was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane.
A Box-behnken response surface methodology RSM was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight g , solvent volume ml and extraction time min. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.
Full Text Available Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally — attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story.
Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing — his sound was routine. Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine.
Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat. It is therefore essential to characterize the impact of milk After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test OGTT There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol Hypersensitivity reactions to food colours with special reference to the natural colour annatto extract butter colour.
Natural food colours are scarcely investigated with respect to potential allergic properties. Annatto extract, a commonly used food colour in edible fats e. Challenge was performed with a dose equivalent to the amount used in 25 grammes of butter. Twentysix per cent of the patients reacted to this colour 4 hours SD: 2,6 after intake.
The present study indicates that natural food colours may induce hypersensitivity reactions as frequent as synthetic dyes. Marketing of butter in the European Community, demand functions and policy alternatives with a restriction to four member countries. In the first part of the study the demand equations of four EC countries, le. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter , on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.
This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics.
Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following Precrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor mL. Milk and butter.
From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects. Full Text Available The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last glaciation ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament.
Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health.
After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter , the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter , is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease.
These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter , a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter , consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS , is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance.
Yeasts also store fatty acids in the form of TAGs, but these are typically not rich in saturated fatty acids. To make yeast an attractive host for microbial production of CBLs, its fatty acid composition needs to be optimized. We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains toward a modified fatty acid synthesis. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of the modified strains showed that the fatty acid content as well as the titers of saturated fatty acids and the titers of TAGs were increased.
SOS content reached a level of 9. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in butter from United Kingdom production, retail, and catering premises. Two recent listeriosis outbreaks involving butter prompted this first cross-sectional study on the prevalence, levels, and types of Listeria species in samples of butter from production, retail, and catering premises in the United Kingdom during May and June When the criteria of the Microbiological Guidelines were used, The butter samples with Listeria spp.
Butter was contaminated more frequently with Listeria spp. This study demonstrates that although butter is regarded as a low-risk product, it may provide an environment for the persistence and growth of Listeria spp. The control of L. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids.
A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter -shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus.
Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment—water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders.
Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production. Background: Cocoa butter CB extracted from cocoa beans Theobroma cacao is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production.
CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols TAGs , In the best producer, the potential CBL content was eightfold higher than the control strain, suggesting the cocoa genes expressed in this strain were functional and might be responsible Increasing cocoa butter -like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes.
By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. The relative CBL content in three yeast In summary, CBL production by S. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products. Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal—crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness.
The fat crystal network is strengthened by the formation of more and stronger crystal—crystal interactions due to mechanically interlinking of fat crystals, which occurs during crystal growth Postcrystallization is directly linked to chemical composition. The initially observed microstructural difference causing different rheological behavior will disappear during storage due to postcrystallization and formation of more crystal—crystal interactions Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4.
Kitchen oils olive, soybean and butter are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach mAh g -1 or higher.