The range of backgrounds and expertise within our network offered many challenges as well as opportunities. The way a text is encoded will reveal something about what we believe to be important or salient about the original document. Encoding makes explicit our interpretation of a document and as such it is never a neutral process.
The same text, then, can be encoded in many different ways, drawing out features that are most relevant to our own research interests, or projects. This first step is necessary before encoding if the resulting markup is to be useful Stadler, When analysing a selection of emigrant letters, the project partners were asked to consider two key questions:.
What do different researchers use correspondence collections for? What features of the letters are considered important across the disciplines? Additionally, whereas linguists may be more interested in capturing information about the language of the document, such as spelling variations circled in red , unusual syntax circled in green , omissions or repetitions, historians, on the other hand, may be more interested in any references to people, places and significant events. There will also be contextual information that is not explicitly stated within the document content, but which is useful to capture nonetheless.
This information may be inferred from the document itself or it may be obtained from outside sources. Additionally, previous research by immigration historians suggests that Julia had five sisters, three of whom, like Julia, emigrated to America in the s and s.
Through this process it was possible to identify where there were commonalities across the disciplines and where there were differences, and, finally, where reduplication was taking place. There is not enough space to go through all of the features that were examined, so this paper will focus on just three features of the letters that were deemed to be important across the disciplines, namely: person, location and date.
The TEI provides a markup language and guidelines for working with digitised texts in the humanities. It should be noted that the markup being proposed in this paper is what was discussed and agreed on during the workshops; for the most up to date information about using TEI to model correspondence, readers should visit the Correspondence SIG wiki 4 and for example xml files, showing applications of the correspDesc proposal. There is one personography file or authority file for each person and there is one placeography file or authority file for each place.
These authority files for person and place are each given a unique identifier, which is then referred to in the markup.
Having separate personography and placeography files or authority files for each person and place makes it much easier to manage changes to related metainformation at a later date. There are different ways to capture this information within the header. However, quite often an exact date is missing and it is up to the researcher to make an educated guess as to when the letter was written. In such instances, the notBefore and notAfter attributes can be used to place the letter within an approximate timeframe:.
This metainformation can be stored in XML documents, spreadsheets or databases, and provided it is well structured, with established fields relating to sender, addressee, location and date it is relatively easy, from a technical perspective, to access and retrieve that information.
Additionally, the metainformation relating to lots of letters can be stored and retrieved at once. One might even be able to identify trends through close reading of the data in this format. Ultimately, though, very large datasets may prove hard to grasp in their entirety, and spotting trends can be virtually impossible.
Even a relatively small dataset of, for example, 5, letters, can be difficult to analyse in this way. By processing the metainformation into a graphical form it is possible to navigate the content more easily, spot trends, concentrate on particular stories within the whole, and bring together content from several different sources.
The blue dots represent destinations while the red dots represent the origins of the letters. This is an important point when looking at any visualisation: the visualisation can only reflect the dataset being analysed, including its biases. In other words, the picture is only as holistic as the collection is inclusive. This is not necessarily because there were no migrants from Asia to the USA; rather, there are no letters from Asia to the USA within our particular dataset. A simple pie chart, however, can make this clear.
Again, it is possible to take an overview of each collection.
This gives us an appreciation of when the main bulk of the letters were written for each dataset. However, by bringing in a faceted means of filtering the data, it is possible to interactively narrow down the analysis. This can be done in a number of different ways, by line-charts, area-charts, step-charts, bubble-matrices and bubble-lines.
Directed by Michael Edmonds. With Ariela Bat-Sheva, Natasha Braxton, Brieanna Brock, Carla Chiron de la Casinière. A girl from Russia comes to America and. An emigrant is a person who has participated in emigration. The Emigrants or Emigrant may refer to: The Emigrants (novel series), four novels by Swedish.
The vertical axis represents location and the horizontal axis represents time. Each bubble represents a person.
He stayed in America until at least before returning to Portadown sometime between and He then moves to Manchester, after which time there are no more letters. Data visualisation allows the user to discover new insights into some very old data, hopefully giving it a new resonance for today. It can also be very cost-effective; all these visualisations shown in this paper use open-source free technologies. In the context of European migration, the book describes the case of Latvia, which is interesting due to the multiple waves of excessive emigration, continuously high migration potential among European Union member states, and diverse migrant characteristics.
It provides a fascinating insight into the social and psychological aspects linked to migration in a comparative context. Through topics such as assimilation of children, relationships between emigrants representing different emigration waves, the complex identities and attachments of minority emigrants, and the role of culture and media in identity formation and presentation, this book addresses topics that any contemporary emigrant community is faced with.
Her research interests concern educational policy, finance and governance with specific focus on equity and equality in educational access, especially on the level of higher education.
Previously, Dr. In she studied the processes of migration as a Fulbright Research Fellow at the University of Washington. Currently her main research interests concern migration, integration, nationalism and far-right attitudes, inequality, social and political participation.
Crazy Credits. Psychology Press. Thus Kristina always looks back, while Karl Oscar looks forward. The character Max Aurach's last name, which is close to the name of his real-world inspiration, Frank Auerbach , was changed to Ferber in English translations. No trivia or quizzes yet. External Reviews. She never married.
This open access book provides insight in patterns of Latvian migration during the past 25 years An interdisciplinary enriched account on push and pull forces in contemporary diaspora transformations Discusses migration combining top-down policy and bottom-up emigrant perspectives see more benefits.