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Marbled edges - bright, rich condition. Quantity Available: 1. Shipped Weight: Under 1 kilogram. Inventory No: Lang: - eng, Vol: - Volume 4, Pages Volume 4. It finally appeared in Both painters were among occasional guests of the Ruskins at Herne Hill, and Denmark Hill demolished to which the family moved in He explained that he meant "moral as well as material truth".
For Ruskin, modern landscapists demonstrated superior understanding of the "truths" of water, air, clouds, stones, and vegetation, a profound appreciation of which Ruskin demonstrated in his own prose. He described works he had seen at the National Gallery and Dulwich Picture Gallery with extraordinary verbal felicity. It cemented Ruskin's relationship with Turner. After the artist died in , Ruskin catalogued nearly 20, sketches that Turner gave to the British nation.
Ruskin toured the continent with his parents again in , visiting Chamonix and Paris , studying the geology of the Alps and the paintings of Titian , Veronese and Perugino among others at the Louvre. In , at the age of 26, he undertook to travel without his parents for the first time.
It provided him with an opportunity to study medieval art and architecture in France, Switzerland and especially Italy. In Lucca he saw the Tomb of Ilaria del Carretto by Jacopo della Quercia , which Ruskin considered the exemplar of Christian sculpture he later associated it with the then object of his love, Rose La Touche. He drew inspiration from what he saw at the Campo Santo in Pisa , and in Florence. In Venice , he was particularly impressed by the works of Fra Angelico and Giotto in St Mark's Cathedral , and Tintoretto in the Scuola di San Rocco , but he was alarmed by the combined effects of decay and modernisation on the city: "Venice is lost to me," he wrote.
Drawing on his travels, he wrote the second volume of Modern Painters published April It was a more theoretical work than its predecessor. Ruskin explicitly linked the aesthetic and the divine, arguing that truth, beauty and religion are inextricably bound together: "the Beautiful as a gift of God". Generally, critics gave this second volume a warmer reception although many found the attack on the aesthetic orthodoxy associated with Sir Joshua Reynolds difficult to accept.
During , Ruskin became closer to Effie Gray , the daughter of family friends. The couple were engaged in October. They married on 10 April at her home, Bowerswell, in Perth , once the residence of the Ruskin family. Owing to this association and other complications, Ruskin's parents did not attend. The European Revolutions of meant that the newlyweds' earliest travels together were restricted, but they were able to visit Normandy , where Ruskin admired the Gothic architecture.
Their early life together was spent at 31 Park Street, Mayfair secured for them by Ruskin's father later addresses included nearby 6 Charles Street, and 30 Herne Hill. Effie was too unwell to undertake the European tour of , so Ruskin visited the Alps with his parents, gathering material for the third and fourth volumes of Modern Painters.
He was struck by the contrast between the Alpine beauty and the poverty of Alpine peasants, stirring his increasingly sensitive social conscience. The marriage was unhappy, with John's reportedly cruel and distrustful behaviour towards Effie the cause. The marriage was never consummated and was annulled in Ruskin's developing interest in architecture, and particularly in the Gothic , led to the first work to bear his name, The Seven Lamps of Architecture The title refers to seven moral categories that Ruskin considered vital to and inseparable from all architecture: sacrifice, truth, power, beauty, life, memory and obedience.
All would provide recurring themes in his work. Seven Lamps promoted the virtues of a secular and Protestant form of Gothic. It was a challenge to the Catholic influence of A. For Effie, Venice provided an opportunity to socialise, while Ruskin was engaged in solitary studies. In particular, he made a point of drawing the Ca' d'Oro and the Doge's Palace, or Palazzo Ducale , because he feared that they would be destroyed by the occupying Austrian troops. One of these troops, Lieutenant Charles Paulizza, became friendly with Effie, apparently with Ruskin's consent.
Her brother, among others, later claimed that Ruskin was deliberately encouraging the friendship to compromise her, as an excuse to separate. Meanwhile, Ruskin was making the extensive sketches and notes that he used for his three-volume work, The Stones of Venice — It served as a warning about the moral and spiritual health of society. Ruskin argued that Venice had slowly degenerated. Its cultural achievements had been compromised, and its society corrupted, by the decline of true Christian faith.
