As soon as possible after receipt of documents obtained pursuant to an act of production immunity order, the special agent should obtain and document independent authentication of the records. Although independent authentication may not legally be required until an attempt is made to introduce the records in a criminal proceeding against the witness, the means to obtain such authentication may be unavailable by that time. If the summoned party does not comply with the summons after receipt of the Compulsion Order, CI will refer the summons to CT Counsel for judicial enforcement under existing procedures.
Coordination with the Criminal Tax Division will be sought when appropriate. Requests for authorization to compel testimony from close family members of the subject of an investigation will rarely be approved by DOJ, Tax Division, unless:. The government must be careful not to provide witnesses, who may be sympathetic to the subject, with the opportunity to use immunity from prosecution as a means of exculpating the subject of the investigation by falsely accepting responsibility. The DOJ requires that the compelled testimony of witnesses who have been convicted, but not sentenced on criminal charges, will not be brought to the attention of the sentencing judge without the witness' consent.
A request for a compulsion order will consist of narrative responses, in memorandum form, keyed to the requested information outlined in paragraph 3 of this section as specified by the lettered paragraphs a through s. Where appropriate, a single memorandum may be prepared even where authorization for a compulsion order is being requested for more than one witness.
Each request for authorization to issue a compulsion order will be transmitted by a memorandum addressed to the Director, Field Operations from the requesting special agent. The last page of the request will contain approval lines for the following officials:. In order to provide effective administrative review of the need for a compulsion order, and to comply with the requirements of the DOJ, Tax Division, the following information should be included in each request to compel testimony from a prospective witness. Reference should be made in the memorandum prepared by the special agent to the letters below in order to identify responses.
The narrative memorandum should contain, as a caption, the following information: the name, address, taxpayer identification number, subject investigation number and similar data on each related investigation. A brief summary of the background of the investigation including the title and section numbers of the US Code corresponding to the alleged violation s under investigation and the method of proving income which is currently being utilized. Indicate whether the witness is related, by blood or marriage, to the subject s of the investigation. Describe briefly the circumstances surrounding the witness' invocation of the Fifth Amendment, outlining the scope of the assertion, and the legal basis believed to underlie the assertion.
Where possible and when appropriate, state whether the right is being invoked by the witness in a capacity as a record-keeper, corporate officer, or in an individual capacity, based on personal knowledge of or involvement in the matters under investigation. Indicate whether the witness may be in a position to exculpate the proposed subjects, even if it is not anticipated that the witness would do so if compelled to testify.
If it cannot be ascertained whether the witness will testify truthfully, so state. Attach witness' Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI identification record "criminal history" and summarize any other known criminal activity. If the FBI record is unavailable, explain. List any charges or investigations pending against the witness. If the witness is currently awaiting trial or sentencing, or has a case on appeal, provide information concerning the identity, status, and location of the case including the name of the government attorney assigned to it.
Include an analysis as to whether the witness could be prosecuted for a role in the matter under investigation and, if so, state the reasons why the IRS has determined not to recommend prosecution.
If the witness is the subject of any inquiry, civil or criminal, currently being conducted by the IRS, indicate the office handling the matter and the nature of the inquiry. If the witness is represented by counsel, provide the name of the witness' attorney, and indicate whether that attorney or a member of that attorney's law firm is representing one or more of the proposed subjects including, for example, an employee of a corporation who is represented by the corporation's counsel.
If the witness' attorney is also representing one or more of the proposed subjects, state whether the attorney has given any indication that representation will be withdrawn in the event an order to compel testimony is authorized. If the witness may assert the attorney-client privilege or other legal privilege, describe the possible effect of that privilege on the government's attempts to obtain the witness' testimony. State whether any assurances or agreements are known to have been made with the witness by any government representatives that could have the effect of affording the witness immunity from prosecution.
List all other witnesses for whom authorization to compel testimony has been requested in this matter, or with whom an agreement not to prosecute may have been made by a government representative. Specify whether such witnesses named are the subject of an authorization or an agreement. List any known electronic surveillance involving this investigation, and attach a summary report of the results of the surveillance.
Summarize the attempts made to secure from other sources the information the witness is expected to provide or, if appropriate, summarize the reasons why this information cannot be obtained from other sources. List the names and addresses of Federal, state, and local law enforcement officers other than IRS personnel notified of this request, if any, and report their views regarding the application.
If it is anticipated that other law enforcement agencies would have a substantial interest in the authorization under consideration, then indicate the efforts made to clear the proposed order with such agencies. The request will be comprised of the witness identification sheet s ; the memorandum setting forth the responses to the above items; a verbatim transcript or a detailed memorandum of the proceeding a memorandum will be accepted only when the witness refuses to allow the interview to be recorded wherein the witness asserts the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination or otherwise refuses to answer questions; and a copy of the original summons.
The SAC will submit each request for authorization to issue a compulsion order to the Director, Field Operations for consideration of approval. The Director, Field Operations will indicate approval or disapproval within three workdays of receipt. If the Director, Field Operations agrees that it is appropriate to request authorization, the original and three copies of the request will be forwarded to the Chief, CI, Attn: Financial Crimes Section.
The Chief, CI, will approve or disapprove the request within three working days of receipt. The original request, along with all supporting exhibits and copies of all proposed compulsion orders, will then be transmitted to the Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division, Attention: Chief, Region Criminal Enforcement Section. In the event the witness appears and testifies, and there exists evidence that proves the witness testified falsely, the special agent should submit to CT Counsel the following:.
Within 10 workdays after the witness has testified, the SAC will prepare and submit a Form , Witness Follow-up Report, to the Director, Field Operations on the use of the compulsion order. The report should be prepared whether or not the witness complies with the order, and whether or not it is believed the witness testified truthfully. The report shall contain the same information listed in subsection 9.
Supplementary reports should be submitted as necessary to report subsequent events of significance. IRS personnel should not disclose the nature, content, scope, or any other facet of the witness' compelled testimony before the IRS. A copy of the verbatim transcript and order, together with pertinent records and documents supplied by the witness, should be included as exhibits to the special agent's final report recommending prosecution of the subject of the investigation. A transcript used for such purposes will be accompanied by a cover sheet listing the signature, name, and title of each person having access to the transcript.
