Gott der Allmächtige: Das letzte Testament: Erinnerungen (German Edition)

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These are the precious moments of everyday life. It is the sacrament of the moment that is celebrated here. Everyday life is briefly highlighted by the work of love, the full openness to others and perhaps also the short enchant of prayer. A moment becomes a sacrament, when it turns out that the Lord is here now. To be embedded in the love of the Lord, which becomes clear in everyday life: an old and always new sign that there are Christians and Christians in our society?

Messe mit neugeweihten Diakonen. Neue Aufgaben. Der neu ernannte Weihbischof in Freiburg, Dr. Lord, Heavenly Father, You have sent your word and your spirit into the world, To reveal the secret of divine life. Give that in true faith we confess the greatness of the divine trinity And the unity of the three people in their powerful seem to worship. That's why we ask for Jesus Christ. Sunday, which is dedicated to the Trinity, puts the secret of God's heart to the center. It was revealed to us by the word and the spirit sent from the father to the world.

In the word of the word, this is easier for us: in Jesu s' life we can read who God and how God is for us people. In The Gospels, we are told how he has dealt with the people, how he lived and how he died. But at the same time, we always need the spirit that will make this secret of this word more and more open.

The confession of Jesus Christ would be too easy to see in him a "good person" but not from the inside the unity his actions with the father - that in Jesus Christ, at the same time, meet true human and true God. Only the spirit thus gives us the inner dimension of the person of Jesus Christ, and from her the secret of the divine life of father and son and thus the "greatness of the divine trinity".

As we confess that the spirit of the father and the son runs out, then a criterion for the authenticity of the spirit may be that the double commandment of God's and charity is even more realized and thus the own life of Christ more similar. This is how the "Unity of the three people in their powerful looks like", how to show yourself in our lives.

Here we realize that confession and life move together, that faith and life are intertwined. A mere confession without life from this would remain in a pure " lip service at the same time, faith should be able to be taught so linguistically, what wants to be witnessed by life. Linguistically, this is even more evident in the Latin version of the day prayer, if for a life from faith the spirit of holiness Spriritum Sancti fact and for a right confession, which on the word and spirit revealed the word of truth Verbum Veritatis are called.

Such a unit in your own life can not be "made" but requested, as the day prayer also formulated in the first please. Our faith is always called to prove itself in life. What does our life profess and how does our confession live? Priesterseminar Freiburg is feeling blessed with Massimo Dell'Anna and 3 others.

Being younger, always means to be on the road. That's why four of our students have started with the rain on the way of James, to discuss, discuss and meditate on some topics of the successor, namely the Evangelical Council. Almighty, eternal God, By the secret of today Do you holy your church In all nations and nations. Fulfill the whole world With the gifts of the Holy Spirit, And what your love Worked at the beginning of the church, They look like it today In the hearts of all those who believe in you. That's why we ask through Jesus Christ. The Church is celebrating the high Pentecost this Sunday.

It is meant that Jesus Christ, as he has said, sends the holy spirit after his ascension. On the one hand, it becomes clear on the day of the day that Jesus holds what he promises - he does not comfort us people, but he sends us the comfort, like one of the titles of st. Spirit is. On the other hand, in the day prayer of the Sunday, the church asks that the whole world be fulfilled by the Holy Spirit and his gifts. But it should not remain: The Holy Spirit should also be able to do something - in us and with us and through us. The gifts of the Holy Spirit, which we ask for from God, should bear fruit and especially benefit the others, our fellow people SEE 1, 12,7; from the reading.

We humans have been called to st. Spirit to follow and make it work in our lives. Love, joy, peace, kindness and kindness are the signs of those in which st. Ghost apartment was allowed to take. And "deeper eyes realize that all of these pleasant properties are not just character installation or moral achievements, but have a deeper, more secret source" Hans urs of balthasar, light of the word.

On Pentecost we are allowed from the source of st. Create the spirit to look into the world from this source. So, Pentecost is also and precisely the feast where it pushes the apostles and disciples of Jesus into the world to proclaim the faith of Jesus Christ through word and deed. Is it ours too? Es ist nach Weihnachten und Ostern das dritte Hauptfest im christlichen Kirchenjahr und gilt als Geburtstag der Kirche. Priesterseminar Freiburg shared a post. Last Friday to Sunday, a large part of the seminar in fulda was at the seminarians day, which took place around the boniface there.

In the pictures you can see a few shots from the weekend! Already a warm invitation to our summer festival at the end of June! We are waiting for you and you! Continue Reading. Geburtstag von Sr. Pure Olda At the sisters house of the vinzent in heitersheim, SR. In celebrated her There she enjoys her well-deserved retirement and can't be taken to help every day with the potato peel in the monastery kitchen.

Until the 90 s of the last century, the vinzent were working at the collegium. We are very grateful to the sisters for their long-standing service. Alone Sr. In has worked for 40 loyal years in the home economy and kitchen of CB. During this time, she also experienced the transformations and changes in the seminary after the second Vatican Council. In addition to the work in the kitchen and on the floors was SR. In is responsible for the passing of the flags on high holidays.

Your Guide to flags display is still being passed on to the next generation of students as a humorous and valuable time document. We congratulate sr. In happy birthday, say "give God" for everything and wish you a lot of joy and God's blessings!

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Christian Hesse Photo: private Translated. Sunday of the Easter time: Express the Easter joy Sing a new song to the Lord, for he has done wonderful deeds and revealed his fair work before the eyes of the people. Although felt weeks ago, the church is still in the Easter period and in the great celebration of the resurrection of our Lord. In this context, the opening verse encourages us to agree to God a new song. For with the resurrection of his son, he has done an action that seeks his like. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site.

Start by pressing the button below! This second edition brings the course up to date, is much less literary in focus, has been thoroughly revised to give clearer explanations of key concepts, and features totally rewritten chapters on genre, compensation, and revision and editing. A variety of translation issues are addressed, among them cultural differences, genre, and the challenge for the translator of producing idiomatic English from consistently more compact German structures.

Thinking German Translation is essential reading for all students seriously interested in improving their translation skills. It is also an excellent foundation for those considering a career in translation. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Includes bibliographical references and index.

German language — Translating into English. Loughridge, Michael. Higgins, Ian. We believe that the revisions make the course more widely relevant and more consistently convincing. The method is the same, but better explained. If anything in the book deserves credit, let that go to the three authors jointly. Such changes make for a longer chapter, but they have been made in response to consistent feedback from students and colleagues over the years. Compensation has been given a chapter to itself. Our original section on compensation presented an over-elaborate categorization of types of compensation that proved unnecessary in the classroom, and, in two of the categories, had a conceptual fuzziness that was confusing for students and tutors.

The new chapter is less ambitious taxonomically, but more rigorously argued and more convincingly illustrated. The other major change concerns genre. These differences are important, of course, but our discussion of them did not leave enough room in the genre chapters for xii Preface to the second edition it to be made clear to students what to focus on in their textual analyses and their decision-making. A slimline, single-chapter format has worked much better in the Italian and revised French versions of the course, and we have used this as the basis for the genre chapter in this book.