Instead of revering the divine, Renaissance artists honoured themselves, arrogantly celebrating human sensuousness. The chapter, "The Nature of Gothic" appeared in the second volume of Stones. The worker must be allowed to think and to express his own personality and ideas, ideally using his own hands, rather than machinery. We want one man to be always thinking, and another to be always working, and we call one a gentleman, and the other an operative; whereas the workman ought often to be thinking, and the thinker often to be working, and both should be gentlemen, in the best sense.
As it is, we make both ungentle, the one envying, the other despising, his brother; and the mass of society is made up of morbid thinkers and miserable workers. Now it is only by labour that thought can be made healthy, and only by thought that labour can be made happy, and the two cannot be separated with impunity.
This was both an aesthetic attack on, and a social critique of, the division of labour in particular, and industrial capitalism in general. This chapter had a profound impact, and was reprinted both by the Christian socialist founders of the Working Men's College and later by the Arts and Crafts pioneer and socialist, William Morris. Ruskin came into contact with Millais after the artists made an approach to Ruskin through their mutual friend Coventry Patmore.
Suffering increasingly from physical illness and acute mental anxiety, Effie was arguing fiercely with her husband and his intense and overly protective parents, and sought solace with her own parents in Scotland. The Ruskin marriage was already fatally undermined as she and Millais fell in love, and Effie left Ruskin, causing a public scandal.
In April , Effie filed her suit of nullity , on grounds of "non-consummation" owing to his "incurable impotency ,"   a charge Ruskin later disputed. Ruskin did not even mention it in his diary. Effie married Millais the following year. The complex reasons for the non-consummation and ultimate failure of the Ruskin marriage are a matter of enduring speculation and debate. Ruskin continued to support Hunt and Rossetti. During this period Ruskin wrote regular reviews of the annual exhibitions at the Royal Academy under the title Academy Notes —59, Ruskin was an art-philanthropist: in March he gave 48 Turner drawings to the Ashmolean in Oxford , and a further 25 to the Fitzwilliam Museum , Cambridge in May.
He created many careful studies of natural forms, based on his detailed botanical, geological and architectural observations. Originally placed in the St. Ruskin's theories also inspired some architects to adapt the Gothic style. Such buildings created what has been called a distinctive "Ruskinian Gothic". The many twists and turns in the Museum's development, not least its increasing cost, and the University authorities' less than enthusiastic attitude towards it, proved increasingly frustrating for Ruskin.
The Museum was part of a wider plan to improve science provision at Oxford, something the University initially resisted. Ruskin's first formal teaching role came about in the mids,  when he taught drawing classes assisted by Dante Gabriel Rossetti at the Working Men's College , established by the Christian socialists , Frederick James Furnivall and Frederick Denison Maurice. From until , Ruskin was involved with the progressive school for girls at Winnington Hall in Cheshire.
A frequent visitor, letter-writer, and donor of pictures and geological specimens to the school, Ruskin approved of the mixture of sports, handicrafts, music and dancing encouraged by its principal, Miss Bell. In the s, Ruskin became involved with another educational institution, Whitelands College , a training college for teachers, where he instituted a May Queen festival that endures today. Ruskin also bestowed books and gemstones upon Somerville College , one of Oxford 's first two women's colleges , which he visited regularly, and was similarly generous to other educational institutions for women.
MP IV presents the geology of the Alps in terms of landscape painting, and their moral and spiritual influence on those living nearby. The contrasting final chapters, "The Mountain Glory" and "The Mountain Gloom"  provide an early example of Ruskin's social analysis, highlighting the poverty of the peasants living in the lower Alps. In addition to leading more formal teaching classes, from the s Ruskin became an increasingly popular public lecturer. His first public lectures were given in Edinburgh, in November , on architecture and painting. Individuals have a responsibility to consume wisely, stimulating beneficent demand.
The increasingly critical tone and political nature of Ruskin's interventions outraged his father and the "Manchester School" of economists , as represented by a hostile review in the Manchester Examiner and Times.
Ruskin gave the inaugural address at the Cambridge School of Art in , an institution from which the modern-day Anglia Ruskin University has grown. The year also marked his last tour of Europe with his ageing parents, during which they visited Germany and Switzerland. Ruskin had been in Venice when he heard about Turner's death in Being named an executor to Turner's will was an honour that Ruskin respectfully declined, but later took up. Ruskin's book in celebration of the sea, The Harbours of England , revolving around Turner's drawings, was published in This involved Ruskin in an enormous amount of work, completed in May , and involved cataloguing, framing and conserving.