All case transmittal material must contain a reference to the fact the report contains such documents, and of the need for each reviewer to sign the cover sheet. The originals and all remaining copies of the transcript, as well as authenticated copies of documents furnished, will be placed under seal with the special agent's investigation files and will be retained for the same time as such file.
In no instance shall a transcript, sealed documents, or any other records be destroyed less than 20 years from the date of the witness' appearance and testimony pursuant to the compulsion order. Any IRS personnel who had access to the compelled testimony or documents provided, must exclude themselves from any investigative or review action in the subsequent investigation. Where prosecution of a previously compelled witness is undertaken, the government bears a heavy burden to establish the evidence of the offense was derived from independent sources and the search for such evidence did not emanate from the testimony given under compulsion.
Accordingly, prior to initiation of such an investigation, the assigned special agent should prepare a memorandum for the local CT counsel detailing the source and information giving rise to the proposed investigation. Criminal Tax counsel will review this memorandum and the proposed subject's prior compelled testimony to ensure that they are not related. Criminal Tax counsel will advise the special agent by memorandum of its findings without disclosing the nature of the compelled testimony. Such testimony and other information will not be utilized in any other civil action i.
If a prosecution referral to the DOJ, Tax Division is ongoing, the concurrence of the DOJ, Tax Division must be obtained prior to the non-injunctive civil use of the testimony or information. Please click here for the text description of the image. Home IRM Part9 9. Part 9. Criminal Investigation Chapter 4. Investigative Techniques Section 5. Preparation and Planning. Prior to the interview of any subject or witness, the interviewer should take the following steps: Determine the purpose for questioning the person.
Prepare an outline with sufficient detail to obtain the desired information. Review all available information. Organize the interview file. Determine the Interview's Purpose. Prepare Outline. Review Available Information. Organize Interview File. Obtain Original Tax Returns. They are: timing - proper timing of the interview is essential to obtain information that is material for the development of an investigation suitable surroundings - make arrangements for suitable surroundings that will facilitate the interview process persons present - the number of persons present during the interview may affect the ability to conduct an effective interview.
Conduct During Interview. Adaptability and Flexibility. Basic Questions. The special agent should address the following basic questions: Who? Maintain Control. Role of Subject. Role of Witness. Role of Special Agent. Role of Cooperating Agent. Role of Accountant Representative. The accountant's duty is to assist the client in all bookkeeping and accounting matters. Role of Legal Representative. Role of Recorder. Record of Interview. The record of interview will usually take one of the following forms: Affidavit see Exhibit 9.
Question and Answer Statement. A question and answer statement: is a complete transcript of the questions, answers, and statements made by each participant at an interview, and may be prepared from the recorder's notes or from a mechanical or electronic recording device. Off-Record Discussions. Memorandum of Interview. Prior to Preparation of Record of Interview.
Corrections to Finalized Memorandum. Inspection of Memorandum or Notes. Informal Notes or Diary Entries of Interview. Right to Record Interview. Preserving the Record of Interview. Use of a Stenographer. Label the envelope with the following information: investigation number name of the person whose statements are recorded date the statements were made number of pages of notes name of the stenographer. In Connection with Collateral Investigation. Use of a Mechanical or Electronic Recording Device. Handwritten Notes. Processing Record of Interview.
Review and Corrections. Execution of a Statement Under Oath. Persons Entitled to Copies. Subsequent Use by Special Agent. Right to Advice of Counsel. Constitutional Rights. Constitutional protections are provided by the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments. Duty to Inform Individual of Constitutional Rights. Subject of Investigation. Subject of Grand Jury Investigation. Corporate Officer or Employee. Note: In the above example the special agent made no affirmative statement characterizing the investigation as being "criminal" in nature. Informing of Constitutional Rights in Custodial Interrogations.
Interview of Persons in Custody. Procedural Safeguards to Secure Admissibility of Statements.
To secure the admissibility of statements made during custodial interrogations, the special agent will observe the following procedural safeguards: The person in custody must be advised of their Miranda rights as outlined in IRM 9. Give a copy to the person signing the form. The SAC receives a second copy. The special agent who conducted the interrogation retains a third copy. Oral Waiver. Spontaneous or Volunteered Statements.
Waiver of Constitutional Rights. Immunity and Compulsion Orders. Immunity- Authority and Tax Division Policy. An order may be issued if in the judgment of the designated officials: the testimony or other information from such individual may be necessary for the public interest, and such individual has refused to testify or provide other information on the basis of the right against self-incrimination.
Once a witness has been summoned, has appeared and invoked the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination in response to specific questions posed by the special agent, then; The return date of the summons may be continued until authorization to issue a compulsion order has been sought and granted. When a Fifth Amendment claim is advanced during an interview or conference not initiated by use of a summons: Substantive questions shall be asked to ascertain all relevant areas where the right will be claimed so that an accurate assessment of the need to request authorization to issue a compulsion order may be made.
The witness will be summoned. The witness will be sworn. A verbatim transcript will be made of the interview. Substantive questions will be asked to determine the scope of the Fifth Amendment claim. When a witness reappears in response to the adjourned summons, the following procedures must be observed: A verbatim transcript of the proceedings will be recorded only by a court reporter of a US district court or a reporter licensed or certified by a state or Federal court.
The witness challenges the initial summons on grounds other than the Fifth Amendment. The witness otherwise refuses to comply with the initial summons. The interview will be terminated. An expedited transcript will be requested from the reporter. A request for civil enforcement of the summons will be prepared by the special agent. The special agent will forward the package to CT Counsel. Requesting Immunity for Acts of Production. That is, merely by producing subpoenaed or summoned records, the witness admits that: The records called for in the subpoena or summons exist. Such records are in the possession and control of the witness.
The records being produced are the records described in the subpoena or summons. The investigation is a criminal investigation. The witness must invoke a valid Fifth Amendment claim to the production of such records. The records sought to be compelled are clearly business records. The summons being issued does not seek testimony from the witness. Criminal Tax Counsel will be requested to attend the proceeding. After inspection, all documents covered by the summons will be released to the special agent.
