Your tongue muscles are not set in their ways forever, and you can learn the very few new sounds that your L2 requires that you learn. Time with a native, a good Youtube video explaining the sounds, and practice for a few hours may be all that you need! What is much more important, but often overlooked, is intonation —the pitch, rise, fall, and stress of your words. When I was writing my book, I interviewed fellow polyglot Luca who is very effective in adapting a convincing accent in his target languages.
For this, intonation is pivotal.
When you repeat sentences in your L2, you have to mimic the musicality of them. I was trying to raise my intonation before pauses, which is a feature of French that occurs much more frequently than in English, but I was overdoing it and applying it to the ends of sentences as well. This made my sentences sound incomplete, and when my teacher trained me to stop doing this, I was told that I sounded way more French. You can make these changes by focusing on the sounds of a language rather than just on the words.
Truly listen to and and mimic audio from natives, have them correct your biggest mistakes and drill the mistakes out of you. I had an accent trainer show me how this worked, and I found out some fascinating differences between my own Irish accent and American accents in the process! To see for yourself how the process works, check out the second half of this post with Soundcloud samples. The second factor that influences whether or not you could be confused for a native speaker, involves working on your social and cultural integration. This is often overlooked, but has made a world of difference to me, even in my early stages of speaking several languages.
For instance, when I first arrived in Egypt with lower intermediate Egyptian Arabic, I was disheartened that most people would speak English to me in Cairo before I even had a chance for my Arabic to shine. They took one look at me, saw how foreign I obviously was, and this overshadowed what language I was actually speaking to them. To get around this problem, I sat down at a busy pedestrian intersection with a pen and paper and made a note of everything that made Egyptian men about my age different from me.
I found that I needed to let some stubble grow out, ditch my bright light clothes for darker and heavy ones despite the temperature , exchange my trainers for dull black shoes, ditch my hat I never saw anyone with hats , walk much more confidently, and change my facial expressions.
The transformation was incredible! Every single person for the rest of my time in Egypt would start speaking to me in Arabic, including in touristy parts of town where they spoke excellent English and would be well used to spotting tourists. This transformation allowed me to walk from the Nile to the Pyramids without any hassle from touts and make the experience all about the fascinating people I met. Really try to analyze everything that someone of your age and gender is doing, and see if you can mimic it next time you are speaking. This post has been an extremely detailed look at starting off and trying to reach mastery in a foreign language and even passing yourself off as a native of that country.
If your ultimate goal is to speak multiple languages, you can repeat this process over multiple times, but I highly recommend you focus on one language at a time until you reach at least the intermediate level. Take each language one by one, until you reach a stage where you know you can confidently use it. And then you may just be ready for the next ones! While you can do a lot in a few months, if you want to speak a language for the rest of your life it requires constant practice, improvement, and living your life through it as often as you can.
But the good news is — once you reach fluency in a language, it tends to stick with you pretty well. I share several more stories about these polyglots and dive into much greater detail about how to learn languages in my newly released book Fluent in 3 Months. Grab a copy, or check out my site for inspiration to start your adventure in becoming fluent in a new language—or several. Question of the Day: What tools or approaches have you used for learning languages? Please share in the comments! Many of the world's most famous entrepreneurs, athletes, investors, poker players, and artists are part of the book.
The tips and strategies in Tribe of Mentors have already changed my life, and I hope the same for you. Who was interviewed? Check it all out by clicking here.
You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Comment Rules: Remember what Fonzie was like? Have fun and thanks for adding to the conversation! Thanks to Brian Oberkirch for the inspiration. Like Like. Thanks Matt!
Hope to run into you again asap! Like Liked by 1 person. I agree. I just started using Talking Glass, a video language exchange website. Benny is one of the many language learners that consistently wow me as well. A solid guy indeed when it comes to how to learn a foreign language. Aw shucks, thanks Aaron! Yeah, people need to learn to have more fun with the beginner stage. Thanks for the reply Benny, and I definitely agree! I need to constantly remind myself of this as well when I dive into new languages.
Keep up the great work! Great stuff! What I like the most about Benny is that he is so genuine in his approach. Glad you got to see me and Tim join forces again! I loved finding out during our Skype call how much we share in common in language learning philosophies. Like Liked by 2 people. I really like your approach of speaking from day 1.
This is the key. This is an amazing pillar article Benny, as a big fan of yours I was course already aware of many of the resources in the post, but writing them up like this not only links many of the aspects of language learning together, it also motivates me like crazy to keep working hard. You know you are doing something right, when other experienced learners agree they would share the same links. Yes, keep working hard!! And thanks for the book well wishes! Hopefully this blog post inspires a few more people to check it out!
This is a great post, Benny is very impressive and an inspiration. The idea is to combine learning a language with a passion or hobby. Learn Spanish through Salsa, French by cooking and such. That way you learn the vocabulary you need, get to practice in a natural environment and get to play around. Having fun should be a more popular goal while learning. Another thing is that face-to-face will beat online lessons and resources every time in my opinion.
If you do decide to check out the site, I would really appreciate some feedback and suggestions. This was awesome- alot of these tricks helped me when I was relearning my native language Bengali and also with Japanese. I get all your emails like that…I thought you were supporting them or sponsering WordPress now.
Yep, we fixed that typo! Enjoy the book! Best of luck with your language learning project! I was in Spain for 6 whole months speaking English all the time before I changed my approach, and look at me now! In med school we rely on Anki a lot to retain lots of information that has to be regurgitated in month period and then on the boards in a few years, so spaced repetition is a key to success.
In learning the languages, I find it more difficult to understand the native speakers. When I came from Russia to the US 10 years ago, I could speak English perfectly but when people would talk back to me, I had no idea what they were saying. I find similar difficulties with Spanish. Spaced repetition is also popular learning system in med school where I live. I have also used it with languages with good results.
For me, spaced repetition has often been a tool that I use to learn and remember stuff for an exam, but not more long term than that. This post is fantastic. Thank you for all of this information and the links. Learning a new language has been a dangling carrot for me for several years now, and I appreciate you mentioning the SMART method to help me pull focus and be more results-oriented while still remembering to have FUN! Tim, this is amazing — thank you!
I have a friend learning Cantonese right now. Gonna forward him this as I am sure it will be a valuable resource. You sir are amazing, i am visiting my friends in Monaco and Spain next year, my goal is to learn Portuguese before my flight, is it true that if you learn Portuguese, its easy to learn Spanish and French? Thank you for the time you both put into this post! I am one of those people who struggle with language, and just assume I suck at it, but I love this article because it has so many ways to learn and is a total confidence booster.
I recently discovered Duolingo and love it. I just downloaded it to my phone with some flashcards and love it.
I totally put this article to post on my social media and bookmarked it. Thanks for the confidence boost and great resources! Along the lines of virtual immersion Benny talked about, one fun way for me to explore foreign languages has been singing along to songs in the target language. This can be done with or without the lyrics in front of you, or more advanced: Find the Karaoke version of the same song. This concept is not limited to songs.
Empathizing with Gulnara.. Can speak it decently, but listening.. Tim, I challenge thee to speak Yoruba.. Loved reading this article. The video tutorials here are very informative as well. Its true that adults are actually better language learners than kids.
Both adults and kids have their own advantages. Just being at a school or job or something similar with a few native speakers can instantly give you several casual tutors. One way that many people here in Romania learned the English language was from TV. I personally like to listen to people speaking in Spanish in youtube videos right now, which I know it will help me become more familiar with the pronunciation in this language.
Watching videos and movies subtitled in a targeted language is definitely an under utilized language learning method! Told myself I want to visit Brazil and possibly travel a bit more this year so learning a new language is key. OK, this was an interesting post with some really good advice, but number 6 — Realize that adults are actually better language learners than kids — is just delusional.
After a certain age, supposed to be around the beginning of puberty, children begin to lose the innate faculty to acquire syntax and phonology like a native. It is not something that we retain throughout our entire lives. It is practically impossible to learn a language to a native-like level after the critical period and it is almost never attested to. And saying that adults are actually BETTER than children at learning language is like saying that adults are better than children at going through puberty, or children are better at going through menopause.
For example, a child at age 5 will, more or less, have acquired all of the syntactic and phonetic structures in their L1. OK, the article that Benny referenced uses an experiment with children older than 8! And also, it was a low exposure environment and all they had to do was learn one new grammar rule.
Yes, in this case then older children will learn faster than young children and adults will learn faster than both. A lot of research has also been done in acquisition in low exposure environments, say 2 hours or less per week, and older children and adults do outperform younger children. Younger children will achieve close to mastery and adults will not. I have a Masters in linguistics and second language acquisition and have read a lot about the effects of age on language acquisition, either L1 or L2 or L3…etc. The fact that the brain has a special faculty for learning language that decays over time has been long established.
Chomsky actually said that saying that children learn language is incorrect. All the need is some input. Just being exposed to input is not enough for you to acquire the language. A good place to start could be Krashen et al. Tahta, S. Age changes in the ability to replicate foreign pronunciation and intonation. Language and Speech , Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language. Lenneberg, E. He actually conducted experiments with birds kept in confinement for 3 months after they had hatched.
You should also look at research done with feral and abused children who were kept in confinement. Their parents never spoke to them growing up and even after they were rescued and put into care, they never learned to speak properly. They had passes the age at which they could learn their L1 properly. It basically means that after a certain age, our errors become more difficult to correct and that even with repeated, explicit correct, the mistake will persist.
This is most noticeable is phonology, for example the Henry Kissinger and Joseph Conrad effects. For fossilisation in grammar, check:. I love it and I hope to always be one. It very obviously is. The links he gives are very helpful and his motivation to learn and encourage others to learn is inspiring.
Thank you for speaking up about this. Great backing up of facts as well. Maybe that might be appropriate Mr. Remember that not so long ago the consensus among linguists was that we were hard-wired with a complex set of rules known as transformational grammar; now nobody believes there is such a thing not even Chomsky. Thanks for the references Scott. That is by way of books, audio materials etc… Methods of acquisition would differ with age I would guess. Not aware of research that makes this concrete however. All of those sources are too old to even be used in research.
If I wrote a paper in any of my fields microbio, cognitive psych yup, the people who study learning , and nursing with sources that old, my bibliography would be covered in red marks, and my score would be a big fat red F. Masters in Linguistics and SLA? These things are not wanted here. Evidence highly contradicts this concept.
Same goes for Rosetta Stone. I thought being dyslexic meant I might not be able to learn it but I learnt English so I must be able to. And now this post has given me a fabulous boost. Thank you. Tip number 1 is so important. Applying the Pareto principal to vocabulary learning really speeds up language acquisition. Finding out the most commonly used words and nailing those puts you way ahead of the game.
All credit to Tim and my 4 copies of the 4-hour workweek here! Just annoyed it took so long to take the plunge. We produce huge A0 wallcharts with the most commonly used Chinese characters. Apart from helping you hone in on the most Pareto efficient characters to learn these wallcharts look pretty damn cool. Nothing better than a A0 Wallchart covered in complex looking Chinese characters! For example, it thinks that birthday cakes have suppositories on them candles , and computers can be laxative stationary. Also there might not be that much information available, or the information is harder to find.
How much of the internet information about learning languages is in English? A lot. And e. Lithuanian is much easier to learn via Finnish. Having a Polish background, the video of Benny speaking Polish is just freaking impressive. Polish is considered one of the harder modern languages to learn. This is great! Especially number 2. Perhaps I should have chosen Spanish. You may find some of these words fit in Finnish too. I saw your comment yesterday and it took me a day of thinking but I have a hint for you! Look into verbs that end with -oida. These are load verbs from English, and other languages.
Examples include… kommunikoida, priorisoida, politikoida. Slang has also been inspired by English, and new words have come into the language: televisio telkkari , media, radio, turbulenssi, banaani, tomaatti, etc. There are a whole lot of them! One big advantage in Finnish over other languages is how easily you can make new words.
There are so many straightforward compound words like perfume — hajuvesi smell water that you can often guess a new word by just making it up. Hey I am also learning Finnish and I have to disagree. There are actually soo many words like hotelli, sampoo, banani, tomatti and names of a lot of countries.
And not to mention a lot of Finnish kids nowadays use slang words that come from English. As a Brazilian involved with the English language for 25 years now and having started teaching English after 2 years of studies, lots of reading and some internet interaction years later without ever visiting an English speaking country to date I can say that all those tips are invaluable. BUT my experience as a teacher showed and proved clearly to me that there are basically two conditions to learn or master a second language.
They are Real Interest my case and Real Need. Without this two prerequisites osmosis is your only method to acquire a macaronic level in any language you decide to flert with. Will do! Israel has been on my travel list for a while. Hopefully after this year-long book tour I can finally check it out!
Great breakdown Benny. Love that you emphasize speaking immediately over rote learning. Has served me well. So nice of you to mention the latin languages and forget the most latin of them all. Oh, yeah, Romanian. In school, it took me 5 year to learn German…. Today I can usually order the food I want at a restaurant in Berlin, and I understand most of what the bartender says, but I otherwise feel quite helpless in expressing myself. I was using duolingua and other forums to connect to people, it helped a bit.
I also found youtube quite helpful! Those German lessons in English are awesome. An excellent post. I am going to Oktoberfest in Munch this year so that should give me a good goal to aim for in being able to hold a conversation in German using this guide! When you ARE having conversations, then you can tweak them later. Viel Erfolg! Wishing you lots of success! Does it help you to learn new words and having a talk about the topics later? Great article. It allows you to search for the translation of words and phrases and provides results within context from millions of previously translated or bilingual texts.
This is a excellent post. I love learning languages and use a lot of his tips. Benny and Tim are two great inspirations for polyglots. I had the exact same problem at school being taught German. Been learning Spanish on Duolingo for a few months now and it feels so good to be making progress with it. You feel like you belong. Nothing beats being immersed in the culture. I went from zero to teaching high school physics in Spanish in two months, while living in Bolivia and Peru.
Thanks for the additions! For some people being in the country is simply a fire under your ass that forces you to improve. This can be emulated through filling your calendar with 1-on-1 lessons, and having specific goals like reading a certain amount or watching so many hours of content in the language per week. Bargaining and chats with taxi drivers are great practice for beginners though.
Definitely agree there! So, for instance, Spanish language movies with Spanish subtitles. Maybe you have to watch it once with English subtitles to get the point, but there is something about seeing the situation, the words spoken, and the words written that locks it all together. I wish I had time to do this more often. Another option is watching a show you already know with no subtitles at all. Then again enabling subtitles did help because European Spanish can be quite fast for beginner learners and it helped me see the words I was hearing.
Activating subtitles in your mother tongue English for instance is a really bad idea on the other hand, since you can get distracted and only read that. Although you make a good point that you can use this in a separate watching session to help you understand better. Very motivating! Also, you can make the time. If right now you watch any TV at all in your mother tongue, you can sacrifice this for your language project.
Any comments about how to make it easier to learn to read these. Each language with a non-Roman alphabet can be processed differently, but quickly. I did something similar for Arabic. Learning this alphabet and knowing it well helped me so much while in Japan. But with Japanese Kanji and Chinese Hanzi, you have a whole new major task to take on. Benny, and how about Chinese? I find reading Chinese even harder than Japanese, as they do not have hiragana to identify where words end. Is there any trick you or Tim know to boost Chinese reading skills? Even though I used it to reduce my workload, it actually has a flashcard system built into it, so I would see the same characters coming up that I genuinely needed and added them to be studied.
The trick is to get enough exposure to the language to see which ones those are. Oh and great to know that Arabic and Thai scripts are fairly easy. They look so complicated. Both languages I want to learn too. But there are exceedingly few teachers who are enlightened enough to teach it that way. This is a highly in-depth article. I have to say that Benny is really good at what he does; this is a highly motivational and informational post, I really like it! Duolingo, which is great fun and seems to work despite breaking every principle of language pedagogy, particularly the one of making target language meaningful.
Anki, as mentioned above. I created Amo Panama Love Panama and leveraged my skills to grow small businesses, organize photowalks,, and strengthen a breast cancer awarness campaign in Panama! I am learning Mandarin with their tools now, and I do enjoy the lessons even though have to adjust some things, as Chinese in Taiwan is a bit different.
Interested to hear what you have to say on them. Thanks for the great tips, material, and site links. I want to learn Italian for a trip to Italy in After trying to learn French for a previous trip I was feeling a little defeated before even tackling Italian. Your post has inspired me and given me confidence. Great article, so much information to absorb. I was wondering if it is possible and would you recommend learning two languages at the same time? When you spread your effort thin, you can get the two languages mixed up. While you may think that mathematically learning 2 languages over a year is about the same as learning each one for six months each, the truth is that FOCUS will get you so much more.
You can reach a high level in one language, and then work only on maintaining that language, while you focus on learning a new one. The work involved in maintaining a language and learning a new one is very different. I am receiving individual emails each containing one comment on the 12 rules for learning language. I tried to unsubscribe but was unsuccessful. Glad you enjoyed it! It was a LOT of editing work, but I was so glad to collaborate with all those amazing people! So I get the idea. I know I just need to make this my No.
These are just excuses if you look at it that way, but they feel very real. The little Spanish I do know I picked up listening to locals and trying to interact with them, which I thoroughly enjoy. Tim and Benny thanks for this too complete post about being a polyglot, I took note about all, it took me about 2 hours but ti worths them :. I think that is a good book to start the language trip.
Loved this post and will certainly come back to it several times. I too like to first learn the flow of the language before learning any grammatical rules. DuoLingo is great as it gives you a sense of the language, so that after a time you find yourself hitting the right answer without much consideration.
Great post. They will start using this information as soon as possible. Is it possible to learn a language from scratch just by reading and listening, with no previous knowledge of the grammar and structure of the target language? To Tim first, Thank you so much for all the great materials that you put on your blog!
I first ran into your 4HWW concept while I was working offshore bored to death browsing on internet the content of a conference in a french engineering school. Keep it as amazing as it and enjoy your life. You are quite impressive with your learning! This such a brilliant post with a buttload of great recommendations! His recommendation of italki has really got me on the right track.
Benny ayudame mucho! Thank you, this is great. I became fluent at understanding German at about 6months of immersed daily conversations living in Germany. At about the 1 year mark I was pretty fluent. Thanks again! As a Polish speaker that is rather impressive. I learned as a child and still struggle to this day. I tried learning Japanese, Spanish and Thai using this type of method and failed to learn all three languages.
The short version is, I reached out to people like Benny for advice and everyone kept saying that I needed to do more. More flash cards, more drills, more practice. I found the work of Dr Krashen and then Dr Brown. They said to stop trying to produce language and just listen. And when I did, I started to learn. It most certainly does. Just watched your full Skype chat video. You guys are amazing. I got an inspiration to tackle Filipino as I am going to the Philippines for 3 weeks or so.
Hope to make some videos of my progress hacking it in your principles and see how it goes. As for my experiences with language, gosh so many. Most I think are in Chinese, as Taiwan is such a great country to live in. But other really cool previous experience is with Polish language. I was exchange student in Warsaw and had some Polish classes.
It was a bit easier to learn Polish as I knew other Slavic language before — Russian. I got to more or less fluency level within 3 months. I did a lot of hichhiking there and one trip was going all the way to Germany to meet my friend who came there from USA. I was picked up by a truck, the driver spoke only Polish. He was driving towards towards us, and we would meet at some gas station. But truck drivers have limits on how long they can drive and they have to stop for rest.
So it was a big mission there — me looking at a map, talking Polish to the driver, he was talking over radio to other truck drivers if they did spot my friends car or not. Time was running out, the truck had to stop. And in last moments, everything got figured out and my friend and the truck stopped at the same gas station. Was really fun adventure that I would have never been able to have if I did not speak Polish. Great post! I have started to take this seriously though and got the kids to put post it notes on everything in the home in Norwegian to start off with! Like Benny said, just learn a few words for a situation, where you are going or just a conversation, in a restaurant, taxi, words to the kids and the wife and go for it.
Even if not perfect, people may know what you are saying and I am sure appreciate it. If anything it raises a smile if right or wrong. Just go for it, it makes life more fun! On the other side of the language exchange, your readers with digital nomad leanings might also be interested in the option of making money by teaching a language from anywhere with Skype or whatever online method you and your students agree on. Even better, italki supports this! She has been to Italy. She has returned. I bought this bike two years ago. I boughtthisbtke twoyearsbefore.
I have had this bike for two years. Only one time word in each sentence. I haven't studied for a week, refers to the past: The last time I studied was a week ago. I have to study for a week, refers to the future: I must study fora week before I do sth else. I haven't eaten spaghetti for six months.
Key Transformations I have never been to Malta before. It is the first time I have ever been to Malta. I had never been to Malta before.
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It was the first time I had ever been to Malta. When did he start working? How long has he been working? How long is it since he started working? I last saw her a year ago. I havent seen her for a year. It has been a year since I last saw her. It is a year since I last saw her. Use only one word in each space. Within this system a person had to exchange one thing for another. The answer is simple. Coins were much easier to handle and carry around. Since then, the use of coins has become widespread.
In recent years, paper money has become more common all over the world, as it is easier to use. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. When did they start living in the suburbs? It's the first time she has ever had problems with the authorities. How long has he had this car? In some cases, more than one word may be correct. H skills qualities qualifications experience 1 To get the job you must have three years experience in telecommunications and the necessary qualifications.
What part of speech verb, noun, adjective or adverb is each of the words in bold type? The two patterns di f f er from each other. There is a di f f erence between the two patterns. This pattern is di f f er ent from that one. The two patterns have been di f f er ent l y designed. Most adverbs, for instance, are formed by adding the ending -l y to the root adj ecti ve. A success B successfully C successful C Read the sentences below and decide what part of speech is missing.
Then, complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals. Examination Practice solution to the adverb today. I remember the interview as though 6 I! The personnel manager sat behind a large desk. He asked me various questions which surprised me because all I wanted was to work in sales. I was to be trained for ten days before i took my post. Also, as a member of 8. I really enjoyed it there and I loved demonstrating the different toys. On the whole, working there was a great experience which I will never forget. Apparently, Alex had seen a famous basketball player and wanted his autograph.
Prepositional Phrases A Complete the blanks with the prepositions in, on or at. C Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions in, on, at, by, for, from or out. So, think car ef u lly bef ore d eciding on having one done. He should have been here by now. They were torn. A ll the missing words are relative pronoun: or adverbs. That is not used in non-defining relative clauses. P I have 3, stamps, some of which are valuable. Students wishing to go on the day-trip should write their names on this list. She always did her homework first and then she watched TV.
For c. From the sleeves 5 My grandmother knitted me a jumper of which are too long, a. Vords easily confused. You may. It had pink elephants on it! Its really rude. He was late for school. Eastman in Have you seen them? She had changed a lot. Derivatives are formed from noun roots, adjective roots and verb roots. In this unit we will deal with adjectives, adverbs and nouns which derive from certain noun roots. The noun doubt forms the adjective in -ful and the adverb in -f ul l y and in -less. In such cases the two adjectives have different meanings. Some common nouns that form nouns in the same way as friend are: companion, partner and relation.
Some nouns form nouns in - ship with a different meaning: champion, scholar and sponsor. There is no need to panic. Parts of that particular night are so vivid that I can still picture myself as though it were yesterday. Admittedly, I wouldnt have wanted to either. Finally, it was time for the curtain to go up. In the end, we proved the director wrong and everything went like clockwork. Complete them with prepositions. Did you know that she had broken her leg?
Weve been working for over twelve hours without a break. Your views can sometimes be extreme. I dont know whats the matter with me. C Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs hold, run, catch or keep. Only my aunt has brown eyes. J ane is organising a surprise party for Kevins birthday! The pavement is broken and you might trip. He's known as The Cleaner'. Have we been here before? Very quickly he developed a personal style, which made him famous. Versace also paid the 10 , same. Versaces fame, however, is just. Nevertheless, he has to be seen as one of the most influential designers of his generation.
Jim: Have you made up your mind about where to go on holiday? Mike: I've narrowed down my choices to two 1 rather large countries, France and Mexico. What do you think? Jim: Well, France is one of 2 the largest countries in Europe. Did you know it's twice 3 as big as the UK? Since you've got eight weeks off 4 work, you could go on a cycling tour of the country.
I suppose I could also go on long walks in the country, as the climate there is similar 7 to that in Britain. Jim: Really? I think it's 8 much warmer. Especially on the Riviera, the Mediterranean in 1 A rather B most C far D too winter is 9 the same temperature as the 2 A larger B largest C the larger Dithe largest British coastal waters are in summer! I'd rather go to Mexico and eat 11 A pretty f a r C the D more tortillas and chilli every day! The train is cheaper than the plane. John gave me some important information.
Uncountable nouns have no plural forms. John gave mo an important information. John gave me an important piece of information. The news was really shocking. Uncountable nouns go with singular verbs. Key Transformations 6 Fiona is taller than Gina. Gina is shorter than Fiona. Gina is not as tall as Fiona. Andrew smokes more than John. John smokes less than Andrew. John does not smoke as much as Andrew. John is not such a heavy smoker as Andrew.
I have never driven such a fast car. I have never driven a faster car than this one. I have never driven a car as fast as this one. She is the worst singer I know. The atmosphere is becoming more polluted by the day. The atmosphere is becoming more and more polluted. His behaviour is becoming more sensible as he gets older.
The older he gets, the more sensible his behaviour becomes. The older he gets, the more sensibly he behaves. He has got very little furniture in his new flat. He has got very few pieces of furniture in his new flat. It is not typical of George to be late. It is not like George to be late.
Your bicycle looks exactly like mine. Your bicycle is exactly the same as mine. Your bicycle is identical to mine. B Complete the second sentence so that it has a s imilar meaning to the firs t sentence, using the word given unchanged. Vords easily confused : the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below.
You may t e some of the words more than once. I, I-. I'm sure I've seen her before. That's all he listens to. Pay attention to the following: neighbour neighbourhood Some other common nouns that form adjectives and adverbs in the same way are: accident, addition, emotion, fate, intention, nation, nature, person, profession and tradition. Pay attention to the following nouns that form only adjectives: cloud, dirt, hair, rain, risk, snow, sun, wealth and worth. Local residents are angry.
I am time. Yet, more and more couples these days childless. I hope she wasn't offended by my comment. Another aspect of child rearing is teaching children limits and rules. Setting limits on children must occur on a daily basis. