A piece of soft-material was placed under the flan, thereby creating a design of the obverse that can be seen as a mirror image on the reverse. Durrell got to know the people of the island by working in many different jobs, eventually serving as an official of the Cyprus government the last two years he was there. Following on from 'Kleopatra', the glittering epic of Egypt's queen continues as she allies herself with Anthony and begins a love story that immortalizes her as one of history's greatest political players and most tragic heroines.
Also, accompanying materials such as video clips, website messaging and other collateral will need to support these different brand images. This often results in double effort and higher costs for creative teams. A prerequisite for a headquarter-led, consistent branding strategy is the adherence to a corporate policy to create a brand and associated communication that reflects and addresses universal values like happiness, equality, honesty or love.
However, studies have demonstrated that cultures, although sharing universal values, may differ in their value hierarchies and therefore the impact of the message may vary as well. There will still be some level of adaption required to achieve a higher degree of identification and persuasion in particular markets, but it will be easier to keep the message consistent and thus authentic. The third option that I would like to explore a little more in detail is the practice of leaving the tagline in the original language.
Studies have given good reasons to believe that slogans in a foreign language even if the consumer is proficient in that language are more difficult to understand. What stands out positively is the insight that a tagline in a foreign language may attract more attention as it triggers curiosity. Also surprisingly, studies have shown that comprehension of foreign languages only plays a minor role in their effectiveness.
Another interesting example of the above is Audi. Interestingly however, they hardly ever use the Japanese tagline but prefer the original German one. German technology is, after all, very highly regarded in Japan. Not doing so can be risky in a number of ways.
The human brain, in its constant attempt to proactively make meaning of things, will use its full powers of imagination and interpretation to do so. The shorter and more cryptic the message, the more room there is for interpretation. It also plays a role if the tagline stands for itself or is presented in combination with a logo. Does the shape of the logo resemble a symbol? What associations does the color evoke, especially in combination with its shape and slogan in a specific market?
Especially for speakers of a foreign language with some proficiency, back translation can create funny meanings. Whichever approach you go for to create taglines for different markets, do your research and survey target groups. Even with a lot of research and investigation, stay flexible, have a backup plan and be prepared to face the unforeseeable. In her previous life, she lived in Italy, Denmark and some months in fascinating Buenos Aires. Nowadays, in her spare time, she enjoys connecting with family and friends around the globe and if she is not visiting them, she is planning the trips to do so.
World Economic Forum www. Fast Company. Geert Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, chapter 1, pp. First Things firstthings.
Retrieved 11 November Newsweek Magazine newsweek. Retrieved 1 November The Heritage Portal theheritageportal. Retrieved 13 June Business Insider. Retrieved 11 April The Economics Student Society of Australia. Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 17 December Doubleday, , pp. Retrieved 1 August Has the country lost its way? The Washington Post washingtonpost. Retrieved 7 July Zeno Group zenogroup. They are indispensable instruments of our modern civilization…". In "The Age of Uncertainty" , John Kenneth Galbraith , writes, "The institution that most changes our lives we least understand or, more correctly, seek most elaborately to misunderstand.
That is the modern corporation. Week by week, month by month, year by year, it exercises a greater influence on our livelihood and the way we live than unions, universities, politicians, the government.
Global Policy Forum www. Retrieved 21 January Room, The Space Journal room. Mark Retrieved 29 January Boettke and Christopher J. Civil Service College of Singapore ". Civil Service College Singapore cscollege. Retrieved 26 February The Hague: M. Translated by Jacqueline Collier. Cambridge University Press, , p. Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 14 May Translated from the Dutch by Lynne Richards. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. London: Routledge, , p. Het Koninklijk Huis. Retrieved 8 September Retrieved 24 April Journal of the Siam Society pp.
Itinerario 28 2 : pp. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 30 2 : pp. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 33 1 : pp. The Journal of Economic History , , vol. W 24 May An inaugural lecture delivered at University College London 6 November ". Retrieved 24 February Nipissing University. Retrieved 22 August As Jacob Soll notes, "of which 20 percent of its [the Dutch Republic's] landmass was below sea level and another 40 percent was exposed to tides and flooding.