Compulsion Order Request Procedures. Summarize witness' role in the matter under investigation. Summarize the witness' expected testimony. Summarize any information available to refute false statements which the witness may make. In the event the witness appears and testifies, and there exists evidence that proves the witness testified falsely, the special agent should submit to CT Counsel the following: the summons and related documents the verbatim transcript and documents provided by the witness the order compelling testimony signed and issued by the Chief, CI the authorization letter from the Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division a report by the special agent setting forth in detail the reasons why the witness's testimony is alleged to be false, and the evidence that is available to support this allegation.
Safeguarding Transcripts and other Immunized Information. Education b. Experience c. Enrolled 2 Description of primary books and records in detail a. Cash receipts and disbursements book b. Journals: sales, purchases, cash c. Invoices and other original documents 3 Description of secondary books and records in detail a. Ledgers: general and subsidiary b.
Trial balance books, and records of financial statements 4 Extent of witness' audit of books and records 5 Source of all information on returns a. From the point of view of Tyeca, the answer might be by now almost like a conclusion: there were two individuals who became friends in college. They had a dream that pushed them into creating a Swedish company that works for Mexican companies and local business, providing local We actively facilitate new business opportunities for our business network which I prefer to call business friends, and these opportunities go beyond our business, as we help Mexican business and Swedish business.
But this conclusion is almost intuitive.
There is still a question about Geeklab that you might also have in mind. How does a computing engineer turn into a talented graphic designer with communication and marketing skills? In Tyeca we have been extreme fortunate to have found a place we call home, with people who have become our family. In this fantastic adventure many have helped us and supported us in the fulfillment of our dreams.
This is also related to our fundamental value in Tyeca of being helpful. When we face the challenge of building a brand we knew that we had to find talented individuals who believed in what we were try ing to accomplish. Looking to hire a local Swedish marketing agency was out of the question due to our budget constraints.
Our actions of being actively helpful gave us the answer. We strived to help them with the process of adaptation and with the many questions that arise when you just arrive as The student was looking for us to help him, he wanted to have a professional practice in our company as he was looking to have an international practice that would count in his academic records. From our perspective we needed a talented and engaged person with the competences we were lacking. This was a clear win-win model. We tried it and the results were just amazing. Then we identified what competences needed to be learned, including the cultural and social skills.
Once we have this link, the intern and the company team execute our Program of Innovation and Development. This Program has been designed based in our way of doing projects in Tyeca and the entrepreneurship experience and knowledge. Once the team finishes the program we have a successfully executed project for the company, a team in the company that has learned and practiced those lessons in multicultural competences, entrepreneurship, leadership and management, planning and soft power. An intern with a professional and international experience, that has created personal links and international networks.
We are now looking to. A common feedback is that after a student finishes our practice program, they expressed that, in comparison to their fellow students, they were going beyond just taking courses, they had an experience that was really an international and multicultural exchange. Conclusion Fostering understanding among business cultures and highlighting the potential benefits of Small Medium Enterprises SMEs is both the present and the future of local business.
Entrepreneurs can and should be encouraged to venture outside their own countries, as individuals who have been exposed to new tasks, industries, cultures, and abilities, become assets beyond their area of discipline or expertise. International business projects, driven by individuals with distinctive and complementary skills should be supported to foster increasing international trade development. In this context, the story of the individual, his or her experience, becomes increasingly relevant.
T he who are you, who are you becoming, and what do you want are questions that will continue to define the type of engagement that you are capable and willing to do. This conditions skill and ability to personal goals and vision, aligned with a company's vision and values. These will take center stage, as this breed of individual already probed that learning and mastering a competence is not what makes them unique. From personal experience they have realized that tolerance and broader thinking, they can solve a task with a global personal network.
We are. Hence, a sequential and impersonal way of working where your individual point o f view is not part of what you do will become more and more outdated and rejected. Our life experience has taught us the importance of interlinking visions as way of creating innovation and regional development. Smart cities: what about Mexico? With global population at about 1 billion, there were no extreme pollution problems. The Industrial Revolution was just starting. Imagine that we knew the global population would grow to about 10 billion by How would we design the human lifestyle to try to maximize standard of living for all, trying to minimize damage to the environment?
It is indeed a complex question. A difficult challenge It is likely that the global economic model of maximizing profit has been the reason for the extreme growth of urban areas. This trend requires a dramatic improvement in planning and use of new technologies in city design and management. This article explores some ideas that might be useful in order to understand the Smart Cities trend. We explain the case of Mexico in order to emphasize the importance of smart. Let us focus in the current situation of the biggest urban areas in Mexico. Mexico has about cities with more than thousand inhabitants.
Ten cities have more than 1 million inhabitants. It is estimated that about 30 million people live in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area referred to as Mexico City hereafter. The UN estimates that Mexico City is the third biggest urban area in the world. It is obvious that the urban growth of the country has not been optimal. We know that Mexico encompasses an area of roughly 2 million square kilometers with plenty of suitable spaces to design urban areas. As an example, the population density of Mexico City is 2, people per square kilometer, while the country has the capacity of bringing that down to just Probably, the most crucial resource to take into account in the design of Smart Cities is the long term supply of drinking water.
On average, water suitable for human consumption must be brought from a distance of kilometers in order to reach Mexico City, even though it is located 4, meters abov e sea level; it is a complex engineering task indeed. Several of the biggest cities in the north of Mexico grew due to mining industries. Again, the lack of drinking water is a recurrent problem because of their semi-deserted location.
Towards a better life Pretend that we could reorganize the population of Mexico to achieve better living conditions, a better life. I n order to do that, let us try to define what a better life is. The ISO Sustainable development of communities Indicators for city services and quality of life defines indicators that allow any city, municipality or local government to measure the quality of life in the community.
This standard establishes indicators in 17 categories: economy, education, energy, environment, finance, fire and emergency response, governance, health, recreation, safety, shelter, solid waste, telecommunications and innovation, transportation, urban planning, wastewater, and water and sanitation. This standard will enable the measurement and assignment of a value to the different indicators, although it will not necessarily lead to improvements. This is where the concept of a Smart city can help. Songdo Songdo is a new smart city located in South Korea and built from scratch in hectares.