We have also moved the discussion of genre forward to Chapter 5. The new single chapter comes immediately between the one on compensation and those on the levels of textual variables. Naturally, there are good arguments for keeping discussion of genre until later in the course. These are features on the levels of textual variables including literal and connotative meaning. Putting genre in Chapter 5 is in effect a forceful early statement of these fundamentals. We have found that this has made for as coherent and progressive a course as before.

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Naturally, this is purely a matter of pedagogic effectiveness, not of how translators set about their work. We now think that this was spinning things out too far, at the expense of other factors that needed more attention. In any case, with the exception of register, language variety is a question that is primarily of interest to literary translators. The notion of register is introduced as such in the chapter on connotative meaning, but of course attention is drawn whenever necessary to the importance of getting the register right.

A feature dropped from practicals in this edition is the speed translation. It is more that the speed translations belong in a different sort of course. Perhaps they would be useful as a kind of bridge between an interpreting course and this one. As this course stands, though, the existing practicals are already more than enough for likely time available. In any case, it is open to tutors to impose any time limit they choose on any exercise they choose.

Finally, we would stress that Thinking German Translation, like its companion volumes, is eclectic, practical and addressed to a wide readership — both generalist modern languages students with an interest in translation and students embarking on undergraduate or postgraduate translator training.

We will not have named here anything like all of those who helped us forward in some way. The authors and publisher would like to thank the following people and institutions for permission to reproduce copyright material. Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders, but in a few cases this has not been possible. Any omissions brought to our attention will be remedied in future printings. All xvi Acknowledgements Rights Reserved. Remarque, translated by B. Murdoch, published by Jonathan Cape. Also for material from Runaway Horse by M. Walser, translated by L.

Reprinted by permission of the Random House Group Ltd. Frank Bochert, for material from the Rennsteigportal website. IBM Germany, for material from an advertisement. Boehringer Ingelheim Fonds, for material from B. Lufthansa Magazin for kind permission to use material from a feature on Cape Town.

The complete English-language version of this essay will appear in Rethinking Boucher, eds. Copyright The J. Paul Getty Trust. All rights reserved. Die Zeit and the author Udo Perina, for permission to use part of an article on unemployment. Phoenix Contact, for material from their control engineering product descriptions.

Professor H. Feldmeier, for part of his Die Welt online article on malaria research. Felina GmbH, Mannheim, for a lingerie newsletter text.

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Hapimag-Havag AG, for material from their client magazine Holiday. Certainly, as teachers of translation know, some people are naturally better at it than others. In this respect, aptitude for translation is no different from aptitude for any other activity: teaching and practice help anyone, including the most gifted, to perform at a higher level. Even Mozart had music lessons. This book offers just such a course. Its progressive exposition of different sorts of translation problem is accompanied with plenty of practice in developing a rationale for solving them.

It is a course not in translation theory, but in translation method, encouraging thoughtful consideration of possible solutions to practical problems. If this is not a course in translation theory or linguistics, it is not a language-teaching course, either. The focus is on how to translate. It is assumed that the student already has a good command of German, and is familiar with the proper use of reference materials, including dictionaries and databases.

That said, the analytical attention given to a wide variety of texts means that students do learn a lot of German — and probably a fair bit of English, too.

This last point is important. While our main aim is to improve quality in translation, it must be remembered that this quality requires the translator to have a good command of English as well as of German. Assuming 2 Thinking German translation that this is the case, translator training normally focuses on translation into the mother tongue, because higher quality is achieved in that direction than in translating into a foreign language.

Hence the predominance of translation from German into English in this course. By its very nature, however, the course is just as useful for German students learning how to translate into English: this is an important part of English studies in Germany, and Thinking German Translation offers an effective methodology and plenty of practical work in this area. Since the course is an introduction to the interlingual operations involved in translating, we do not discuss machine translation, or how to use translation software.

We give examples of online search facilities with which it is important for students to familiarize themselves, and we point out the major role played for professionals by translation memory software, but these sorts of consideration are not our main concern. Our experience has been that, after this basic training, students who go into translating as a career are well equipped to make intelligent use of translation memory when the time for advanced training comes.

The course has a progressive structure. It begins with the fundamental issues, options and alternatives of which a translator must be aware: translation as process, translation as product, cultural issues in translation, and the nature and importance of compensation in translation. Next, it looks at the question of genre. It then moves, via a survey of translation issues raised on six layers of textual variables from the phonic to the intertextual , to semantic and stylistic topics, including literal meaning, connotative meaning and register.

Further chapters are given to technical translation, consumer-oriented translation, and revision and editing. Chapter by chapter, then, the student is progressively trained to ask, and to answer, a series of questions that apply to any text given for translation. For this same reason, when students are asked in a practical to do a translation, we always include a translation brief in the assignment. Once its genre-membership and purpose have been pinned down, the translator can decide on a strategy for meeting the translation brief.

Attention is kept focused on this issue by the wide variety of genres found in the practicals — students are asked to work on different sorts of technical, journalistic and literary text, song, advertising, tourist brochures, instruction manuals, etc. Introduction 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 3 The sorts of question that need to be asked in determining the salient features of any text are listed in the schema of textual matrices on p.

The schema amounts to a checklist of potentially relevant kinds of textual feature. These are presented in the order in which they arise in the course, in Chapters 3 and 5— The student would be well advised to refer to the schema before tackling a practical: it is a progressive reminder of what questions to ask of the text set for analysis or translation.

We therefore emphasize the need to recognize options and alternatives, the need for rational discussion, and the need for decision-making. Each chapter is intended for class discussion at the start of the corresponding seminar, and a lot of the practicals are best done by students working in small groups.

These units are designed to be studied in numerical order, and are the essential foundation for the rest of the course. Chapters 11 and 12 give practice in genres that provide much of the bread and butter of professional translators. Ideally, both of these should be worked through, but local conditions may oblige the tutor to leave one out. Chapter 13 focuses on revision and editing. Chapters 14—16 are different from the others.

They can be studied at whatever points in the course seem most opportune. Each unit needs about two hours of seminar time. It is vital that every student should have the necessary reference books in class: a c. Some of the practical work will be done at home — sometimes individually, sometimes in groups — and handed in for assessment by the tutor.

How often this is done will be decided by tutors and students between them. Students doing the course often enquire about the possibility of translation as a career. The Postscript pp. The abbreviations used in the book are explained in Chapter 1. As for symbols, there are only two that need any comment, the slash and the brace in examples where alternative translations are given.

Where necessary, we use braces to make the division between units in the alternatives absolutely clear, e. Note that a slash with a space before and after it does not indicate alternatives, but simply a division between e. Berlin recast as London, etc. A minimal text may consist of a single word preceded and followed by a silence or a blank — e. Source text ST The text to be translated.

What is the purpose of this ST? What genre does it belong to, and what audience is it aimed at? What is its message content? What are its salient linguistic features? What are its principal effects? What are the implications of all these factors? Decisions of detail Preliminaries to translation as a process 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 7 are made in the light of the strategy. With these terms in mind, the translation process can be broken down into two types of activity: understanding an ST and formulating a TT.

