Intergenerational support: Psychological and cultural analyses of Korean and German women. Current Sociology, 54 , Results showed a more extensive exchange of support in the Korean as compared to the German sample and very similar associations between values and relationship quality with support to parents in both cultures. The results are discussed in light of the Confucian concept of filial piety and the western theoretical model of intergenerational solidarity.
Current Sociology, 55, To this end, the study compared dyads of adult daughters and elderly mothers from Indonesia and Germany. Mothers and daughters were interviewed with respect to their value orientations and their evaluation of the present mother—daughter relationship. The results are interpreted in a culture-informed theoretical framework of intergenerational relations. Intergenerational relations and life-satisfaction in mother-daughter dyads from Indonesia, China, and Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, This study is part of the Value of Children and Intergenerational Relations study VOC Trained female interviewers interviewed participants in their mother tongue at home.
In China, elderly mothers participated from rural areas, 96 from urban areas ; in Indonesia, 50 mothers each from rural and urban areas participated; and in Germany, 99 mothers participated.
Instrumental and financial support seem to have more positive effects whereas emotional support is occasionally a burden. Resulting life satisfaction depends not only on the kind of support but also on the culture with its underlying value orientations and traditions regarding intergenerational relationships. Results are discussed from a culture informed perspective. Reciprocity in intergenerational support: A comparison of Chinese and German adult daughters.
Journal of Family Issues, 31, Results show that for the German daughters, differently from rural Chinese daughters, perception of imbalance is strongly related to their intention to support their elderly parents. The results for the urban Chinese daughters are closer to those of the German sample than those of the rural Chinese daughters.
The results are discussed in light of theoretical approaches to intergenerational relations taking into account the Confucian concept of filial piety and influences of social change. Sakkeus, M. Klesment, A. Sapphire Han, A. Aart Liefbroer and C. Cees Elzinga. Thomas, Michael J. Regnier-Loilier, Anne-H Gauthier. Mieke C. Eeckhauta and Megan M.
Muresan Cornelia and Haragus Paul-Teodor. Caroline Berghammer and Isabella Buber-Ennser. Wilfried Rault and Muriel Letrait. Carole Brugeilles and Pascal Sebille. Edith Gray, Dharmalingam Arunachalam.
Douglas A. Wolf , Kerri M. Raissian, Emily Grundy. James M. Michael Windzio and Can M. Jaromir Cekota and Claudia Trentini.
Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals: implications for their conservation. Past trends in obesity-attributable mortality in eight European countries: an application of age-period-cohort analysis. Yuko Onozaka and Kamran Hafzi. Estimating male fertility in eastern and western Germany since a new lowest low? Missov, T.
Isabella Buber-Ennser and Vegard Skirbekk. Francesco C. Billari, Nicole Hiekel, Aart C. Wolf, Kerri M. Isabella Buber-Ennser, and Ralina Panova. Liefbroer, Aart C. Katharina Herlofson, Elisabeth Ugreninov. Letizia Mencarini and Daniele Vignoli. Lars Dommermuth and Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik.
David McClendon and Conrad Hackett. Maria Castiglioni and Gianpiero Dalla-Zuanna. Ekaterina Sergeevna Mitrofanova and Alyona Artamonova. Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C. Eeckhaut, Megan M. Sweeney, Jessica D. Bruno Arpino, Chiara D. Pronzato, Lara P. Olga Stavrova and Detlef Fetchenhauer. Pepka Boyadjieva and Petya Ilieva-Trichkova. Thomas Hansen and Britte Slagsvold. Fabrizio Bernardi and Jonas Radl. Nicole Hiekel, Aart C. Liefbroer, Anne-Rigt Poortman.
Kristen Harknett and Caroline Sten Hartnett. Susan B. Schaffnit and Rebecca Sear.