It has been. Author Usman W. The smart city concept goes beyond the use of ICT for better resource use and less emissions. It means smarter urban transport networks, upgraded water supply and waste disposal facilities, and more efficient ways to light and heat buildings. There are several strategies followed in order to reach the objectives described in the Europe Program.
The working areas include urban mobility, open data, business models, finance and procurement, policy and regulation, metrics and performance indicators, integrated energy, transport and communication networks. Zeitgeist The Zeitgeist Movement ZM is an organization which goal is the installation of a new socioeconomic model based upon technically responsible resource management, allocation and design through what would be considered the scientific method of reasoning.
Among the proposals is that of self-sustainably cities. In ZM estimation a city could be designed with current technology to host 50, people. The requirement to sustain the city is , hours being worked a week. In terms of the total population the work responsibility amount to only two hours a week per person. A few specific city designs could be found in The Venus Project.
The designs are built in several layers including underground, heating, electric generators, piping systems, recycling systems, basement components, architectural basement. A relevant component is that of ICT in order to optimize resources in the long term. Mexico City initia tives Mexico city has some very interesting, although not clearly articulated, ongoing programs related to Smart cities: The bike-sharing program Ecobici, with more than 27 million trips and that has contributed to reduced more than 16 tons.
Ciudad Creativa Digital CCD CCD is an initiative under development, located in the historical center of Guadalajara, which aims to concentrate creative industries in a modern and. Among its projects are the development of a Data Center, The Ingenium Campus, the rehabilitation of public spaces like Morelos Park or the Alameda Paseo, and an office and co-working space of 27 thousand square meters.
Maderas Smart city This is a development project with the goal to create the first Smart city in Queretaro. The project considers to provide information to the settlers on their cell phone of services such as transport, garbage collection , electricity , gas and water. It also considers to have special sensors in homes, that will gather data about moisture, temperature and security alerts.
ICT initiatives in Smart cities As we saw in the definition of a Smart city, the use of strategic information is one of the pillars and therefore ICT plays a fundamental role. We describe here some applied ICT examples that are currently used in cities. The ideas are useful in order to optimize city resources. Smart working space The concept of Smart Working Space refers to dynamically booking working rooms or seats for companies and individuals as required.
The earlier the reservations are made the easier is to plan and to lower the costs. The general idea is that the professionals could use the physical working space that is the closest to their location in a particular day. ICT allows the worker to connect and use a remote desktop or virtual machine where all her information is available from anywhere. The user travels on trains, trams, buses and metros with a single ticket. An example is the OVchipkaart implemented in The Netherlands. The system allows the user to optimize her transport consumption and to select the billing scheme that better suits her needs.
For example, a season ticket for commuting or a discount ticket for off-peak travel. This system provides a significant amount of valuable information for Transport Engineers which can make better informed decisions to plan new transport designs and to predict behavior when a disruption happens.
Smart waste containers One of the major problems in the cities is the collection of waste in containers, which requires a careful planning of the route taken by waste trucks every day. This trucks move around the city in a predetermined plan whether the waste containers are full or empty, which sometimes.
A solution consists of use wireless sensors to measure and predict the fill-level of waste, which in turn allows the city to make better collection plans with more efficient routes. The solution adopted for this problem is the installation of sensors in the streets and in parking lots, that detect when a parking space is available and informs the drivers through a signaling system in the streets. This sensors are capable of separate the patterns of the sound of a gunshot from other sources of noise and also to estimate the origin of the gunshot and its direction.
Although this solution has its own problems, it is very promising. This data is sent to be converted into information and then into knowledge, in this way making possible to make better decisions in less time. It is estimated that 30 billion devices will be connected to IoT in compared to 8.
IoT is an important enabler technology for Smart cities and it has applications in health sector, energy management, mobility, manufacturing, security and egovernment, among others. Big data Big data refers to the handling acquiring, storing and analyzing of enormous amounts of bytes. It is estimated that every day we produce around 10 30 bytes. With 30 billion devices connected this volume of data will increase meaningfully and we will need special technology and methods to make smart use of it.
Cloud computing According to Qusay F. Hassan, Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. Cloud computing is the third enabler for Smart cities. Conclusions The concept of smart city should become a part of the agenda of development decision makers in developing countries like Mexico.
Smart Cities should be planned, constructed and managed with the aim to optimize both environmental preservation and life quality of the citizens. The development of new urban areas should consider ICT as a basic infrastructure element in order to make cities sustainable in the long term. Everybody spread the news! Social media and citizen involvement as a catalyst for reshaping society in the next decade.
Faculty of Communication Sciences. Barcelona, Spain. My first job, fresh out of college, was a reporter for a major newspaper in my hometown city. Back then, at the purest style of the newsroom where Peter Parker worked, an overly stressed editor distributed work for all the journalists. The experienced ones got to cover the "cool" news, while the newbies, like myself, got to pick up the work that wasn't interesting to them. Our tools were a camera, a hand recorder, a pad and a pen. That was back in In , after passing through a series of job positions within the field, from communications consultant to public relations director, I found myself again in the world of journalism as the overly stressed editor-in-chief for an online business magazine.
This time, the newsroom was different, quite different. Y es, we still had editorial meetings, discussed. They had smart phones, tablets, computers and Skype to conduct interviews. In the quiet of their cubicles, they were interviewing on live stream someone in a different city, country or continent. In the newsroom, our reporters were acquiring fresh information out of the prepaid sources on the Web and feeding the live stream of news through a Content Management System CMS.
Social media outlets such Facebook and Twitter, provided instant feedback to our content, and an army of interns not older than 20 were chatting live with our readers and creating email lists, where our readers got feed enewsletters weekly. Google analytics were our main source of information to direct the content of our publication. There were no printers, nor waiting time to print the next day's edition; content was produced and delivered instantly through a series of sophisticated IT equipment, that in reality didn't appear so sophisticated to us, because it was our everyday work tool.
However, for a newsroom veteran, the evolution of the IT's has completely modified and changed, forever, the way we produce, distribute and sell information. Even if the essence of journalism will always be based on the same principles, now we need to teach the importance and downfalls of social media platforms, as well as the importance of analytics, keywords, search engine optimization and CMS management, among others, as basic tools of information production.