Mapping Modernities , p. Retrieved 27 January Capitalism 4. Hilversum: Verloren, , pp. Journal of European Economic History , 2 2 : — Academic Press, , p. Palgrave Macmillan, , p. Retrieved 14 February New York: Basic Books, Jacob Soll : "With the complexity of the stock exchange, [17th-century] Dutch merchants' knowledge of finance became more sophisticated than that of their Italian predecessors or German neighbors. Health and Welfare during Industrialization , p.
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Based on this state of research we generate our understanding of the impact of marketing-events on the attitude towards the brand. Before the VOC era, in terms of historical role, a bourse was not exactly a stock exchange in its modern sense. Elias David Sassoon. Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius. An inaugural lecture delivered at University College London 6 November ".
London: Bantam Press. Histoire des navigations aux Terres Australe. Ramachandra Origin and Spread of the Tamils. Adyar Library. Becoming Tasmania — Companion Web Site. Parliament of Tasmania. Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 2 March South Africa: A Country Study. Establishing a Slave Economy.
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Publicly traded company. Proto- conglomerate. Johan van Oldenbarnevelt. Heeren XVII. The Netherlands United East Indies Company Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC , founded in , was the world's first multinational, joint-stock, limited liability corporation — as well as its first government-backed trading cartel. Our own East India Company , founded in , remained a coffee-house clique until , when it, too, began selling shares, not in individual voyages, but in John Company itself, by which time its Dutch rival was by far the biggest commercial enterprise the world had known.
As populations grew, more robust legal and financial infrastructures began to develop across Europe. Those infrastructures, combined with advances in shipping technology, made large-scale trade feasible for the first time. In , the Dutch East India Company was formed. It was a new type of institution: the first multinational company, and the first to issue public stock. These innovations allowed a single company to mobilize financial resources from a large number of investors and create ventures at a scale that had previously only been possible for monarchs.
The defining characteristics of the modern corporation, all of which emerged during the Dutch cycle , include: limited liability for investors, free transferability of investor interests, legal personality and centralised management. Although some of these characteristics were present to a certain extent in the fourteenth-century Genoese societas comperarum of the first cycle , the first wholly cognisable modern limited liability public company was the VOC. The organisational structures and corporate practices of the VOC were closely paralleled by the English East India Company and served as the direct model for all of the later mercantile trading companies of the second cycle , including those of Italy, France , Portugal, Denmark , and Brandenburg-Prussia.
There are other claimants to the title of first public company, including a twelfth-century water mill in France and a thirteenth-century company intended to control the English wool trade, Staple of London. Its shares, however, and the manner in which those shares were traded, did not truly allow public ownership by anyone who happened to be able to afford a share.
The arrival of VOC shares was therefore momentous, because as Fernand Braudel pointed out, it opened up the ownership of companies and the ideas they generated, beyond the ranks of the aristocracy and the very rich, so that everyone could finally participate in the speculative freedom of transactions. By expanding ownership of its company pie for a certain price and a tentative return, the Dutch had done something historic: they had created a capital market. The stock market — the daytime adventure serial of the well-to-do — would not be the stock market if it did not have its ups and downs.
Apart from the economic advantages and disadvantages of stock exchanges — the advantage that they provide a free flow of capital to finance industrial expansion, for instance, and the disadvantage that they provide an all too convenient way for the unlucky, the imprudent, and the gullible to lose their money — their development has created a whole pattern of social behavior, complete with customs, language, and predictable responses to given events.
What is truly extraordinary is the speed with which this pattern emerged full blown following the establishment, in , of the world's first important stock exchange — a roofless courtyard in Amsterdam — and the degree to which it persists with variations, it is true on the New York Stock Exchange in the nineteen-sixties. Present-day stock trading in the United States — a bewilderingly vast enterprise, involving millions of miles of private telegraph wires, computers that can read and copy the Manhattan Telephone Directory in three minutes, and over twenty million stockholder participants — would seem to be a far cry from a handful of seventeenth-century Dutchmen haggling in the rain.