Annalisa Busetta and Ornella Giambalvo. Kim Korinek. Anna Baranowska-Rataj and Elena Pirani. Norbert Neuwirth and Isabella Buber. Jan M. Jenny de Jong Gierveld, Pearl A. Dykstra, Niels Schenk. Lyons-Amos, M. Mynarska, M. Matysiak, Anna and Vignoli, Daniele. Fokkema, Tineke and Naderi, Robert. Martine Corijn and Christine Van Peer. Kreyenfeld, M. Bartus, T. Sinyavskaya, Oxana and Billingsley, Sunnee. Puur, A. Neuwirth, Norbert and Wernhart, Georg. Kalabikhina, Irina and Kozlov, Vladimir.
Ivanova, K. Hoem, Jan M. Chlon-Dominczak, Agnieszka and Magda, Iga. Carnein, Marie and Baykara-Krumme, Helen. Bernhardt, Eva and Aarskaug Wiik, Kenneth. Andreas Kotsadam and Niklas Jakobsson. Thomas Hansen and Britt Slagsvold. In particular, additive effects on energy consumption and the demand for land for solar power stations caused by the combination of the sub-models will be investigated. The assumptions of the two main variants are summarized in Table The main variant LPlus corresponds to a higher standard of living in developing countries. Background for the study of this variant is the hypothesis, that an increased standard of living is a prerequisite for the emergence of sustainable societies.
This corresponds to a higher life expectancy and a larger amount of households with one or two persons. The combination of these two variants leads to a new distribution of household types. In the energy sector, for both main variants and all auxiliary variants, only the C variant with a faster transformation to renewable energy sources is taken into account. Concerning the CO2 emissions, all variants follow the same C trajectories.
For the calculation of the additional energy requirements through meat consumption, only production is considered. In general, the energy consumption of meat production is overestimated. Regarding the 29 See section On life cycle assessment of farming systems, see also Nemecek et al. For the calculation of the vehicle fleet, it is considered, that the number of households increases in the variant h3. The number of vehicles per household remains constant, the number of vehicles increases.
Regarding the energy consumption per vehicle and the distribution of energy carriers, all assumptions were taken from the sub-model transport.
Thus, in the variant f0. In Table , the calculated number of passenger vehicles cars and the energy consumption of the whole transport sector are summarized for the different variants. If the number of households relative to total population increases, the energy consumption per household adopted in the model has therefore to be corrected downwards. Assuming a general elevation of living standard in the main variant LPlus compared to the main variant Llow, the energy consumption per household in turn has to be increased.
The assumptions for the scenario P7 are summarized in Table The energy consumption per household remains approximately constant in the global average, but the number of households increases by about 40 percent. The grey area represents the main variant Llow, the colored areas show the contributions of the topical variants in the fields of households, traffic and meat consumption. All colored areas cumulatively result in the main line LPlus. It can be seen, that the influence of additional meat consumption on total energy demand is relatively low compared to the household and transport sector.
If meat consumption is designated as environmentally-unfriendly, this does not affect the energy consumption in first priority, but other environmental factors, i. Final energy consumption of the two main variants in the scenario P7 varies between The contributions of the household and transport sectors are each at 15 EJ, the additional meat production requires 3. The basis for this calculation is the assumption of about one third of photovoltaic and two thirds of parabolic trough solar technology for the production of electricity and hydrogen production through electrolysis.
If one assumes an efficiency of 20 percent for the electricity produced by parabolic solar plants and an efficiency of 50 percent for the electrolyzer, including transportation- and storage losses, the result for the overall system is an efficiency of 10 percent. If it would become possible to increase the total efficiency by developing new methods of solar hydrogen production in the future see Chueh et al.
Their energy consumption is by definition located between the two main variants, which together span the so-called scenario funnel. This is illustrated in Figure for the examples of primary energy consumption and the demand for area for solar power plants in the scenario P7. Quantitatively, the impacts on the scenario P7 for the year are summarized in Table It considers the parameters of primary energy, areas for solar power plants and final energy for the two main variants and for six auxiliary variants.