When I was invited to participate in this project, I thought to myself, I won't talk about how the IT's have changed the way journalism is made in this day and age. Rather, I'll talk about how the IT's and in particular social media is changing the society, the ways society is doing, thinking and organizing. In this brief manuscript, I would like to offer my v ision about this topic and to do so, I'll use four examples of social mobilization promoted due to awareness brought through social media to specific issues, in hopes to understand to what extent social media and citizen involvement can act as a catalyst to reshape society in the next decade.
It is believed that what ignited the movement was an encounter between a Tunisian citizen and the police. Mohammed Bouazizi, a year-old Tunisian man and the subject of this event, went to the municipal office to file a complaint after police confiscated his cart and beat him because he didn't have a permit. It was reported that when ignored by the employers, Mr. Bouazizi set himself on fire in front of the municipal office. In , the movement known as the Arab Spring brought the world's attention to a geographical area that used to be somewhat unknown and concealed from the rest of the world.
The way social media allowed the world to experience these conflicts spreading and gaining strength throughout the countries of the Arab League and their surroundings was an unprecedented event. During and after the movement took place, debate about the role that information technology and social media played in the organization and spread of such movement has sparked in scholarly and policy arenas. Generally speaking, there's a notion that while human courage and dignity are the real engine of this movement, social media and communication networks fanned and spread the flames of revolution.
Since that event up to this day, the discussion about how much social media can play a key role in how the society can organize and execute social, political, and economic movements has remained constant, but hasn't quite reached a conclusive point. However, information technology -satellite television, computer, mobile phones and the Internet-- played a powerful role in informing, educating and connecting people in the region. Many things can still be analyzed from this social, revolutionary movement, but there is an undeniable fact: In this movement, social networks and information technology were used as means to boost, accelerate and increase organization, public interest and support, allowing action by the citizens trying to get back power to the citizens.
Zimmerman, a vigilante from a Florida community, shoot dead an unarmed African-American year-old Trayvon. Patrisse Cullors took this opportunity and created the hashtag BlackLivesMatter. The hashtag immediately gained strength in social media conversations about racial issues. In a march organized through social media on August 30 , more than AfricanAmerican citizens and supporters from different states protested against these events5. The protest attracted the attention of national and international media outlets and soon its coverage was spread throughout the world. The movement quickly gained the support of cultural workers, artists and designers who helped created its own online platform, providing the means to share stories, connect with other likeminded people, but also promoting offline meetings to discuss community issues and plan and execute rides, marches and sit-ins.
This event turned out to be a catalyst to mobilize a new web of civil rights protests in the USA. People have taken the streets in New Y ork, Ferguson, Mo. But probably the most notable attention the movement has received has happening during the current presidential race in the USA. In the months since protesters began showing up, they have met with Clinton, and these three Democratic candidates have acted, to some extent, as influential political allies. The movement may have started with a simple Facebook post from a social organizer and activist, but this movement jumped from social media outlets to a very real arena where social discussion and organization is happening.
It works on a membership basis and organizes events, panels, twitter chats, teach-ins and direct actions around the country. Some sources report that there are conflicts at the core of the movement. There are internal fights and disagreements about who the movement's leaders are and disputes about tactics, but there are also agreements. At the end of the day, the movement that started as a simple hashtag trending on Twitter, Tumblr and Facebook to address social and inequality issues, has grown into an ideological and political intervention.
In that year he was diagnosed with ALS, a progressive neurodegenerative disease which causes the muscular motor functions to degenerate, resulting in paralysis and ultimately death. The challenge was noticed and covered by the local media and started going viral on social media. A number of well-known names have taken the challenge, from politicians to athletes to actors and actresses, allowing the challenge to make numerous rounds in social media outlets. Wikipedia states that after the challenge went viral, public awareness and charitable donations to ALS soared.
The site states that hits to an article about ALS on its English site grew from an average of , views per month to 2. In a press release one can find on the ALS. In the same press release, Barbara Newhouse, CEO of the ALS Association, mentioned that the funds will be used "to fund cutting-edge research as well as care and support to people living with the disease Many people, including celebrities, have express their discontent about it, saying that ALS is rather a rare disease and there are many other foundations and associations that can better use those founds.
Many others have criticized the movement by stating that while it created a viral phenomenon on social media, it in fact brought very small awareness to what ALS is. Some others, have expressed discontent on several other fronts, from water conservation issues to concern about the excess of funds for an association that was doing just fine with the donations it was receiving before the social media attention.
In response to the critics, Newhouse states that the visibility that the disease got as a result of the challenge has brought people to engage in the fight to find a cure for ALS. Perrin's program initially capped at 25 patients, now is planned to include Reviewing the numbers above stated, one can understand that social media has proved to help raise awareness and funds for this association, but there are many other numbers that prove that social media is a means that could be extraordinarily powerful for charities, however not controllable. Not everyone who participates in this type of social media movements will donate, not everyone who donates will donate again, but the amount of extra money and publicity is, in the end and without a doubt, a benefit for the charities.
Edward Snowden The American computer professional, former United States National Security Agency NSA employee and former government contractor is recognized by some as a hero, while for others he's a traitor. FVEY refers to an intelligence alliance comprising five countries, including the USA, bound by a treaty for joint cooperation in signals intelligence.
After , as part of the efforts in the ongoing war on terror, the. Stories covering the material Snowden revealed initially appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post, giving him and the issue international attention. In March , Edward Snowden appeared, through a bot controlled somewhere in Russia, on a TED talk to discuss his actions and their relevance.
He said that while working for the NSA, he "saw a lot of things Decisions that were being made in secret without public's awareness Reactions to Snowden's actions have polarized public opinion. For some, like the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, who declared on June 9, , that Snowden's actions have done a "huge, grave damage19," Snowden is a traitor, while for Sir Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the world wide web, he is a hero It is not Big Brother watching us.
We through the power of the web, and transparency, are now watching Big Brother. For one simple reason: because so far, the free access and lack of control by official or unofficial sources, named government, corporations or any group in particular, have allowed social media to be an open, free, democratic forum where public opinion has found a platform of expression and exposure.