These do not occur successively, but simultaneously; indeed, it is often only when coming up against a problem in formulating the TT that translators realize they have not fully understood something in the ST. This reinterpretation sometimes entails revising the original strategy, the revision in turn necessitating changes to some of the decisions of detail already taken. Nevertheless, it is useful to discuss ST interpretation and TT formulation as different, separable processes. The processes of translation are not different from familiar things that everyone does every day.

Comprehension and interpretation are processes that we all perform whenever we listen to or read a piece of linguistically imparted information.

Synonyms and antonyms of Godthåb in the German dictionary of synonyms

In everyday communication, evidence that a message has been understood may come from appropriate response — for example, if your mother asks you for a spoon, and you give her a spoon and not a fork. None of these are translation-like processes, but they do show that the comprehension and interpretation stage of translation involves an ordinary, everyday activity that simply requires an average command of the language used.

In each case, there is translation from a non-linguistic communication system to a linguistic one. To this extent, everyone is a translator of a sort. Still more common are various sorts of linguistic response to linguistic stimuli that are also very like translation proper, even though they actually take place within a single language. These sorts of process are what Jakobson ibid. In the rest of this chapter, we shall look at the two extremes of intralingual translation: gist translation and exegetic translation.

We shall keep in mind the relevance of the discussion to translation proper by illustrating each extreme with examples of translation from German into English. Take the following scenario. Jill is driving Jack through the narrow streets of a small town. A policeman steps out and stops them. As he leans in to speak to Jill, she can see over his shoulder that, further on, a 8 Thinking German translation trailer has tipped over and blocked the street. Oh, OK. What did he say? But he does not want to sound brusque. Finally, he completes his explanation. This type of intralingual translation we shall call gist translation.

The example also shows two other features that intralingual translation shares with translation proper. The other feature shared by intralingual translation and translation proper is that the situation in which a message is expressed and received affects how it is expressed and received.

As will become clear, the whole context is an important consideration in translation; but the more immediate the context, the more crucial it is in making decisions of detail. There are always so many variables in the message situation that it is impossible to predict what the gist translation will be or how the addressee will take it. However, depending on how she says it and how Jack receives it, it could give the impression that the policeman was brusque.

As a result, it is easy for reformulation consciously or unconsciously to become distortion, either because the translator misrepresents the ST or because the reader misreads the TT, or both. In professional translating, gist translation is most commonly required when less space is allotted to the TT than to the ST. Here is a typical example from a mail-order catalogue. The company publishes a German and an English version of its catalogue.

Both are in A4 format, and both are printed in four 44mm columns, in the same font and size of type. But the English catalogue is less than half the length of the German one: many items are omitted altogether, presumably for market reasons, and many others though not all are given less text than in the German original. At decibels, its sound is terrifying indeed. Solid brass, silver-plated.

Length 6. Order no. We shall use the term exegetic translation to denote a translation that explains and elaborates on the ST in this way. An exegetic translation can be shorter than the ST, as in this example, but exegesis is usually longer, and can easily shade into general observations triggered by the ST but not really explaining it. Exegetic translation is often used in professional translation for cultural reasons.

In the following example, from a tourist brochure, the translator translates some of the names, for clarity, but also includes the ST names because the tourist is likely to see them on road signs etc. Three spas can provide relaxation for both body and spirit with their mineral rich earth, salty air and healing waters. From here the journey continues to the romantic Rhine valley — Rheintal — between Bingen and Koblenz, in the Loreley Valley [.

Another cultural issue is that of reference or allusion. An allusion that is transparent to SL readers might be opaque to TT readers without exegetic Preliminaries to translation as a process 11 translation. He encounters a group of soldiers he had humiliated when they were new recruits, and starts trying to bully them again. Most editions since have dashes instead of the last three words, but such is their legendary status that German readers are well aware what they stand for. This makes explicit much of what the ST leaves implicit, while cleverly preserving with its coyness something of the allusiveness of the ST.

The cost is length and cumbersomeness, but at least the reader understands. Finally, gist translation and exegetic translation often occur in close association with one another. Sometimes, they seem to be inseparable, especially in the rewording of metaphor. Self-Determined Life. Wir haben doch nicht zusammen im Chausseegraben gelegen. As our examples show, it is not only sometimes hard to keep gist translation and exegetic translation apart, but also it can be hard to see where translation shades into comment pure and simple. And yet, with its constant movement between gist and exegesis, intralingual translation happens all the time in speech.

It is also common in written texts. Students regularly encounter it in annotated editions, where obscure terms are explained for e. As all our examples have suggested, the dividing lines between gist, exegesis, translation and comment are often blurred. Things could not be otherwise. And, as our interlingual examples have already suggested, we shall see in the next chapter and throughout the course that what applies to intralingual translation applies a fortiori to translation proper: the ST message content can never be precisely reproduced in the TT, because of the very fact that the two forms of expression are different.

There are other important respects in which the three types of intralingual translation — gist, exegesis and rephrasing — are on an equal footing with translation proper. They all require knowledge of the subject matter of the source text, familiarity with the source language and source culture in general, and interpretive effort.

But they also require knowledge of the nature and needs of the target public, familiarity with the target culture in general — and, above all, mastery of the target language. Say precisely what the purpose and the public are. Treat the ST as if you were recasting the whole book of Exodus, of which it is a part. As a rule, whenever you do a translation as part of this course, you should proceed as if you were translating the whole text from which the ST is taken.

Insert into your TT a superscript note-number after each expression you intend to discuss, and then, starting on a fresh sheet of paper, discuss the points in numerical order. This is the system you should use whenever you annotate your own TTs. Contextual information The text is from the Authorized Version of the Bible, published in The best way of making sense of it is to read the rest of Exodus The forces of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, are pursuing the children of Israel, led by Moses, who are seeking to escape slavery in Egypt. Seeing their pursuers, the people lose their nerve, and ask Moses why he has led them into this adventure.

And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen. Exodus 14, v. The TT is to take up three-quarters as many lines as the ST, so it should contain between and words the ST only contains , but many of these are long compounds. Discuss the strategic decisions that you have to take before starting detailed work on this ST, and outline and justify the strategy you adopt. Concentrate on the omissions, and on whether they have entailed introducing any exegetic elements.

Contextual information The text introduces the long section on kitchen knives in the catalogue. The English catalogue is just as comprehensive, though more economical of space. Both repeatedly emphasize the superior quality of the knives offered. Kenner haben das immer bedauert. Die Bearbeitung: geschmiedet oder gewalzt.

Manufactum a: 11 2 Preliminaries to translation as a product Chapter 1 viewed translation as a process. In this chapter, we view it as a product. Here, too, it is useful to examine two diametric opposites: in this case, two opposed degrees of freedom of translation, showing extreme SL bias on the one hand and extreme TL bias on the other. The sofa lets itself with few manipulations into a bed transform.

Interlinear translation is normally only used in linguistics or language teaching. It is an extreme form of the much more common literal translation, where the literal meaning of words is taken as if straight from the dictionary, out of context, but TL grammar is respected. At the opposite extreme, TL bias, is free translation, where there is only an overall correspondence between the textual units of the ST and those of the TT.

With a few simple movements, the sofa can be converted into a bed. Converting the sofa into a bed is a matter of moments. First, it should be noted that, since literal translation respects TL grammar, it very often involves grammatical transposition — the replacement or reinforcement of given parts of speech or grammatical categories in the ST by others in the TT.

But this still has not made for a very plausible 18 Thinking German translation TT. Not surprisingly, there are further structural changes in the faithful and balanced translations. This TT is more appropriate for a furniture catalogue in both structure and vocabulary, but it could still sound a little odd in most contexts.

Three major grammatical transpositions, then, but they are unexceptional and acceptable: this balanced translation is more idiomatic and more convincing, and hence better as a selling text than the literal and faithful translations. Each of the TTs is open to query, and others could be suggested. Again, do the balanced and idiomizing translations misrepresent the focus of the ST? After all, it foregrounds the sofa more than the ease of conversion; these TTs highlight the convertibility rather than the sofa. However, some contexts offer less choice than others. This is often the case if the Preliminaries to translation as a product 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 19 ST contains an SL idiom, proverb or other expression standard for a given situation, and the TL offers an idiom, proverb or other expression standard for an equivalent target-culture situation.

In such cases, using the TL equivalent is often inescapable. Wet paint Das hat nichts zu sagen. We will discuss communicative translation in Chapter 3. For the moment, we will just point out a seeming paradox: inasmuch as they diverge greatly from ST literal meanings, these ready-made communicative translations are examples of free translation; yet the translator seems to have little free choice as to whether or not to adopt them. There is no standard expression for this situation. Note also that a free translation does not have to be colloquial. Hermans provides a useful introduction to the question.

According to this view, each of the TTs illustrating degrees of freedom p. So, normatively, the pairs tabulated on p. As we have just seen, there are all sorts of good reasons why a translator might not want to translate a given expression literally. To begin with, who is to know what the relationship between ST message and source-culture receptors is? For that matter, is it plausible to speak of the relationship, as if there were only one: are there not as many relationships as there are receptors?

And who is to know what such relationships can have been in the past? Wilhelm Tell, Das Kapital, Der Tod in Venedig: each is, and has been, different things to different people in different places at different times — and indeed, different to the same person at different times. In any case, most texts have plural effects even in one reading by one person; the less technical the text, the more likely this is. And these problems apply as much to the TT as to the ST: who is to foresee the multiple relationships between the TT and its receptors?

Indeed, it is used in this way in logic, mathematics and sign-theory, where an equivalent relationship is one that is objective, incontrovertible and — crucially — reversible. In translation, however, such unanimity and such reversibility are unthinkable for any but the very simplest of texts — and even then only in respect of literal meaning.

And differences are not always subtle. This is how the term will be used in this book. There is a vital difference between the two ambitions. But it is more realistic, and more productive, to start by admitting that, because SL and TL are fundamentally different, the transfer from ST to TT inevitably imposes difference — or, as we shall argue, loss. We shall give the term translation loss to non-replication of the ST in the TT — that is, the inevitable loss of culturally relevant features. Indeed, one of the attractions of the notion is that it frees translators actually to exploit translation loss — to introduce any loss, however major, that enables them to implement the strategy fully.

Quite apart from any need for compensation in actually doing the translation, the brief itself may require a gist translation, or an exegetic translation, or an adaptation for children or immigrants, or for the stage or radio, etc. The later translation introduces substantial translation loss — text added being a loss just like text taken away — but this is less serious than the obscurity of near-literal translation that leaves the allusion unexplained.

To show some of the implications of translation loss for the translator, it is enough to take a few very simple examples, at the primitive level of the sounds, rhythm and literal meaning of individual words. There is translation loss even at the seemingly most trivial level. For instance, true SL—TL homonymy rarely occurs, and rhythm and intonation are usually different as well. The immediate and obvious question is whether such losses actually matter. The equally obvious answer is that, for almost all communicative purposes, they matter not at all.

But if the ST word is part of an alliterative chain in a literary text, or if it rhymes e. Translation loss in respect of sound is almost always entailed, even in cases where the ST word has already entered the TL. In respect of meaning, too, there is clear translation loss in using loanwords. In the case of a loan-word from a third language, it may well have different connotations or even different meanings in the two borrowing cultures.

An important implication of the concept of translation loss is that it embraces any non-replication of an ST, whether this involves losing features in the TT or adding them. Such losses are very common. Sometimes the nature of the translation brief may call for explicitly inclusive language.

After all, the examples we have just used almost always involved gain in some respect: economy, vividness, avoidance of ambiguity, etc. Added features in the TT, however desirable, are tangible differences from the ST, and in our view should be registered as translation loss. And the effort to minimize difference, to save ST elements from disappearance, requires a closer attention to the properties of the text. To know what can and should be saved, one has to know what features are there, and what their functions are.

As some of the examples in this chapter suggest, if translation loss is inevitable even in translating single words, it is obviously going to feature at more complex levels as well — in respect of sentence structure, for example, or discourse, and so on. There is no need to give further examples of these just now: plenty will arise, chapter by chapter, as we deal with these and other topics.

This is where the classroom advantages of the translation loss approach lead directly to its advantages for the practising translator. There is no once-and-for-all answer to questions like these. The answer will Preliminaries to translation as a product 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 1 2 3 4 25 depend every time on the translation brief, the nature of the target audience, and what role the textual feature has in its context. Taking the published TT printed below the ST as a whole, place it on the scale of degrees of freedom given on p. Taking the detail of the TT, discuss the main differences between it and the ST, paying special attention to cases where it incurs, or manages to avoid, unacceptable translation loss.

Where you think the TT can be improved, give your own revised version and explain the revision. The A8 is a model of car. Er verleiht der leichtgewichtigen Luxuslimousine den Charakter eines Spitzensportlers: Moderate Verbrauchswerte 26 10 15 20 25 5 10 15 20 Thinking German translation und hohe Laufkultur machen den A8 4. Das maximale Drehmoment, das zwischen 1. Audi a: 20 Published TT Another landmark achievement in diesel technology for Audi Substantial torque, high performance, and outstanding acceleration and pulling power: all characteristics of a top athlete. The latest remarkable example is the new 4.

It lends this lightweight luxury saloon the attributes of a top athlete. The V8 TDI engine in the Audi A8 is currently the highest-powered, highest-torque V8 diesel engine in any production saloon car, developing kW bhp and Newton-metres of torque. Its peak torque of Newton-metres, which is achieved from engine speeds of 1, to 2, rpm, offers a quality of traction across the entire road-speed range that can otherwise only be experienced in sports cars. The 4. Your tutor will tell you which of the TTs to discuss.

Taking each TT as a whole, place it on the scale of degrees of freedom given on p. Taking the detail of each TT, discuss the main differences between it and the ST, paying special attention to cases where it incurs, or manages to avoid, unacceptable translation loss. Tjaden goes off into a hut so as to keep out of trouble. The others fall to reminiscing about their schooldays and wonder what, if anything, they learned at school. ST Wir erheben uns.

Raus mit der Sprache. Er versucht es andersherum. Ich gehe in die Baracke und sage Tjaden Bescheid, damit er verschwindet. Dann wechseln wir unsern Platz und lagern uns wieder, um Karten zu spielen. Niemand beachtet ihn. Er fragt nach Tjaden. Wir zucken die Achseln. Immerhin traut er sich in diesem Punkte nicht ganz und kommt uns entgegen. Das sind die Geschosse der Flaks. Da waren wir gestern. Auf Leute wie Sie haben wir hier gerade gewartet. Remarque 68—9 TT i We get up. No one knows, of course. Himmelstoss glowers at us wrathfully. Out with it!

He tries another way. He disappears. Then we change our possy and lie down again to play cards. Not much for twenty years;—and yet too much for twenty years. Half an hour later Himmelstoss is back again. Nobody pays any attention to him. He asks for Tjaden. We shrug our shoulders. Those are anti-aircraft.

We were over there yesterday. Five dead and eight wounded. Please may I hop it? Remarque —2 TT ii We stand up. Himmelstoss glares angrily at us. Come on, out with it. He tries a different tack. I go off to the hut to warn Tjaden, so that he can disappear. We shift along a bit, then lie down again to play cards.

Because that is what we are good at: playing cards, swearing and making war. Not much for twenty years — too much for twenty years. Half an hour later, Himmelstoss is back. Nobody takes any notice of him. He asks where Tjaden is. Himmelstoss is thunderstruck. Five dead, eight wounded.

And that was actually an easy one. Permission to fall down dead, sir! Remarque 63—5 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 3 Cultural issues in translation In this chapter, we complete the introduction to translation loss by looking at cultural transposition. We shall use this term to cover the main types and degrees of departure from literal translation that may be resorted to in transferring the contents of an ST from one culture into another.

For it should never be forgotten that translating involves not just two languages, but a transfer from one whole culture to another. To that extent, the degrees of freedom considered on pp. With the exception of a period of three years at the beginning of her married life, she spent the rest of her days in Altenburg where she had grown up. Most of her poetry takes exactly that form we outlined above as virtually pre-determined in the case of a woman writer of the period: it consists either of religious verse on Biblical or other pious topics or of occasional poetry, written for funerals, weddings and birth- The early modern period days or in the form of tributes to acquaintances and friends.

What strikes the reader is the extent to which her mind is preoccupied with the theme of death to a degree unusual even for a Baroque poet. Not only is there a large number of references to death, even in the birthday poems for her husband, and of poems on the topic itself but a heart-rending intensity is revealed in her treatment of the subject. Remarkable in this regard is the series of poems on the deaths of her own children, whose names and precise ages to the day she lists in her curriculum vitae. She had fourteen pregnancies of which only one child, her daughter Margaretha Elisabeth, lived to adulthood.

Two of the pregnancies ended in miscarriages, two were stillbirths, two were premature and no less than five others died at less than a year old. Two others died aged seven and nine respectively. In a skilfully turned poem she compares the courage needed by the warrior Agamemnon in battle with the far greater courage needed to cope with the loss of his child, and then contrasts herself, now the mother of nine dead children, both to Agamemnon and to Timantes, who like herself, is attempting to depict grief in art.

If he was unable to limn the pain of another, how can she present her own heartbreak? It is clear that these women were active in various non-conformist religious groups throughout the seventeenth century, something we have already seen in the case of Hoyers. One of the best-known of these spiritual autobiographies is that of the noblewoman Johanna von Merlau, more commonly known by her married name of Johanna Eleonore Petersen. For her this outward narrative is the framework for what really concerns her, namely, her spiritual development.

She learns to depend absolutely on God and to see His hand in all things and as her spirituality becomes more and more inward and her own inclinations more ascetic, she finds the social role she is required to play, for instance, at court, deeply distasteful. Had either of these women belonged to a different religious grouping, the convent would have been the obvious refuge. Johanna von Merlau, however, has to marry and her struggle to accomplish this and yet remain true to her religious ideals constitutes a constant thread in her narrative. Once she is married to Petersen and can express her spirituality in sympathetic surroundings, she then develops visionary and prophetic gifts.

As an exploration of emotions and spirituality and in its insistence on their primacy over the happenings of daily life, this autobiography anticipates the eighteenth century. She addresses her memoirs ostensibly to her children but maintains that her intention is not didactic. Rather she is writing in order to commune with herself, to have someone to talk to in the loneliness of her widowhood. The sheer length of her account means that the reader is given a full and detailed picture of the customs, religious observance and daily life of the German Jewish community of her day.

She displays the same piety, the same trust in God, the same resignation in adversity as her Christian contemporaries, but in contrast to them was clearly treated by her husband as an equal partner in his business with whom he discussed every negotiation, every financial deal, to such an extent that she was able to take over the business on his death. Prose fiction by women in this period takes second place behind the autobiographical writings just discussed.

Julia, for instance, maintains that since the novel is a form of literature which actually purveys lies, women are particularly susceptible to corruption by it. Virtuous books present wise and true precepts in a pleasing and digestible manner. The debate is decided in favour of Angelika. Sibylle Ursula delayed marrying to devote herself to her writing. Among other things she translated one of the Latin writings of the Spanish Humanist Juan de Vives into German and wrote a five-act play and a series of spiritual meditations Geistliches Kleeblatt, but it is for her contribution to the novel that she is chiefly known today.

It is thought that when Sibylle Ursula married belatedly in at the age of thirty-four she handed her work over to her brother who revised and reordered parts of it, added to it and gave it to his old tutor Sigmund von Birken to edit. In the year of their marriage she and her husband published the first volume of the pastoral novel Die Kunst-und Tugend-gezierte Macarie The artistic and virtuous Macarie , in which to an extent they describe their own love story. The novel tells the history of the shepherd Polyphilus who sets off to find honour and falls in love with the beautiful and learned Macarie.

Before he can win her, however, he must first learn to see through the sham glamour of court life and the emptiness of power before he can retreat to the commu- The early modern period nity of shepherds and live a life of virtue and literary endeavour with his beloved Macarie. If the first part was the work of both the Stockfleths, the second part, which appeared in , was written by Maria Katharina alone and is generally agreed to be both more profound in its ideas and of much greater literary merit than the first part on which the couple collaborated. If there is little prose fiction by women in this period, there is even less drama.

The only milieu which was at all propitious in this regard was the court. It is untitled and not quite finished but is modelled on the martyr dramas of the age in which a virtuous woman, exposed to the untrammelled lust and unscrupulous wiles of an evil man, is prepared to lose her life rather than her virtue. Though only twenty-two at the time of her marriage, she took her role as step-mother to four young children, as wife of a man of learning and artistic interests and as consort to the ruler of a duchy very seriously.

She herself composed and wrote and was a central figure in the cultural life of the court. She was also the author of a considerable quantity of religious verse. The first of these is a short opera: there is the libretto and the music for a ballet on the theme of Time, there are the scenarios and the music for three masquerades, in which a costumed procession of the ducal family and courtiers, a ballet or short opera and a banquet are all linked together in one presentation. Lastly there is the five-act prose drama Ein Freudenspiel von dem itzigen betrieglichen Zustande in der Welt A comedy on the present deceitful way of the world; In his discussion of Ein Freudenspiel in the same article Roloff points out that the Duchess is here using drama to analyse and pass judgement on one of the burning issues of her day: the exercise of power by an Absolutist prince within the framework of a virtuous life and Christian precepts.

Sophie Elisabeth sets up two princes and two courts, the one Machiavellian, scheming, violent and unscrupulous, the other peace-loving, just and honourable and shows how, in spite of a series of intrigues, virtue wins out in the end. It is an allegorical and didactic drama which is doubly fascinating because it reflects with great subtlety the political theories of the day and because it is written by the consort of a ruler to be performed in front of him and his court by, among others, his own children, future rulers and consorts of rulers themselves.

But much material in manuscript form is still to be unearthed in court archives. Given the difficulties faced by sixteenth- and seventeenth-century women who wanted to write, it seems almost a miracle that they wrote at all. With a considerable admixture of nationalist feeling, the three authors want to prove that German women are as capable of learning and literary talent as those of any nation.

The Enlightenment is on the horizon. Part II The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries lesley sharpe 3 The Enlightenment The period covered in this chapter saw the decisive emergence of the female writer and of a female reading public. Literacy expanded considerably in the German states during the eighteenth century, including literacy among women, whose education had frequently been neglected, and the reading of imaginative literature as a leisure activity gained respectability among the expanding middle classes.

Whereas at the beginning of the period even literate women rarely read anything beyond household manuals or works of religious edification, by the end of the eighteenth century male commentators were voicing concern about the sorry effects of the Lesewut reading mania that had gripped the female middle classes. The period to was a time of change in the traditional image of woman and the roles ascribed to her. In the first half of the century, it was fully accepted that men should have authority over women and that in the hierarchy of the household women should be subordinate.

In the predominantly rural and small-town communities in the German states the nuclear family had not yet developed and women were important to the economic success of the extended household see Hausen ; the skill, industry, thrift and practical sense of the German Hausmutter were greatly prized. Thus popular channels of Enlightenment thinking, for example the moral weeklies modelled on English periodicals such as The Spectator and The Tatler, took up the cause of the improvement of education and the expansion of edifying reading [47] 48 lesley sharpe for women see Martens.

By the end of the century the ideal middle-class woman was gebildet, acquainted with a range of imaginative and informative literature, though anything but gelehrt, academic or learned. Yet by the end of the century women found themselves in a new kind of straitjacket. The ideal image of woman was now based on the mother of the nuclear family, a social unit that was becoming increasingly the norm as town life and the professional middle class expanded.

The wife of the lawyer, professor, administrator or magistrate was not economically active but rather responsible for the good management of the household and for the creation of domestic warmth and harmony. She was now to be more of a companion to her husband, and a source of basic education and emotional stability to their children. The nature of the relationship between the sexes became the subject of intense discussion. Secular ideas based on the emerging scientific disciplines and supported by theories of education and political and social development those of Rousseau being perhaps the most influential displaced old religious prejudices against women but introduced new stereotypes.

The relationship between the sexes was held to be one of complementarity, and accompanying this notion was an increasingly rigid conception of the contrasting sets of attributes of the sexes, often known as Geschlechtscharaktere. Anatomy, physiology and anthropology were used to support the notion that women were essentially different from men not only in body but also in mind and should pursue only those activities compatible with their calling Bestimmung as Gattin, Hausfrau und Mutter spouse, housewife and mother.

The resulting theories of the separate spheres of male and female activity, which determined the relations between the sexes well into the twentieth century, sprang from this intense preoccupation with gender roles in the later part of the eighteenth century. Thus, while literacy and reading among women greatly increased in the second half of the century, new culturally determined restrictions were being placed on the exercise of that literacy.

The great expansion of the reading public in Germany brought an intensive preoccupation on the part of male writers with aesthetics and the poetological assumptions underlying literary creation. Though women were writing and publishing in ever greater numbers by the last decades of the century, recognition of their achievements was hampered by the changing theories of literature, from the idea of poetry as a craft The Enlightenment that could be learned to the more inspirational model culminating in the Geniekult.

As the emphasis shifted increasingly to the psyche of the artist and to the particular confluence of conscious and unconscious, of reason and imagination in the act of creation, so women were increasingly excluded. Women might show evidence of skill and talent within the lesser genres but genius, the divine spark, tended to be regarded as vouchsafed exclusively to men see Battersby, esp. Women writers in the eighteenth century constantly had to manoeuvre for the space left them by male writers and literary arbiters, basing the justification for their participation in literary activity on the didactic value of their work.

While they are represented in the lyric and the drama, women particularly exploited the novel, the didactic short story and the lively and well-written letter, forms that were more fluid and lower in the hierarchy of genres, and their exponents therefore arguably less of a threat to male writers. Christiana Mariana von Ziegler grew up in a wealthy and prominent Leipzig family.

By the age of twentyseven she was a widow twice over and had lost also the two children from her marriages. Having returned to her parental home in Leipzig, she was in the position as a wealthy widow to make that home a meeting place for the literary and musical world. She furnished Bach, who came to take up his position as Kantor of the Thomasschule in , with the texts for a number of his cantatas.

One of the literary figures she helped to prominence was the young scholar Johann Christoph Gottsched, who was determined to raise the status of German language and literature by a programme of reform. Her first collection of poetry, Versuch in Gebundener Schreib-Art An exercise in verse , was published in In she published a collection of letters, Moralische und Vermischte Send-Schreiben.

Addressed to several of her good and close friends , and in Vermischte Schriften in gebundener und ungebundener Rede Miscellaneous writings in verse and prose.


As all our examples have suggested, the dividing lines between gist, exegesis, translation and comment are often blurred. Then we change our possy and lie down again to play cards. We can illustrate the difference with a simple example: I was getting hungry. Women were increasingly required by the end of the century to be gebildet, that is cultivated and moderately well-read. Allah ist der Name des einen Gottes im Islam. Beitrag nicht abgeschickt - E-Mail Adresse kontrollieren! For women, however, the promise of the Revolution, as of the Enlightenment, remained largely unfulfilled.

Her collections of poems range from religious verse to occasional poems, pastoral poems and satirical and didactic verse. You may rave wildly and bellow like the hound of hell — they will sit undisturbed on fair Pindus. Ziegler herself had to suffer a good deal of ridicule and invective the more she came to prominence. Send-Schreiben, p. In this same letter she even goes as far as to suggest that women should not be excluded from professional and public life, the reward most men have from their studies.

This was a profoundly revolutionary idea, however, and if she had clung to it she would no doubt have lost the sympathy of the male supporters on whom she and all women who wished to publish depended. Brought up in an educated middle-class family, she rebelled in both word and deed against the roles she felt were forced on women.

Her main collection of poetry, Poetische Rosen in Knospen Poetic rosebuds; , shows her fluency and versatility in the German language. It contains many conventional religious and occasional poems but also indicates her conscious adoption of unconventional personae. She first came to fame as the result of a poem written in praise of Prince Eugene and his Hussars.

Her life too reflected this desire for expansion out of the conventional female roles. It was on one such ride that she drowned while crossing a bridge. Drama and theatre In the first half of the eighteenth century two women were of decisive importance in laying the foundations of a renaissance of the German 51 52 lesley sharpe theatre.

Both were allies of the dominant literary arbiter, Gottsched, but both were superior to him in imagination and literary talent.

  1. A History of Women's Writing in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
  2. Thinking German Translation?
  3. Meaning of "Godthåb" in the German dictionary.

Caroline Neuber was the daughter of an Erfurt lawyer, whose harshness drove her to flee from home in with her suitor, later her husband, Johann Neuber, and join the Spiegelberg troupe of actors. These latter catered for the limited artistic demands of their audiences with a mixture of low comedies and historical costume dramas the Haupt- und Staatsaktion , with comic interludes provided by the ubiquitous comic figure, whether the Italianate Harlekin or the indigenous Hanswurst. There were few fixed texts; the actors worked to a scenario and improvised in accordance with it. The life of the actor or actress was extremely insecure.

Competition between the travelling companies was fierce, and actresses had a dubious moral reputation; in the court theatres they provided a source of mistresses for the ruling aristocracy. Even before she met Gottsched, Frau Neuber had already begun to try to raise the quality of the theatre by using fixed texts, though she was reputedly a very skilled extemporizer. Gottsched had taken upon himself the reform of the theatre, with the aim of bringing literary drama and the stage together in Germany in order to create the conditions for a flowering of German drama based on classical principles, to which end he encouraged translations of the works of the French classical stage to supply the company with plays.

Caroline Neuber provided the perfect ally for him. Not only did she subject herself and her company to the discipline of learning fixed texts, and verse texts to boot, but she tried to introduce a less florid acting style to complement the elevated tone of the plays. Eduard Devrient credits her with the creation of the first German school of acting Devrient, p. For all her reforming zeal, though, Frau Neuber remained flexible. The reformed repertoire was not large enough to sustain the troupe, so she retained some of the old plays, cleansed of their vulgarity and of some The Enlightenment of their low comedy.

Yet it was a daring enterprise to challenge and educate the taste of the theatre-going public. Audiences began to desert her, and a few years later she broke with Gottsched. The revival of German theatrical life from the s onwards is nevertheless a tribute to the efforts of Caroline Neuber, and if by her last years on the stage her style seemed old-fashioned this is proof of how far the reforms had been successful.

She ended her days, though, in very reduced circumstances, dependent on the charity of well-wishers. As the daughter of a Danzig doctor, Luise Culmus enjoyed a much wider and more intellectually adventurous education than most girls of her station, learning English, French, geography, mathematics and music from members of her family. Her correspondence with Gottsched before their marriage shows her maturity, intelligence and willingness to learn, but also — and this quality is evident to the end of her life — her subordination of all her talents and energies to him.

For Gottsched comedy was primarily satirical and aimed to ridicule human shortcomings with the purpose of correcting them and encouraging wisdom and virtue. He also demanded a certain realism in speech, commensurate with the lower social standing of comic, as opposed to tragic, figures. The unities must be observed, the time of the action ideally not running over about ten hours.

A History of Women's Writing in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

The play must have five acts and involve an element of mystery or intrigue that is resolved at the end. Her plots are, in the main, too simple to sustain a five-act play. She retains to some extent the use of comic names to denote virtues and vices, and yet in probably her best original comedy, Das Testament The Will , she tries to move beyond black and white contrasts and point the moral in more conciliatory terms.

While the pretensions of the Dorfjunker are made to look ridiculous, the chief lesson has to be learned by Herr Wilibald, who is finally persuaded that his desire to marry above himself is foolish and unnecessary in a man of his talents and wealth. The implication is that the sensible and unpretentious German family has virtues enough without adopting foreign manners. Das Testament deals with the attempts of a brother and sister to secure a handsome legacy from their wealthy aunt. Their sister, the sensible and honourable Caroline, treats her aunt with honesty and respect and is rewarded with a legacy when the will is read, though the aunt confounds them all by deciding in the end to remarry.

These qualities are also evident in her most famous adaptation, Die Pietisterey im Fischbeinrocke. Frau Gottsched transposes the action with complete success to Germany and aims the satire at the Pietists, who were influential in her native Danzig. So controversial was the subject matter that the play, published anonymously, was not only never performed but was actually banned in some states. Her attitudes as reflected in her writings and in her letters are conservative. What one might tentatively say is that comedy gave her the opportunity to show some female characters as more independent and less governed by social custom than most actual women could afford to be.

No women later in the century left such a mark on theatre and drama as Frau Neuber and Frau Gottsched. Women continued to be active, however, both on the stage and as dramatists. Actresses wrote for the professional theatre and women wrote for the flourishing amateur theatrical life, but little of this work was published, and what was published usually appeared anonymously or was presented as a translation.

It was not until well into the nineteenth century that the work of women dramatists became essential to the theatrical repertoire. The emergence of letter-writing The period to saw the large-scale expansion of letter-writing, with both men and women conducting vast correspondences, often with people they never met face to face. The letter became a demanding and 55 56 lesley sharpe cultivated form of writing in an age in which the development of the affective life and the cult of friendship brought an increased need to communicate thoughts and feelings.

The Pietist tradition had also left a legacy of reflection and self-examination that found expression in the letter. As a culture of letter-writing emerged, women were frequently encouraged to put their literary talents to use in this activity and they often excelled at the spontaneous, lively, communicative letter.

Both Gottsched and, more influentially, Gellert saw women as having the simplicity and directness of style to make the letter combine naturalness and literary value. Of the vast quantities of letters written by women, only a small fraction survives. These, however, provide increasing evidence as the century progresses of the accomplishment of women in this genre; and this becomes even more apparent in the Romantic period.

Naturally, the cultivation of a correspondence was confined to the aristocracy and the prosperous middle classes. Letters provided then as now a means of maintaining friendships. Travel for women was uncommon and difficult and letters helped to enlarge the world for female correspondents. They also gave women the opportunity to report and reflect on their daily existence and relationships and thus provided a means of self-expression. The letter created also a small public for its writer, for apart from such private matters as love letters, it was rarely written for the recipient only, but was passed round, read aloud in excerpts and passages were even copied.

We can see the change in the possibilities of the letter as a communication of the personality and affective life if we look at the first published collection of letters by a German woman. In fact they still owe much to an older school of letter-writing that laid stress on discussion of an issue and logical composition. The recipients of the letters are not named because the interest is in the issues rather than in the personalities — whether girls should be allowed to study, how to bring up children, whether quarrels over rank are important, whether it is important for sons to be sent abroad.

The letters combine a lively style with practical wisdom but by comparison with letters written later in the century are anything but personal confessions. Ziegler was concerned to show that women could write a sensible, intelligent and entertaining letter. The Enlightenment While Ziegler was publishing that first collection, young Luise Culmus had embarked on her correspondence with her future husband, Gottsched. These letters were recognized as fine examples of the genre by her husband but she forbade publication during her lifetime.

They show a serious but also witty and intelligent correspondent, whose letters are written in a precise and elegant style. Her early letters show her eagerness to learn from her prominent suitor, her willingness to respond to his guidance in the matter of her reading and also her deference to his opinion.

While responding in a lively manner to all his reading suggestions, she is quickly put in her place if she oversteps the mark and she accepts this. In her later letters to her friend Dorothea von Runckel Frau Gottsched shows a much greater need to unburden herself.

Briefe, vol. My summer is past; the rough autumn gathers the fruits of the seasons past and I have no desire to linger long into the rapidly approaching winter. Yet such was the resonance for the next generation of their relationship that she became almost a mythical figure. Meta Moller came from a well-situated Hamburg family. While her two elder sisters made conventional marriages, Meta opted for the unusual course of marrying for love a man who had no recognized profession.

Though she never strove to be learned, she was well-read and intelligent, and her letters and posthumously published writings show her own, sadly undeveloped, poetic talent. All of her letters reflect her ability to capture her mood and to speak with an arresting directness to the recipient, but it is in her correspondence with Klopstock that we see her creating in the letter form a method of capturing an intense emotional 57 58 lesley sharpe relationship. What gave the Klopstock—Meta relationship its power for future generations was the combination of romantic love and religious sentiment.

Their letters, and hers to him in particular, are evidence of a communion of souls in which the reciprocity of love is woven together with Christian spirituality. Thank goodness that at least I still have that. But how infinitely sweeter it would be to have you with me! I miss you most of all when I come home in the evening, for I am catching up now on all the visits I neglected on your account. O how inexpressibly sweet it was to know that I would find you in my room!

Meta helped to establish a correspondence between her husband and the English novelist some few months before her death and her letters to Richardson show how even in a foreign language she was able to convey spontaneity and depth of feeling: Though I love my friends dearly, and though they are good, I have however much to pardon except in the single Klopstock alone. He is good, really good, good at the bottom, in all his actions, in all the foldings of his heart. I know him; and sometimes I think if we knew others in the same manner the better we should find them.

2.1. Sichem in den Patriarchenerzählungen

Gott der Allmächtige: Das letzte Testament: Erinnerungen (German Edition) - Kindle edition by David Javerbaum. Download it once and read it on your Kindle . Did you mean got her allmächtige: das letzte testament - david javerbaum · Gott der Allmächtige: Das letzte Testament: Erinnerungen (German Edition). by David .

For it may be that an action displeases us which would please us, if we knew its true aim and whole extent. None of my friends is so happy as I am; but no one had the courage to marry as I did. They have married, — as people marry; and they are happy, — as people are happy. Briefwechsel vol. The Enlightenment Better known for her patriotic odes, religious and occasional poems and for her gift of rapid improvisation, she fascinated Berlin society when she was brought there in from her native Silesia. Born into humble circumstances, and neglected by her mother on account of her plainness, she was taught to read and write as a child by a great-uncle.

Divorced by her first husband in possibly the first divorce among subjects of her station in Prussia , she was forced to leave her home and her two children, while already expecting a third child. Under family pressure she then married a tailor who drank, fathered four children and beat her. Through commissions for occasional poems she began to use her extraordinary facility for writing verses to supplement her meagre income.

The emergence of this Naturtalent aroused great curiosity in Berlin. She gained the support of the philosopher Sulzer and of the poets Ramler and Gleim, the latter a constant friend and adviser in spite of the difficulties caused in the early months of their relationship by her unrequited love for him. It was he who attached to her the name of the German Sappho and tried to secure her financial future by having an edition of her collected poems printed in It brought in 2, Thalers, more than any literary work before it, though that windfall did not in fact guarantee her an easy life and she frequently suffered acute shortages of money thereafter.

The designation of Anna Luise Karsch as a Naturtalent sprang from the longing in some literary circles for a poetry that was not the product of learned deliberation and the study of rules, and from the desire to believe in a pre-civilized world, where poetry sprang spontaneously from the lips of the poet. Her letters to Sulzer describing her earlier life are stylized to fit that idealized vision of country life.

Once introduced by Gleim to the language of rococo dalliance, Karsch takes this into her poetry and her letters to him. Yet it is clear that for her this is not mere role-playing, and her own emotions break through the gallant language. When Gleim makes it clear that he does not intend an actual romantic involvement her pain is evident in her directness: Sagen Sie von Ihrer kalten Freundschaft, was Sie wollen.

Gedichte, p. The word love was there before the word friendship, and to me it has such sweetness in it that I must give it preference. Take care never to make love ridiculous in my eyes again! Now that I am no longer spurred on to write poetry to provide my next meal nothing has the overwhelming power to inspire me so much as love. Yet her ability to make verses on any and every occasion was for others what made her a Naturtalent. In fact, her most prominent poems, for example her odes to Frederick the Great, owe more to the Baroque tradition than to any spontaneous style of her own, genuine though her veneration for the king might have been.

The arguments surrounding Anna Luise Karsch illustrate well the poetological controversies of the day. They indicate also how difficult it was for her contemporaries to place her and their consequent tendency to overlook what was really of value in her work. The healthy man is wasteful with the juice of the grape; to the lips of sick man the wine he cannot drink tastes refreshing even in his dreams. Sophie La Roche and the emergence of the woman novelist Sophie La Roche is a key figure in the emergence of the German woman of letters.

She was also, with Anna Luise Karsch, one of the first German women whose writing was an important source of income for her family and thus her career brings us into the period when a reading public was forming, whose interests and tastes increasingly shaped what was offered by publishers. Though famous in her day, Sophie La Roche was neglected after her death by the nineteenth-century literary historians whose judgements formed the canon of eighteenth-century works, because much of her output was primarily for women readers and was often didactic in intention.

Yet her energy and range are impressive. However, it is true that her style seemed old-fashioned as time passed and her range of tone and expression was limited. Sophie La Roche enjoyed the benefits of being brought up in an academic family, the daughter of a doctor, who taught her to read and write. Her education was supplemented in her teens by an Italian doctor, Gian Lodovico Bianconi, a friend of her father, to whom she became engaged and who instructed her in mathematics, singing, Italian and art.

Her reading and literary interests were further cultivated by her cousin Christoph Martin Wieland, later to become one of the most prominent writers of the German Enlightenment, to whom she was engaged for a time. Though again no marriage ensued, Wieland later brought her to the public eye by encouraging her to finish and publish her first novel. She constantly returns in 61 62 lesley sharpe her work to her belief that women should acquire through suitable reading a store of useful knowledge about the world around them.

In this respect she belongs to the Enlightenment tradition, despite all the sentimental qualities of her works. For her and her heroines, moral goodness goes hand in hand with a character-building awareness of the world. It satisfied contemporary demands for a measure of realism, some depth of psychological motivation and an appeal to the emotions, while providing outer action that was fast-moving and exciting. It is fitting that the first great novelistic success for a woman should come from a novel in letter form, for, leaving aside the influence of Richardson, the letter was, as we have seen, a type of writing in which women in the eighteenth century excelled and which gained from naturalness and liveliness of style.