The reliable supply of molybdenum Mo and its decay product, technetiumm Tcm , is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes — which cannot be effectively stored — can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, Mo producing, research reactors and processing facilities.
These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. It finds that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing Mo or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure.
To assist governments and other decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure. The study will also enhance understanding amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying Mo and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market.
Dans le secteur energetique, les politiques de developpement durable doivent reposer sur une evaluation comparative des differentes options, tenant compte des aspects economiques, environnementaux et sociaux, a l'echelle locale, regionale et globale. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. What new technologies will they have to choose from? Senior energy policy makers and industry executives from OECD Member countries contributed these analyses. Medicinal and nutritional value of the trees and shrubs is shared with visitors to the Centre. The potential role of nuclear energy in this context is viewed very differently and assessed against various criteria by the range of stakeholders in governments and civil society according to their interests and priorities.
This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders. Nuclear accident risks are raised frequently in discussions of the acceptability of nuclear power generation, often framed in the context of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. In reality, the safety record of nuclear power plants, by comparison with other electricity generation sources, is very good. This report describes how safety has been enhanced in nuclear power plants over the years, as the designs have progressed from Generation I to Generation III, and why it is important that safety remain the highest priority.
This is illustrated by considering core damage frequencies and large radioactive release frequencies for each generation of nuclear power plants.
It also compares severe accident data those resulting in five or more fatalities between different energy sources, both for immediate fatalities and for delayed latent fatalities, recognising that the latter data are often more difficult to estimate. Finally, it uses results of opinion surveys to analyse public confidence in nuclear operations and how this is correlated with trust in legislation and regulatory systems.
It has been written for a general audience. With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry — the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors — is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future.
Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January , as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements.
It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres around the world, as well as from countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years.
Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance the role of nuclear power in a sustainable energy future. It presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas with and without carbon capture , nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power CHP. It provides levelised costs of electricity LCOE per MWh for almost plants, based on data covering 21 countries including four major non-OECD countries , and several industrial companies and organisations.
For the first time, the report contains an extensive sensitivity analysis of the impact of variations in key parameters such as discount rates, fuel prices and carbon costs on LCOE. Additional issues affecting power generation choices are also examined. The study shows that the cost competitiveness of electricity generating technologies depends on a number of factors which may vary nationally and regionally.
Readers will find full details and analyses, supported by over figures and tables, in this report which is expected to constitute a valuable tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies and climate change. This report provides a number of insights into public attitudes towards nuclear power.
Support for nuclear energy is generally correlated with the level of experience of and knowledge about nuclear power. Interestingly, while the public is generally aware of the contribution of nuclear power to ensuring security of energy supply, its potential contribution to combating climate change is less well recognised. Solving the waste disposal issue would also significantly increase the level of public support.
Many countries have recognised that greater use of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, given the high capital cost and complexity of nuclear power plants, financing their construction often remains a challenge. This is especially true where such financing is left to the private sector in the context of competitive electricity markets.
This study examines the financial risks involved in investing in a new nuclear power plant, how these can be mitigated, and how projects can be structured so that residual risks are taken by those best able to manage them. Given that expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the study highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear generating capacity.
This comprehensive overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field. The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply, which could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation, enhances the attractiveness of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles.
This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, aiming at providing guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios. The topics covered in this book will be of interest to government and nuclear industry policy makers as well as to specialists working on nuclear energy system analyses and advanced fuel cycle issues. World energy demand continues to grow unabated and is leading to very serious concerns about security of supply, soaring energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption.
Nuclear energy is being increasingly seen as having a role to play in addressing these concerns. This Outlook uses the most current data and statistics available and provides projections up to to consider growth scenarios and potential implications on the future use of nuclear energy. It also offers unique analyses and recommendations on the possible challenges that lie ahead. Nuclear power plants require a wide variety of specialised equipment, materials and services for their construction, operation and fuelling.
There has been much consolidation and retrenchment in the nuclear industry since the s, with the emergence of some large global nuclear companies. Electricity market liberalisation in many OECD countries has meanwhile placed nuclear plant operators under increased competitive pressure. These structural changes in both the producer and consumer sides of the nuclear industry have had implications for the level of competition in the nuclear engineering and fuel cycle markets.
With renewed expansion of nuclear power now anticipated, this study examines competition in the major nuclear industry sectors at present, and how this may change with a significant upturn in demand. This comprehensive overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle is an authoritative reference for policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field. With several countries building nuclear power plants and many more considering the use of nuclear power to produce electricity in order to meet rising demand, the uranium industry has become the focus of considerable attention.
In response to rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of underinvestment. It is based on official information received from 40 countries. This 22nd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1st January , as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements.
This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste HLW disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully.
This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. In the context of sustainable development policies, decision making in the energy sector should be based on carefully designed trade-offs which take into account, insofar as feasible, all of the alternative options' advantages and drawbacks from the economic, environmental and social viewpoints.
This report examines various aspects of nuclear and other energy chains for generating electricity, and provides illustrative examples of quantitative and qualitative indicators for those chains with regard to economic competitiveness, environmental burdens such as air emissions and solid waste streams and social aspects including employment and health impacts.
This report will be of interest to policy makers and analysts in the energy and electricity sectors. It offers authoritative data and references to published literature on energy chain analysis which can be used in support of decision making. The compilation gives readers a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, providing authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field.
Interest in nuclear energy continues to grow in many countries as a means to ensure security of energy supply and to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector. In this context, recyclable materials constitute an asset for broadening the resource base for nuclear fuel supply, especially in medium- and long-term perspectives. This report provides an overview of recyclable fissile and fertile materials inventories which can be reused as nuclear fuel.
The potential energetic value of recyclable materials is assessed, taking into account the variability of retrievable energy contents of various materials according to technology and strategy choices made by the owners of the materials. The analyses contained in this report will be of particular interest to energy policy makers and to nuclear fuel cycle experts.
Innovation has been a driving force in the successful deployment of nuclear energy and remains essential today for its sustainable future. As nuclear energy is an attractive option for ensuring diversity and security of energy supply, as well as lower global climate change risks, the way to continue this innovation is a key issue for industry and interested governments.
For greater innovation in the nuclear area to be realised, more in-depth discussions on ways and means for promoting nuclear innovation are crucial, and enhanced knowledge of nuclear innovation systems is required. This report provides an overview of the state of the art in nuclear innovation systems, including their driving forces, main actors, institutional and legal frameworks, and infrastructure for knowledge and programme management.
It also offers policy recommendations based on country reports and case studies supplied by participating member countries. This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation LTO. It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management.
The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. Over the 40 years of its existence, the Red Book has collected an impressive quantity of official data supplied by governments. The Red Book Retrospective was undertaken to collect, collate, analyse and publish all of the key information collected in the 20 editions of the Red Book published between and Additionally, every effort has been made to fill in gaps in the record to provide the most complete and exhaustive information possible.
As a result, the Red Book Retrospective gives a full historical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resources, production, reactor-related requirements, inventories and price. It provides in-depth information relating to the histories of the major uranium-producing countries including Australia, Canada, France, Germany including the former German Democratic Republic , the Russian Federation including the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States.
For the first time, for example, a comprehensive look at annual and cumulative production and demand of uranium since the inception of the atomic age is possible.
Besides reporting and documenting the historical data, expert analyses provide fresh insights into important aspects of the industry including: the cost of discovery, resources to production ratios and the time to reach production after discovery, among others. Taken together, the Red Book Retrospective provides the most complete record of the uranium industry publicly available, dating from the birth of civilian nuclear energy through to the dawn of the 21st century.
Jeder, der sich mit der Zukunft dieser bedeutenden Technologie auseinander zu setzen sucht, stellt sich folgende Fragen: — Wie sicher ist Kernenergie? Interest in nuclear energy is growing significantly in many OECD member countries with the construction of new plants, new plans for nuclear futures along with innovations in enrichment and reprocessing. This and other insights related to nuclear energy can be found in Nuclear Energy Data, the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics to on nuclear energy in OECD countries.
The compilation provides readers with a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle. For many politicians and members of the public, the very long life of some of the radio-nuclides in radioactive waste is an issue of particular importance in terms of its ultimate disposal.
The developing techniques of partitioning isolating specific radioactive elements and transmutation re-irradiating them in order to convert them to shorter-lived or stable elements hold the promise of eliminating or greatly reducing the long-lived radioactivity, bringing with it other technical benefits.
In France, the Waste Act required inter alia a research and development programme on partitioning and transmutation, with a milestone for review in This report presents the findings from that review, which was conducted by ten of the foremost international experts in the field.
This study analyses a range of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options from the perspective of their effect on radioactive waste management policies. It presents various fuel cycle options which illustrate differences between alternative technologies, but does not purport to cover all foreseeable future fuel cycles. The analysis extends the work carried out in previous studies, assesses the fuel cycles as a whole, including all radioactive waste generated at each step of the cycles, and covers high-level waste repository performance for the different fuel cycles considered.
The estimates of quantities and types of waste arising from advanced fuel cycles are based on best available data and experts' judgement. The effects of various advanced fuel cycles on the management of radioactive waste are assessed relative to current technologies and options, using tools such as repository performance analysis and cost studies. Since the price of uranium has steadily climbed over five-fold, at a rate and reaching heights not seen since the s. As a result, the uranium industry has seen a surge of activity, ending a period of over 20 years of relative stagnation.
More than 80 papers were presented during the meeting and have been reproduced for the reader herein. It presents the reader with a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview on the status and trends in nuclear energy in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle. This publication provides authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. This sixth study in a series on projected costs of generating electricity presents and analyses cost estimates for some power and co-generation heat and power plants using coal, gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources.
Experts from 19 member countries, 2 international organisations and 3 non-OECD countries contributed to the study. Levelised lifetime costs were calculated with input data from participating experts and commonly agreed generic assumptions, using a uniform methodology. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies depends on many factors and that there is no absolute winner. Key issues related to generation costs are addressed in the report including methodologies to incorporate risk in cost assessments, impact of carbon emission trading and integration of wind power into electricity grids.
The projected costs presented are generic and do not reflect the full range of factors e. This report will be, however, a reference for energy policy makers, electricity system analysts and energy economists. Ce rapport fournit une base solide pour comprendre la production et les utilisations des isotopes radioactifs dans le monde d'aujourd'hui.
Radioactive isotopes continue to play an increasingly important role in medical diagnosis and therapy, key industrial applications and scientific research. They can be vital to the health and well-being of citizens, and contribute to the world economy. It is therefore important to understand their production and use.
This report provides a solid basis for understanding the production and use of radioisotopes in the world today. It will be of interest not only to government policy makers, but also to scientists, medical practitioners, students and industrial users. At the same time, the profit margins of electricity generators have been severely squeezed. The combined effect has led to a reduction in technical innovation and the danger of the loss of technical competencies and skills in the area.
However, because different countries are at different stages of the nuclear technology life cycle, these losses are not common to all countries, either in their nature or their extent. A competence that may have declined or been lost in one country may be strong in another. Therein lies one solution to the problems the sector faces: international collaboration. This report presents the results of an international survey on initiatives launched during recent years in the area of nuclear education and training.
Key human resource issues are discussed and many good practices regarding international collaboration are identified. The report includes an executive summary along with conclusions and recommendations aimed at policy makers and other stakeholders. It also contains an in-depth analysis of the factual information collected. This booklet, a summary of the full report, presents the main results of an international survey on initiatives launched during recent years in the area of nuclear education and training.
Key human resource issues are discussed and good practices regarding international collaboration are identified. This edition, the 20th, presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1 January based on official information received from 43 countries. Uranium Resources, Production and Demand paints a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements.
It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and for the first time, a report for Turkmenistan. Also included are international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through The long lead times required to bring resources into production underscore the importance of making timely decisions to pursue production capability well in advance of any supply shortfall.
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional graphical information as compared with previous editions allowing a rapid comparison between capacity and requirements in the various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector.
This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. The main objective of national energy policies in OECD countries is to ensure the availability of secure and economic supplies with minimal environmental impact. The means of achieving security and competitiveness in the supply of electricity differ between countries.