Regardless of the sentiment one may have towards Snowden's actions, as a journalist, as a communications professional, it is easy to understand what could be the value of what he brought up to light, and somehow, how it encourages an open debate about citizens' rights to privacy and equally important, freedom of expression. Having access to free, open outlets provided by social media, where information can flow freely and globally, opens up a powerful scenario and that is changing the response and engagement of users of these platforms, not only technology experts, but everyday users, common citizens.
Journalism is and will continue to be an important source of news and information, however, the established mass media will not necessarily continue to be the sole holder of the power of information. Social media outlets may be on their way to balance the power traditional outlets have over the dominium of producing and disseminating content.
Conclusions "Anything in society can be disrupted with a simple idea". In a TED Talk, he presented his conclusions, and they were not only interesting, but a food for thought. According to Tapscott, the main difference that will shape the next generation from ours will be the fact that the new generations will be born and raised in the digital era, an idea that he's been introducing since in his books Growing Up Digital. The younger generations are trained and educated in new technology at a very young age.
Schools are using information technology to teach basic curriculum and as a working tool, while many members of the older generations were trained, later in life on how to use this technology as a tool of work. This is a substantial generational difference in how we understand and use new IT. The current generation of. The Internet seems to be introducing the age of networked intelligence, enabling its users to be producers and disseminators of knowledge and information, where there's leadership, but there's no one leader.
It seems to provide a sense of independence based on the interests of the collective. These properties have allowed social movements to spread and gain strength and visibility, and on many occasions, achieving successful results that have jumped from the virtual world to tangible results. It seems like self-organization may have found a powerful new tool in social media.
Did social uprisings happen before social media as we know it? But since their origins, forms of social media and information technology have been involved in the education and dissemination of information. As an example, one can read Greg's Satell's article in Forbes magazine on how in Kiev, electronic media such online chat boards and mobile phones played an important role in social mobilization I believe that social media, information technology and citizen involvement will serve as catalysts to reshape society in the next decade.
I believe a new generation born and raised in the digital era will have a different mindset over control, production, and sharing of information, because they will be used to the practice of sharing and accessing information and knowledge in virtual environments where everyone can express their opinio ns, but can also be called out on the basis of lack of. They will be used to living in an environment where collaboration is seen as a means of empowerment and hopefully, this new mindset, given by the way social media and information technology is shaping the practice of how we collaborate as a collective, will result in the knitting of an interconnected world where globalization will take the functional form of a new tangible reality, not only a virtual reality.
It also explains the importance of having a coordinated approach between the manufacturers, government, infrastructure and users in order to have an efficient electric vehicle market. After analyzing a number of initiatives ran in countries like Germany, Czech Republic, Ireland and Italy, the author describes the lessons learned and the benefits of a careful research and understanding of the different factors that electrification and the use of electrical vehicles assert to a city. It also provides some recommendations on the strategy to follow.
Background The automotive world is changing. Today, the trend to become a society which lives and works in a more efficient way is drawing the path to a better use of the resources that provide us with the energy needed to support the many devices, utensils and means of transport of our daily routine. These factors in conjunction with the growth in population, countries like China, India and the South American region which are booming and slowly evolving to major energy consumers are increasing the amount of oil based fuels used exponentially.
This is becoming one of the main drivers for alternative energy sources technology development and the use of this alternative energy to power those devices. Many countries have consider these difficult scenarios and they have been working on different policies to implement the available technologies accordingly, the European plan is based on their White paper on transport European Commission, COM final , in which they illustrate the vision towards the future of the European mobility; the USA has released its Climate Adaptation Plan U.
Department of Transportation, , which also enlist a number of action trends and delineation of new policies towards strategic goals on climate change including transport. Mexico has the Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Gobierno de la Republica, , which describes the need to contribute towards the reduction of pollutants through the use of efficient fuels, sustainable mobility programs and the elimination of inefficient support to fossil fuel users.
The common ground of many of these policies not only reflects the concern on the efficient energy usage but. The polluting emissions of the automotive fleet are increasing as the automotive fleet increases in any city, town or country worldwide. The reduction on transport related emissions has not been as large as many researchers thought, in fact, after the implementation of emissions policies which were based on a standard cycle and that grew from Euro I to the current Euro V, it has been noted that as robust as this approach was thought to be, many manufacturers found the way to make the vehicles behave on a certain way while being tested on this specific cycle and behave differently while outside it Pelkmans, This situation paved the way to the implementation of Euro 6 legislation to what currently is being developed and named as Real Drive Emissions RDE voted and approved by the European Member States in April Further to this, on the conclusions of their report on the comparison between the emissions produced by 12 light duty diesel and gasoline vehicles of different sizes comprising of vehicles that were homologated to Euro 3 -5 emissions limits, Weiss et al.
Weiss, , concluded that each and every vehicle exceeded substantially their respective Euro emissions limits. The constraints imposed by the new legislation have motivated many manufacturers and universities to work in the resurgence of a technology that enjoyed considerable popularity during the latter years of the nineteenth century and the first couple of decades of the twentieth: the electric vehicle EV. Electric vehicles are becoming one of those fields of study in which many opportunities have arisen through the.
Due to this awareness, the concept of electrification of the automotive fleet has gained a good level of support especially on the political arena. This article will analyse and highlight the importance of a careful planning on the implementation of an electrified automotive fleet for a city or town. The relevance of this is to support the policy makers and government officials on making educated decisions when it comes to push green agendas which not necessarily will have the desired outcome, resulting on extra costs or inefficiencies which may eliminate future opportunities for development.
Sustainability and transport, can these concepts be related? The transport industry worldwide has always been a significant contributor to the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere. Vehicles propelled through internal combustion engines use fossil based fuels and additives which produce gaseous pollutants such as CO, CO2, NOx, THC and particulate emissions. The amount of pollutants created by the automotive fleet worldwide is responsible for about a third of the greenhouse gases GHG existing in our atmosphere.
Figure 1 and 2, show the European trend on emissions for two of the most important and critical pollutants: NOx and particulate matter PM. The transport industry has been running on fossil fuel for the past years; it took.