In , Ruskin was again travelling in Europe. He would later claim in April that the discovery of this painting, contrasting starkly with a particularly dull sermon, led to his "unconversion" from Evangelical Christianity. His confidence undermined, he believed that much of his writing to date had been founded on a bed of lies and half-truths. Nevertheless, he continued to lecture on and write about a wide range of subjects including art and, among many other things, geology in June he lectured on the Alps , art practice and judgement The Cestus of Aglaia , botany and mythology Proserpina and The Queen of the Air.
He continued to draw and paint in watercolours, and to travel extensively across Europe with servants and friends. In , his tour took him to Abbeville , and in the following year he was in Verona studying tombs for the Arundel Society and Venice where he was joined by William Holman Hunt. Yet increasingly Ruskin concentrated his energies on fiercely attacking industrial capitalism , and the utilitarian theories of political economy underpinning it. He repudiated his sometimes grandiloquent style, writing now in plainer, simpler language, to communicate his message straightforwardly.
Ruskin's social view broadened from concerns about the dignity of labour to consider issues of citizenship and notions of the ideal community. Just as he had questioned aesthetic orthodoxy in his earliest writings, he now dissected the orthodox political economy espoused by John Stuart Mill , based on theories of laissez-faire and competition drawn from the work of Adam Smith , David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus. In his four essays, Unto This Last , Ruskin rejected the division of labour as dehumanising separating the labourer from the product of his work , and argued that the false "science" of political economy failed to consider the social affections that bind communities together.
Ruskin articulated an extended metaphor of household and family, drawing on Plato and Xenophon to demonstrate the communal and sometimes sacrificial nature of true economics. Ruskin's ideas influenced the concept of the " social economy " characterised by networks of charitable, co-operative and other non-governmental organisations.
The essays were originally published in consecutive monthly instalments of the new Cornhill Magazine between August and November and published in a single volume in The reaction of the national press was hostile, and Ruskin was, he claimed, "reprobated in a violent manner". Ruskin's political ideas, and Unto This Last in particular, later proved highly influential. The essays were praised and paraphrased in Gujarati by Mohandas Gandhi , a wide range of autodidacts cited their positive impact, the economist John A.
Hobson and many of the founders of the British Labour party credited them as an influence. Ruskin believed in a hierarchical social structure. He wrote "I was, and my father was before me, a violent Tory of the old school. If there be any one point insisted on throughout my works more frequently than another, that one point is the impossibility of Equality. My continual aim has been to show the eternal superiority of some men to others, sometimes even of one man to all others; and to show also the advisability of appointing such persons or person to guide, to lead, or on occasion even to compel and subdue, their inferiors, according to their own better knowledge and wiser will.
Ruskin's explorations of nature and aesthetics in the fifth and final volume of Modern Painters focused on Giorgione , Paolo Veronese , Titian and Turner. Ruskin asserted that the components of the greatest artworks are held together, like human communities, in a quasi-organic unity. Competitive struggle is destructive. Government and cooperation are in all things and eternally the laws of life. Anarchy and competition, eternally, and in all things, the laws of death.
Ruskin's next work on political economy, redefining some of the basic terms of the discipline, also ended prematurely, when Fraser's Magazine , under the editorship of James Anthony Froude , cut short his Essays on Political Economy —63 later collected as Munera Pulveris In these letters, Ruskin promoted honesty in work and exchange, just relations in employment and the need for co-operation.
Ruskin's sense of politics was not confined to theory. One of his first actions was to support the housing work of Octavia Hill originally one of his art pupils : he bought property in Marylebone to aid her philanthropic housing scheme. Modest as these practical schemes were, they represented a symbolic challenge to the existing state of society.
Yet his greatest practical experiments would come in his later years. Ruskin lectured widely in the s, giving the Rede lecture at the University of Cambridge in , for example. Ruskin's widely admired lecture, Traffic , on the relation between taste and morality, was delivered in April at Bradford Town Hall, to which he had been invited because of a local debate about the style of a new Exchange building. The lectures that comprised Sesame and Lilies published , delivered in December at the town halls at Rusholme and Manchester , are essentially concerned with education and ideal conduct.