The three energy-relevant sub-models demography, transport and food lead to eight combinations. The biggest influence on the final energy consumption is caused by the sectors households and living arrangements h5-l70 or h3. The differences are located in the dimension of EJ. Compared with that, the area of meat production m45 or m55 has a relatively small influence with 3. The values for the scenario P7 were already discussed in section In the scenario P8, final energy consumption in the year varies between The contribution of the sub-models is The percentage of photovoltaic technology relative to the total area of solar power plants decreases with increasing energy needs.
As the efficiency of parabolic trough technology becomes significantly higher than that of photovoltaic systems, the efficiency of the overall system is larger with increasing energy consumption. Thus, from the perspective of renewable energies, a higher standard of living in developing countries is feasible even with a slightly larger world population.
The energy demand, as already mentioned elsewhere, is not the limiting factor. Other resources, in particular the available arable and pasture land, are more problematic and should thus be regarded as the primary reason for limiting the world population. In summary, the temporal dynamic of the final energy consumption from to is shown graphically in Figure for the main variants Llow and LPlus in the scenarios P7 and P8. This means that the influence of the population scenarios is larger or at least as large as the effect of the variants.
One reason is that the population in the scenario P8 compared to the scenario P7 grows mainly in developing countries, and, in these regions energy consumption increases, while it remains constant or decreases in developed countries. This statement is only valid for the overall global balance, regional and country-specific aspects are discussed in Chapter 5. In section differences between the developed countries MDR , developing countries LDC and least developed countries LDC are investigated, in section the situation in individual countries. The figures show, that the differences between the main variants Llow and LPlus on energy use are greater in developing countries than in developed countries, which is in line with the concept of these variants.
Final energy consumption in developed countries varies by percent, in developing countries by percent. In contrast, the area requirement for solar power plants in developed and developing countries have similar trends: The main variant LPlus requires percent more solar power plants than the main variant Llow, both in developed and in developing countries.
Furthermore, the percentage of photovoltaic and parabolic mirrors was investigated. Accordingly, the amount of photovoltaic systems in developed countries with percent is higher than in developing countries with percent. In the least developed countries LDCs even an amount of percent photovoltaics and percent parabolic trough mirrors is assumed.
The previously noted decrease of the percentage of photovoltaics with increasing total energy consumption in the global average, can also be detected in this differentiated evaluation. The temporal dynamics of the two investigated variables is shown graphically in Figure In developed countries, the largest differences in final energy consumption are caused by the population scenarios, while the main variants are playing a smaller role. In developing countries the situation is just reversed, which means that the main variants have the greater impact on energy consumption than the population scenarios.
The energy demand in industrialized countries decreases by percent from to , while this variable increases by percent in developing countries. In the least developed countries LDCs , growth in energy demand is assumed even to percent. There is thus being sought a balance between countries and regions of the world.
In the area needed for solar power plants, the differences between developed and developing countries are lower. In the scenario P7, the change from the main variant Llow to LPlus is almost identical at percent. In the scenario P8, the increase in the demand for land in industrial countries is 14 percent, 21 percent in developing countries and 27 percent in the least developed countries LDCs.
This difference can be explained by the above-mentioned differences in the proportion of PV and parabolic mirror technology. However, the percentage of area used for solar power plants is not exceeding 0. They each relate to one substantive part of the area and do not need to be repeated in detail here. In Table , a summary of the countries considered is given. For the country studies in general, the model uncertainties are larger than for the overall global balance. However, it is a goal of future work to reduce these uncertainties and improve the quality of the country studies.
For the present report, the situation was studied in four countries, namely in the United States, United Kingdom, Indonesia and for the Philippines. The final energy consumption and area requirement for solar power plants in the year is shown in Tables to Basically, the same image turns out that was already found in Section 5.
In the United States and the United Kingdom, final energy consumption of the two main variants differs slightly, namely by percent, while greater differences can be found for Indonesia and the Philippines with 59 and 37 percent. The area required for solar power plants in the year changes by percent from the main variant Llow to the main variant LPlus in all four investigated countries.
In Figure , the temporal dynamics of the two variables is shown graphically. For the United States and United Kingdom, a decrease of final energy consumption by and 55 percent from to can be found. The population growth has more influence in these two industrial countries than the variations in living standards. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the energy consumption increases from to in most cases by up to percent. In these regions, the increase in living standard has a greater influence than the population growth. The area required for solar power plants developed is similar in all four countries, whereas for the United Kingdom in the Scenario P8, there is unfortunately no data are available.
Most need for additional energy is located in the household sector and in the transport sector with 15 EJ. The influence of population scenarios is greater, or at least in the same range as the impact of the variants. The reason for this fact is, that the population in the scenario P8, compared to the scenario P7, grows mainly in developing countries.
In these regions, energy consumption per capita increases, while it remains constant or decreases in developed countries. The influence of additional meat consumption on energy demand in comparison to the household and transport sectors is relatively low. If meat consumption is denoted as environmentally- unfriendly, this does not primarily affect the energy consumption, but other environmental factors, in particular land use, fertilizer use and methane production. In the area of energy production, for several reasons, most energy forms turn out to be inadequate to manage the main part of global energy supply in the future.
For the energetic use of biomass, the disadvantage is the high demand for area, for wind energy, the negative impact on the landscape and in geothermal energy, the increased seismic risk. The fossil fuels oil, natural gas and coal, as well as uranium needed for production of nuclear power, are not available in unlimited quantities and can not be used for energy supply for another long time.
Fusion is currently not technically mature and would in first priority serve as a substitute for nuclear power plants. The worst-case scenarios in nuclear fusion are much less dramatic than in nuclear fission. Not the potential of renewable energies, especially solar energy is limiting, but agricultural production and possibly other environmental factors. Since the energy needed for agricultural production is comparatively small, there are other factors that determine the maximum of possible yields.
First is to be mentioned, that the area needs per Capita is 20 to 30 times higher for agriculture than for energy production. But fresh water for the irrigation of the crops and fertilizers such as phosphorus can already play a key role locally.
A stabilization of world population is thus not necessary due to the energy demand but because of the food production capacity. Thus, if renewable energy indeed is present in abundance, artificially driving up energy prices is regarded as inappropriate. The results of the model calculations can also be discussed independently of the climate debate. Because of the limited reserves of non-renewable fuels coal, petroleum, natural gas and uranium, the transition to solar energy is even necessary if the CO2-hypothesis, i. However, as long as the CO2-hypothesis is regarded as scientifically correct, it can be taken as an additional argument for the construction of solar power plants.
Variants with many small or few large households are possible. In particular, the question is, whether an adjustment of the developing countries to the current standard of developed countries with the numerous one- and two-person households is feasible and desired. What also remains open is, depending on the scenarios and variants, the importance of child-free living arrangements. For a given number of children per woman, a few families with many children and more families with fewer children are possible. For the current standard scenario P7-LPlus, it can be stated in summary, that, given a total population of 7 billion people in the year , basically enough CO2-neutral energy can be provided to maintain a civilized, postmodern society.
Radical strategies of surrender, e. The electricity from the power socket, the combustion for heating and fuel from the gas station will have to change into renewable energy sources. And finally, the intercontinental flights should take off from the airport with CO2-neutral fuel, proposed to be bio-ethanol, in the direction of the booked destination. The scenario-based system modeling can be considered as a relevant contribution to sustainability research and is not in direct competition with other special topics such as environmental economics, climatology and life cycle assessment.
It is an approach which can integrate and evaluate findings from different topical fields. New information can change the design of individual scenarios and variants or their performance, or new variants have to be developed to examine the new issues. The Practice of Environmental Scenario Analysis. Amsterdam etc. Altwegg, D. Schlussbericht - Methoden und Resultate.
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