He was disappointed by my answer. Kodiyathur made his first movie for 2 lakh rupees. In a TED Talk, he presented his conclusions, and they were not only interesting, but a food for thought. After all, musicians may play instruments, but the police are the instrument of the state. The Negro American trombonist Ellis Jackson entered the British scene in , when he was part of a family troupe. Bulgaria received EUR 5. Reporter, do hereby certify that I took the foregoing statement of - in shorthand, personally transcribed it from my shorthand pages, and initialed each page.
Until then, sustainability and means of transport were two very far apart concepts. With the turn of the century and through the recognition that the known reserves of fossil fuel were limited, the industry began to turn around to technologies that were being explored but not thoroughly thought to be options to the ICE, this trend may change though; recent developments and findings on the possibility of using shale gas and innovative but risky methods to extract oil from the ground have given a breath of fresh air to the industry.
However, many countries are currently looking to find new ways to reduce their fuel consumption and their greenhouse production through implementation of green policies. On this topic Mexico has the following challenges: Awareness and education on current environmental and energy situation.
Sustainable transport technologies: understanding which of these technologies will be relevant to the Mexican situation and could potentially be implemented; sustainable transport policies which will support the implementation and will fund these activities. On the specific issue of electric and hybrid vehicle deploy in the country, the following issues need to be addressed: Current Mexican circumstance towards awareness of electrical vehicles.
Will electric vehicles could be a factor in diminishing high pollutant emissions Is there any urban research on the viability of electric vehicles on Mexican cities or towns? Are Mexicans aware of the charging and utilization requirements and constraints of electric vehicles? Federal and Local government challenges. Are cities ready for electric vehicles? Are there plans for infrastructure development to accommodate charging points?
Electrical vehicle bays not existent; Are tax incentives for electric vehicles available? No safety protocols to deal with damaged electric vehicles Scientific. There are no electric vehicle technologies being developed in Mexico. Mex ico is a manufacturer of these vehicles for export markets. No plans on business related to the electric vehicle due to lack of knowledge of opportunities areas.
Coming back to the topic, the research towards alternative means of traction for vehicles has exploded globally. Many countries have decided to implement programs to further accelerate the development and enhancement of different technologies which will aid on lowering the current emissions levels produced by our transport means. This program also. The focus is not only on charging units but on how the grid is affected Vattenfall, Specific objectives are related to the billing system, interoperability between different suppliers, cross-border roaming, new energy telematics system all based on user behavior.
Having mentioned these programs, it is important to highlight that in all of the initiatives mentioned above, the objective was to study and understand how EVs would interact with the user and the city, there are number of cities in Mexico in which it could be very interesting to run comprehensive studies like the ones ran in Europe, for example, mid-size cities like Queretaro, Puebla, Zacatecas, etc.
Further to the research mentioned above, some other programs have focused on different aspects with the intention to push on alternative means of mobility to obtain further support from the end users; one of such studies was made in Germany. Achtnicht et al. Achtnicht, produced a report in which the willingness to pay to reduce the CO2 was the main topic with a fundamental question: Do car buyers care about the environment?
This is a very interesting subject as it leads us to another question which is: How much are car buyers willing to pay for emissions reductions?
This is not a minor topic. Hence we are looking at the cultural and economic aspect of a c ountry and a city. The situation for Mexican buyers is not different; according to recent studies Nielsen, Mexican car buyers based their decision on emotional motivation and finance capability, placing the electric vehicle in a niche market. The environmental culture awareness in Mexico currently is being led mainly by NGOs, the government is running environmental programs which have created awareness in terms of the amount of concentrations of pollutants Gobierno del Distrito Federal, at a specific day or time of the day, but this awareness has been mainly reactive and consequence of inefficient urban planning and management.
The current situation in many Mexican cities calls for definitive action on definition and implementation of strategies to control the high levels of pollution with initiatives that are viable for the citizens and are affordable for the councils. Speaking about the economic impact of the implementation of alternative technologies and the cost of ownership, the electric vehicles are more expensive than ICE vehicles.
This is a fact, and the price will hardly go below the current levels until there are different battery technologies which will lower the overall cost of the vehicle reducing it to more reasonable tier. In order to have a sustainable population of EVs in any city of any country, there are some factors that have to be taken into account, like the cost of the infrastructure that will have to be in place for the vehicles to be able to be charged, cost of ownership if the vehicle is going to be charged at home, maintenance and battery lifespan, etc.
The battery lifespan is another issue and its currently forecasted to be 5 years Lunz, Having mentioned some of the costs related to the ownership of EVs, a study on the market of these vehicles and the target population has to be made; this will directly relate to some of the World Bank World Bank, indicators like the GDP and the GNI. On another subject, but again, of outmost importance on the implementation of the EVs in any city, the study ran by Paffumi et al.
Paffumi, and performed by the European Commission, was to understand the relevance and possible usage of electric vehicles including hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles through the analysis of mobility requirements in the city of Modena, Italy. This study contemplates the urban mobility of the vehicle fleet through the analysis of huge amount of data generated by vehicles from private users.
The data is obtained through a program ran in Europe by the insurance companies; the insurers sell a global positioning system GPS through which they obtain information on the mobility of the. This information is treated as anonymous and is analysed in order to understand the vehicle flux o n specific hours, days, months, etc. A child that is raised in an orphanage … may be very restricted in his abilities. In fact, it may not learn language properly. The obvious place to look is the relation between an infant and her mother. That has been a major focus of developmental psychologists during the last 40 years.
Like other nonhuman primates, human infants form a strong attachment to their caregivers at birth. That is evident in their tendency to cling and cry during fearful situations. But, in addition, infants have unique capacities to share their emotional and cognitive experiences with their caregivers, which are the first steps toward language. Shortly after birth, the human infant begins to develop a bond based on reciprocal expressions of affect. The first process is called intersubjectivity; the second, joint attention.