Some governments resort to competitive markets while others maintain ownership and apply strict economic regulation. Environmental goals are pursued by direct regulation and sometimes, for example in the case of carbon dioxide emissions from power plants, by adopting market-based approaches. This publication addresses the roles and responsibilities of governments in the field of nuclear energy, within the context of broad national policy goals, and reviews the tools available to achieve those goals. It will be of particular interest to decision makers in government and the industry, as well as to energy policy analysts and journalists.
Broad economic analysis becomes increasingly important in the context of market deregulation and integration of environmental and social aspects in policy making. External costs will remain a challenge for policy makers as long as they are not assessed and recognised in a reliable and fair way across all sectors of the economy.
This report provides insights into the internalised and external costs of nuclear-generated electricity and alternative sources. This book will be of interest to policy makers and analysts in the field of energy and electricity systems. It contains authoritative information and data that could assist in their decision-making processes as well as support more in-depth analyses and academic research.
The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a topic of increasing interest to governments and the industry as many nuclear units approach retirement. It is important in this context to assess decommissioning costs and to ensure that adequate funds are set aside to meet future financial liabilities arising after nuclear power plants are shut down.
Furthermore, understanding how national policies and industrial strategies affect those costs is essential for ensuring the overall economic effectiveness of the nuclear energy sector. This report, based upon data provided by 26 countries and analysed by government and industry experts, covers a variety of reactor types and sizes. The findings on decommissioning cost elements and driving factors in their variance will be of interest to analysts and policy makers in the nuclear energy field. Energy is the power of the world's economies, whose appetite for this commodity is increasing as the leading economies expand and developing economies grow.
How to provide the energy demanded while protecting our environment and conserving natural resources is a vital question facing us today. Many parts of our society are debating how to power the future and whether nuclear energy should play a role.
Le Developpement Conscient: Un Autre Regard Du Developpement (French Edition) eBook: Gutu Kia Zimi: lirodisa.tk: Kindle Store. Le Developpement Conscient: UN AUTRE REGARD DU DEVELOPPEMENT ( French) Language: French; ISBN ; ISBN .
Nuclear energy is a complex technology with serious issues and a controversial past. Yet it also has the potential to provide considerable benefits. In pondering the future of this imposing technology, people want to know: - How safe is nuclear energy? This publication provides authoritative and factual replies to the questions. Written primarily to inform policy makers, it will also serve interested members of the public, academics, journalists and industry leaders. While signs of a possible nuclear energy renaissance are visible worldwide, it is highly important to understand better the views of civil society on nuclear technologies, how their risks are perceived, and how to establish effective communication between all stakeholders aiming at enhancing consensus building prior to decision making.
This report is based upon an in-depth analysis of research work and published literature on risk perception and communication, public participation in policy and decision making and the evolution of public opinion on nuclear energy. It will be of interest to policy makers, governmental agencies and industry. Additionally, members of civil society and various stakeholders eager to learn more about social issues related to the development of nuclear energy will find relevant information in this report.
This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics invovled in the nuclear energy field. At the same time, this field is inherently practical, and thus of industrial relevance: indeed, protecting a piece of software against tampering, malicious modifications or reverse-engineering is a very difficult task. In this paper, we present and discuss a software obfuscation prototype tool based on the LLVM compilation suite.
Our tool is built as different passes, where some of them have been open-sourced and are freely available, that work on the LLVM Intermediate Representation IR code. This approach brings several advantages, including the fact that it is language-agnostic and mostly independent of the target architecture. Our current prototype supports basic instruction substitutions, insertion of bogus control-flow constructs mixed with opaque predicates, control-flow flattening, procedures merging as well as a code tamper-proofing algorithm embedding code and data checksums directly in the control-flow flattening mechanism.
Educational frameworks and pedagogy within social work are considerably broad-based and often relate to epistemological, ontological and methodological perspectives for developing competency. Selon Hugman , p. En citant Weedon , p. Professional self-awareness is widely considered a necessary condition for competent social work practice.
Keywords: Education philosophy, university teaching, social work training, self-knowledge, use of self. Galvani,