But the field marks are much the same. The first stock exchange was, inadvertently, a laboratory in which new human reactions were revealed. By the same token, the New York Stock Exchange is also a sociological test tube, forever contributing to the human species' self-understanding. The behaviour of the pioneering Dutch stock traders is ably documented in a book entitled "Confusion of Confusions," written by a plunger on the Amsterdam market named Joseph de la Vega ; originally published in Business ventures with multiple shareholders became popular with commenda contracts in medieval Italy Greif , , and Malmendier provides evidence that shareholder companies date back to ancient Rome.
Yet the title of the world's first stock market deservedly goes to that of seventeenth-century Amsterdam, where an active secondary market in company shares emerged. Other companies existed, but they were not as large and constituted a small portion of the stock market. I don't understand why you're all being so negative and unpleasant. Let's just be happy with each other. Let's just say "the Netherlands can do it" again: that VOC mentality. Look across our borders. Don't you think? The charter of the Dutch East India Company stipulated that any Dutch citizen could buy shares in the company.
Many did grasp this opportunity. And they were not only wealthy merchants! Among these first shareholders were corn dealers, grocers, bakers, brewers, tailors, seamstresses, sail makers, carpenters, cobblers and servants. One of the most modest participants was the Mayor of Amsterdam's maid. Her name was Grietje Dirksdochter. Grietje saw a tipping point in Dutch history. This new opening provided ordinary people like her not only with the opportunity of becoming a shareholder of a mere shipping company. It provided her with the opportunity of becoming a shareholder of the Dutch Golden Age.
Of an exciting era of social development and economic growth. She was taking part in a new, dynamic economy. Only a unique federal state such as the Dutch Republic could have dreamed up a federal company structure. The VOC combined flexibility with strength, giving the Dutch a huge advantage in the competition to dominate maritime trade to Asia. Within a few decades, the VOC proved itself to be the most powerful trading corporation in the seventeenth-century world and the model for the large-scale business enterprises that now dominate the global economy. Its [the VOC's] fame as the first public company, which heralded the transition from feudalism to modern capitalism, [u] and its remarkable financial success for nearly two centuries ensure its importance in the history of capitalism.
Here [17th-century Ternate , North Maluku , Indonesia], surely, was a very early, fully operational manifestation of international integration, the embryonic form of today's ubiquitous globalisation. We would recognise its constituent elements. Here was the tenuous but well-structured supply-chain , extended all the way from Banda to Amsterdam, via numerous ports and functionaries, administered with brutal efficiency by the Dutch East India Company, perhaps the first business organisation that bears resemblance to today's multinational corporations.
The company raised money by issuing shares. It had the first widely-recognised commercial logo. Even without today's computers, the company's officials were linked through a hierarchy of regular detailed reporting and accounting. Production was brought together in plantations and processed in 'factories'. Near-subsistence agriculture was replaced with scale and quality control, supervised by the perkeniers with an incentivising profit-sharing deal with the company. Customer feedback was insistently relayed to producers: 'small nutmegs are of no value'.
This mighty machine produced tons of nutmeg annually and transported it across hazardous waters to deliver it to the burghers of Holland and on to the rest of Europe's spice-hungry upper-class. Ad hoc trade between nations, with goods passing through many hands, many owners and many markets, was replaced by 'straight-through' processing by a single entity — the Dutch East India Company. A CorporNation's vast global influence  enables it to function simultaneously in two realms: a for-profit company , and as a force that can shape the geopolitical landscape.
Google isn't the only CorporNation; Goldman Sachs is clearly in that category — as the Greek political crisis has revealed, the company has been a partner in deceit with governments that used financial alchemy to disguise deficits as off-balance sheet baubles. Wal-Mart functioned as a CorporNation during Katrina. CorporNations aren't new.
Indeed, they are as old as capitalism, going back to the Dutch East India Company, which was chartered in , became the world's first global company and transformed Holland into a colonial power as it dominated the East. The Dutch polity of the seventeenth century was famously unconcerned with territorial expansion: as long as the frontier operated effectively as a defensive shield, no extra land was deemed necessary. One of the paradoxes of the Company [VOC] is that the Dutch were the most liberal and humane nation in Europe at that time , and yet they created in the Company a very efficient monstrosity.