Both processes are nonverbal and uniquely human. Among primates, only humans cradle their infants, not only because the mother has no body hair to which the infant can cling, but also because newborn infants are the least developed of all primates. The volume of the infant brain is approximately 25 per cent of its adult size; in chimpanzees, 45 per cent. Similarly, the human skeletal system is poorly developed. As a result, an infant cannot locomote, and has to be cradled for 6 months. That has been shown in many experiments in which 3- to 4-month-old infants and their mothers were video recorded.
On average, mother and infant matched the duration of their pauses. That interpretation seems justified because the infant and the mother alternated their utterances, as adult speakers and listeners do in real conversations Stern et al. Bi-directional contingent relations between mother and infant are not restricted to vocalization, however. Dyadic relations suffice until the infant begins to crawl and to explore objects in her environment.
Beginning at about 6 months, triadic relations develop between the infant, her mother, and objects of mutual interest. Those relations facilitate joint attention. That sequence is an example of joint attention. It provides the first instance in which an infant and another person share the contents of their minds, in this example, knowing that each one saw a particular object. Significantly, joint attention, a nonverbal process, is evident before the infant learns her first words.
Joint attention is crucial for word learning. Joint attention is more complicated than shared gaze, a phylogenetically older ability, in which two individuals simply look at the same object. To appreciate the difference, imagine that you turn your head toward a passing car and that your friend does the same. Unless you have some way of communicating what you saw, you have no way of knowing if you both saw the same thing.
That is why, in the previous example, smiling after shared gaze is important. Thus, for joint attention to mean shared experience, it is important for one person to engage in a communicative act after the other person looks at the object in question. To indicate sharing, children often smile, or point, or literally offer the object to their caretaker Liebal et al.
Joint attention is also significant because the words a child learns are declarative and, in that sense, part of a conversation. Such exchanges appear to be the only way children learn their first words. Once a child learns to use words, the influence of joint attention may vary. How much, is an open question. In non-Western cultures e.
That discovery is crucial for the development of language. Declarations imply a conversational use of language, a topic that Berwick and Chomsky avoid completely. Indeed, language would never have evolved if children learned only to use words as imperatives. Declaratives are bi-directional and typically occur in conversation between a speaker and a listener who take turns talking. All languages are conversational and children could not learn language without conversation.
Why do Berwick and Chomsky avoid the topic? Presumably because, as observed earlier, generative theory systematically excludes behavior from a role in the evolution of language. He could see no problem solved by language that could not be solved without it, that is, no problem to which natural selection might have picked a solution leading to language. How did such verbal concepts arise? Such an ability requires the speaker—listener to have a mental representation, or concept, of the object talked about. An evolutionary account of the origin of such concepts raises the question: What were the ecological conditions among early prehumans that might have required them to communicate about things that were not physically present?
To address this question, Bickerton conjures up the nutritional needs, ecological conditions, and cognitive capacities of H. As compared to Homo habilis , its immediate ancestor, the brain size of H. Because of extreme climate change, H. Instead of obtaining fruit trees, food had to be obtained from fauna antelope, zebra, deer and megafauna elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus. Like other animals, H. To satisfy the caloric needs of its larger brain, H. Although they had tools to butcher dead fauna, H. Instead, they first had to find dead animals and then recruit absent helpers to help in the butchering and in warding off other scavengers.
How do we know that H. Fossil bones of megafauna display two types of clue: bite marks from animals that defleshed them and cut marks from hominid tools that cut through their thick hides. Before 2 million years ago, cut marks lie above bite marks, indicating hominid access to those bones only after other animals had scavenged them. After 2 million years ago, bite marks lie above cut marks, indicating that hominids had first access to the bones Dominguez-Rodrigo et al. Since many of the animals that hominids butchered were too large to have been hunted, the conclusion that H.
How did a scout, having located a dead animal, recruit distant followers to fend off rival scavengers and help in butchery? Bickerton proposes that H. But to recruit followers, the scout had to communicate the nature of the carcass and its location, and that could be done only by displaced reference. The form of such communication is a matter of speculation: perhaps mimetic gestures or sounds imitating the nature of the carcass to be scavenged, its location, and the nature of rival scavengers.
The vocal modality would have come to prevail, leaving hands and eyes free to go about their more important functions. Transformation from hominid calls and cries to articulate speech may have taken as many as hundreds of thousands of years Section 6 , but proto-words of some form would gradually have come into use. They would have been strung, like beads on a string, relying on the pragmatics of the situation to make sense. That had two consequences. Proto-words used repeatedly in combination with other proto-words acquired lexical status creating pressure for syntax.
For confrontational scavenging to work, H. Bickerton does not comment on the source of such cooperation but, as Hrdy has observed, such cooperation was a consequence of the intersubjectivity instilled by cooperative breeding, as practiced by H. Compared to apes, whose mothers never allow others to care for their young, infants in species that engage in cooperative breeding are cared for and provisioned not only by their mothers but by other members of their group alloparents. For H. A mother would never engage in cooperative breeding and share care of her offspring unless she trusted members of her group.
How did mutual trust evolve among adults of species that used collective breeding, that is, how did H. According to Hrdy, an infant had to learn to share affect not only with her mother but also with other caretakers. Infants that succeeded would obtain more attention from their caretaker than those that did not. The benefit of more attention increased the likelihood that those infants would survive and that, as adults, they would tend to trust their fellows and understand them. As those antecedents took root, the competitive world of apes in which communication was based on a small number of innate and involuntary utterances, was supplemented by one in which H.
Intersubjectivity advanced the emotional development of human infants beyond apes in two important ways. For the first time, an infant learned to care about her affective relation with her mother and, as noted earlier, she also began to engage in proto-conversation. Joint attention is significant in being the first instance in which an infant shares a mental state with another person.
Neither intersubjectivity nor joint attention was sufficient for the development of language. Even though infants engaged in proto-conversations with their mothers, there is no reason to assume that language would follow. The same is true of joint attention. But once joint attention took root, adults would likely converse about mutually interesting events in their environments.
At present, it is not possible to confirm when in our prehistory the sequence of presyntactic stages of language we have suggested occurred. However, given the universal sequence of these stages in human infants, they likely occurred in the order we described. It is difficult to imagine the occurrence of joint attention without a foundation of intersubjectivity, or of vocabulary development without the foundation of joint attention.
Only language could do that.