This book proved to be one of Ruskin's most popular books, and was regularly awarded as a Sunday School prize. It was here that he said, "The art of any country is the exponent of its social and political virtues. It has been claimed that Cecil Rhodes cherished a long-hand copy of the lecture, believing that it supported his own view of the British Empire. He also established a large collection of drawings, watercolours and other materials over frames that he used to illustrate his lectures.
The School challenged the orthodox, mechanical methodology of the government art schools the "South Kensington System". Ruskin's lectures were often so popular that they had to be given twice—once for the students, and again for the public. Most of them were eventually published see Select Bibliography.
He lectured on a wide range of subjects at Oxford, his interpretation of "Art" encompassing almost every conceivable area of study, including wood and metal engraving Ariadne Florentina , the relation of science to art The Eagle's Nest and sculpture Aratra Pentelici. His lectures ranged through myth, ornithology, geology, nature-study and literature. When he criticised Michelangelo in a lecture in June it was seen as an attack on the large collection of that artist's work in the Ashmolean Museum.
Most controversial, from the point of view of the University authorities, spectators and the national press, was the digging scheme on Ferry Hinksey Road at North Hinksey , near Oxford , instigated by Ruskin in , and continuing into , which involved undergraduates in a road-mending scheme. It helped to foster a public service ethic that was later given expression in the university settlements ,  and was keenly celebrated by the founders of Ruskin Hall, Oxford.
In , Ruskin resigned from Oxford, but resumed his Professorship in , only to resign again in In January , the month before Ruskin started to lecture the wealthy undergraduates at Oxford University , he began his series of 96 monthly "letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain" under the title Fors Clavigera — The letters were published irregularly after the 87th instalment in March These letters were personal, dealt with every subject in his oeuvre , and were written in a variety of styles, reflecting his mood and circumstances. He found particular fault with Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket , and accused Whistler of "ask[ing] two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public's face".
Whistler won the case, which went to trial in Ruskin's absence in he was ill , but the jury awarded damages of only one farthing to the artist. Court costs were split between the two parties. Ruskin's were paid by public subscription, but Whistler was bankrupt within six months.
The episode tarnished Ruskin's reputation, however, and may have accelerated his mental decline. Ruskin founded his utopian society, the Guild of St George , in although originally it was called St George's Fund, and then St George's Company, before becoming the Guild in Its aims and objectives were articulated in Fors Clavigera. Ruskin purchased land initially in Totley , near Sheffield , but the agricultural scheme established there by local communists met with only modest success after many difficulties.
In principle, Ruskin worked out a scheme for different grades of "Companion", wrote codes of practice, described styles of dress and even designed the Guild's own coins. In reality, the Guild, which still exists today as a charitable education trust, has only ever operated on a small scale.
Ruskin also wished to see traditional rural handicrafts revived. George's Mill was established at Laxey , on the Isle of Man producing cloth goods. The Guild also encouraged independent, but allied, efforts in spinning and weaving at Langdale , in other parts of the Lake District and elsewhere, producing linen and other goods exhibited by the Home Arts and Industries Association and similar organisations. The Guild's most conspicuous and enduring achievement was the creation of a remarkable collection of art, minerals, books, medieval manuscripts, architectural casts, coins and other precious and beautiful objects.
Housed in a cottage museum high on the hill in the Sheffield district of Walkley , it opened in , and was curated by Henry and Emily Swan. The original Museum has been digitally recreated online. The collection is now on display at Sheffield 's Millennium Gallery. Maria La Touche, a minor Irish poet and novelist, asked Ruskin to teach her daughters drawing and painting in Rose La Touche was ten, Ruskin nearly Ruskin gradually fell in love with her.
Their first meeting came at a time when Ruskin's own religious faith was under strain. This always caused difficulties for the staunchly Protestant La Touche family who at various times prevented the two from meeting. A chance meeting at the Royal Academy in was one of the few occasions they came into personal contact thereafter. She finally rejected him in , but they still occasionally met, for the final time on 15 February After a long illness, she died on 25 May , at the age of These events plunged Ruskin into despair and led to increasingly severe bouts of mental illness involving a number of breakdowns and delirious visions.
The first of these had occurred in at Matlock, Derbyshire , a town and a county that he knew from his boyhood travels, whose flora, fauna, and minerals helped to form and reinforce his appreciation and understanding of nature. Ruskin turned to spiritualism. He attended seances at Broadlands , which he believed gave him the ability to communicate with the dead Rose, which, in turns, both comforted and disturbed him.
Ruskin's increasing need to believe in a meaningful universe and a life after death , both for himself and his loved ones, helped to revive his Christian faith in the s. Ruskin continued to travel, studying the landscapes, buildings and art of Europe. Ruskin embraced the emerging literary forms, the travel guide and gallery guide , writing new works, and adapting old ones "to give," he said, "what guidance I may to travallers Ruskin directed his readers, the would-be traveller, to look with his cultural gaze at the landscapes, buildings and art of France and Italy: Mornings in Florence —77 , The Bible of Amiens —85 a close study of its sculpture and a wider history , St Mark's Rest —84 and A Guide to the Principal Pictures in Venice In the s, Ruskin returned to some literature and themes that had been among his favourites since childhood.
He wrote about Walter Scott , Byron and Wordsworth in Fiction, Fair and Foul  and returned to meteorological observations in his lectures, The Storm-Cloud of the Nineteenth-Century ,  describing the apparent effects of industrialisation on weather patterns. Ruskin's Storm-Cloud has been seen as foreshadowing environmentalism and related concerns in the 20th and 21st centuries. His last great work was his autobiography, Praeterita —89  meaning, 'Of Past Things' , a highly personalised, selective, eloquent but incomplete account of aspects of his life, the preface of which was written in his childhood nursery at Herne Hill.
The period from the late s was one of steady and inexorable decline. Gradually it became too difficult for him to travel to Europe. He suffered a complete mental collapse on his final tour, which included Beauvais , Sallanches and Venice , in The emergence and dominance of the Aesthetic movement and Impressionism distanced Ruskin from the modern art world, his ideas on the social utility of art contrasting with the doctrine of "l'art pour l'art" or "art for art's sake" that was beginning to dominate.
His later writings were increasingly seen as irrelevant, especially as he seemed to be more interested in book illustrators such as Kate Greenaway than in modern art. He also attacked aspects of Darwinian theory with increasing violence, although he knew and respected Darwin personally. In August , Ruskin purchased, from W. Brantwood was Ruskin's main home from until his death. His estate provided a site for more of his practical schemes and experiments: he had an ice house built, and the gardens comprehensively rearranged.
He oversaw the construction of a larger harbour from where he rowed his boat, the Jumping Jenny , and he altered the house adding a dining room, a turret to his bedroom to give him a panoramic view of the lake, and he later extended the property to accommodate his relatives. He built a reservoir, and redirected the waterfall down the hills, adding a slate seat that faced the tumbling stream and craggy rocks rather than the lake, so that he could closely observe the fauna and flora of the hillside.
Although Ruskin's 80th birthday was widely celebrated in various Ruskin societies presenting him with an elaborately illuminated congratulatory address , Ruskin was scarcely aware of it. He was buried five days later in the churchyard at Coniston , according to his wishes. Joanna's Care was the eloquent final chapter of Ruskin's memoir, which he dedicated to her as a fitting tribute.
Joan Severn, together with Ruskin's secretary, W. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn edited the monumental volume Library Edition of Ruskin's Works , the last volume of which, an index, attempts to demonstrate the complex interconnectedness of Ruskin's thought. They all acted together to guard, and even control, Ruskin's public and personal reputation. The centenary of Ruskin's birth was keenly celebrated in , but his reputation was already in decline and sank further in the fifty years that followed.
Brantwood was opened in as a memorial to Ruskin and remains open to the public today. In middle age, and at his prime as a lecturer, Ruskin was described as slim, perhaps a little short,  with an aquiline nose and brilliant, piercing blue eyes. Often sporting a double-breasted waistcoat, a high collar and, when necessary, a frock coat, he also wore his trademark blue neckcloth. The following description of Ruskin as a lecturer was written by an eye witness, who was a student at the time :. I went off, never dreaming of difficulty about getting into any professorial lecture; but all the accesses were blocked, and finally I squeezed in between the Vice-Chancellor and his attendants as they forced a passage.
Every inch was crowded, and still no lecturer; and it was not apparent how he could arrive. Presently there was a commotion in the doorway, and over the heads and shoulders of tightly packed young men, a loose bundle was handed in and down the steps, till on the floor a small figure was deposited, which stood up and shook itself out, amused and good humoured, climbed on to the dais, spread out papers and began to read in a pleasant though fluting voice. The title did not suggest an exhortation to join a Socialist alliance, but that was what we got.
When he ended, the Master of University, Dr Bright, stood up and instead of returning thanks, protested that the hall had been lent for a lecture on art and would certainly not have been made available for preaching Socialism. He stammered a little at all times, and now, finding the ungracious words literally stick in his throat, sat down, leaving the remonstrance incomplete but clearly indicated. The situation was most unpleasant. Morris at any time was choleric and his face flamed red over his white shirt front: he probably thought he had conceded enough by assuming against his usage a conventional garb.
There was a hubbub, and then from the audience Ruskin rose and instantly there was quiet. With a few courteous well chosen sentences he made everybody feel that we were an assembly of gentlemen, that Morris was not only an artist but a gentleman and an Oxford man, and had said or done nothing which gentlemen in Oxford should resent; and the whole storm subsided before that gentle authority.
Ruskin's influence reached across the world. Tolstoy described him as "one of the most remarkable men not only of England and of our generation, but of all countries and times" and quoted extensively from him, rendering his thoughts into Russian. He commissioned sculptures and sundry commemorative items, and incorporated Ruskinian rose motifs in the jewellery produced by his cultured pearl empire.
He established the Ruskin Society of Tokyo and his children built a dedicated library to house his Ruskin collection.
A number of utopian socialist Ruskin Colonies attempted to put his political ideals into practice. Theorists and practitioners in a broad range of disciplines acknowledged their debt to Ruskin. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc , T. Eliot , W. Yeats and Ezra Pound felt Ruskin's influence. Aside from E.
Cook , Ruskin's editor and biographer, other leading British journalists influenced by Ruskin include J. Spender , and the war correspondent, H. William Morris and C. Ashbee of the Guild of Handicraft were keen disciples, and through them Ruskin's legacy can be traced in the arts and crafts movement.
Ruskin's ideas on the preservation of open spaces and the conservation of historic buildings and places inspired his friends, Octavia Hill and Hardwicke Rawnsley , to help found the National Trust. Pioneers of town planning , such as Thomas Coglan Horsfall and Patrick Geddes called Ruskin an inspiration and invoked his ideas in justification of their own social interventions.
The same is true for the founders of the garden city movement , Ebenezer Howard and Raymond Unwin. Edward Carpenter 's community in Millthorpe, Derbyshire was partly inspired by Ruskin, and John Kenworthy's colony at Purleigh , Essex, which was briefly a refuge for the Doukhobors , combined Ruskin's ideas and Tolstoy's. The most prolific collector of Ruskiniana was John Howard Whitehouse , who saved Ruskin's home, Brantwood , and opened it as a permanent Ruskin memorial. Inspired by Ruskin's educational ideals, Whitehouse established Bembridge School , on the Isle of Wight , and ran it along Ruskinian lines.
Ruskin's Drawing Collection, a collection of works of art he gathered as learning aids for the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art , which he founded at Oxford, is at the Ashmolean Museum. The Museum has promoted Ruskin's art teaching, utilising the collection for in-person and online drawing courses. Pierre de Coubertin , the innovator of the modern Olympic Games , cited Ruskin's principles of beautification, asserting that the games should be "Ruskinized" to create an aesthetic identity that transcended mere championship competitions.
Ruskin was an inspiration for many Christian socialists , and his ideas informed the work of economists such as William Smart and J. Hobson , and the positivist, Frederic Harrison. He helped to inspire the settlement movement in Britain and the United States. In , Ruskin was inaugurated as a year-long celebration marking the bicentenary of Ruskin's birth. All three mount regular exhibitions open to the public all the year round. She has designed and hand painted various friezes in honour of her ancestor and it is open to the public.
Also, the Ruskin Literary and Debating Society, founded in in Toronto, Ontario, Canada , the oldest surviving club of its type, and still promoting the development of literary knowledge and public speaking today; and the Ruskin Art Club in Los Angeles, which still exists. Since , scholarly research has focused on aspects of Ruskin's legacy, including his impact on the sciences; John Lubbock and Oliver Lodge admired him. Two major academic projects have looked at Ruskin and cultural tourism investigating, for example, Ruskin's links with Thomas Cook ;  the other focuses on Ruskin and the theatre.
Ruskin wrote over works, initially art criticism and history, but expanding to cover topics ranging over science, geology, ornithology, literary criticism , the environmental effects of pollution, mythology, travel, political economy and social reform. After his death Ruskin's works were collected in the volume "Library Edition", completed in by his friends Edward Tyas Cook and Alexander Wedderburn.
In , John A. Hobson observed that in attempting to summarise Ruskin's thought, and by extracting passages from across his work, "the spell of his eloquence is broken". Ruskin's early work defended the reputation of J. Accordingly, inherited artistic conventions should be rejected. Only by means of direct observation can an artist, through form and colour, represent nature in art. He advised artists in Modern Painters I to: "go to Nature in all singleness of heart Ruskin was celebrating the Pre-Raphaelites whose members, he said, had formed "a new and noble school" of art that would provide a basis for a thoroughgoing reform of the art world.
However, this could not be revealed by mere display of skill, and must be an expression of the artist's whole moral outlook. Ruskin rejected the work of Whistler because he considered it to epitomise a reductive mechanisation of art. Ruskin's strong rejection of Classical tradition in The Stones of Venice typifies the inextricable mix of aesthetics and morality in his thought: "Pagan in its origin, proud and unholy in its revival, paralysed in its old age He praised the Gothic for what he saw as its reverence for nature and natural forms; the free, unfettered expression of artisans constructing and decorating buildings; and for the organic relationship he perceived between worker and guild, worker and community, worker and natural environment, and between worker and God.
Attempts in the 19th century, to reproduce Gothic forms such as pointed arches , attempts he had helped inspire, were not enough to make these buildings expressions of what Ruskin saw as true Gothic feeling, faith, and organicism. For Ruskin, the Gothic style in architecture embodied the same moral truths he sought to promote in the visual arts. It expressed the 'meaning' of architecture—as a combination of the values of strength, solidity and aspiration—all written, as it were, in stone. For Ruskin, creating true Gothic architecture involved the whole community, and expressed the full range of human emotions, from the sublime effects of soaring spires to the comically ridiculous carved grotesques and gargoyles.
Even its crude and "savage" aspects were proof of "the liberty of every workman who struck the stone; a freedom of thought, and rank in scale of being, such as no laws, no charters, no charities can secure. Ruskin associated Classical values with modern developments, in particular with the demoralising consequences of the industrial revolution , resulting in buildings such as the Crystal Palace , which he criticised. Ruskin's theories indirectly encouraged a revival of Gothic styles, but Ruskin himself was often dissatisfied with the results.
He objected that forms of mass-produced faux Gothic did not exemplify his principles, but showed disregard for the true meaning of the style. Even the Oxford University Museum of Natural History , a building designed with Ruskin's collaboration, met with his disapproval. The O'Shea brothers , freehand stone carvers chosen to revive the creative "freedom of thought" of Gothic craftsmen, disappointed him by their lack of reverence for the task.
Ruskin's distaste for oppressive standardisation led to later works in which he attacked Laissez-faire capitalism, which he thought was at the root of it. Ruskin's views on art, wrote Kenneth Clark , "cannot be made to form a logical system , and perhaps owe to this fact a part of their value. Ruskin's belief in preservation of ancient buildings had a significant influence on later thinking about the distinction between conservation and restoration. Neither by the public, nor by those who have the care of public monuments, is the true meaning of the word restoration understood.
It means the most total destruction which a building can suffer: a destruction out of which no remnants can be gathered: a destruction accompanied with false description of the thing destroyed. Do not let us deceive ourselves in this important matter; it is impossible , as impossible as to raise the dead, to restore anything that has ever been great or beautiful in architecture.
This abhorrence of restoration is in marked contrast to Viollet-le-Duc, who wrote that restoration is a "means to reestablish [a building] to a finished state, which may in fact never have actually existed at any given time. For Ruskin, the "age" of a building was crucially significant as an aspect in its preservation: "For, indeed, the greatest glory of a building is not in its stones, not in its gold.
Its glory is in its Age, and in that deep sense of voicefulness, of stern watching, of mysterious sympathy, nay, even of approval or condemnation, which we feel in walls that have long been washed by the passing waves of humanity. Ruskin attacked orthodox, 19th-century political economy principally on the grounds that it failed to acknowledge complexities of human desires and motivations broadly, "social affections".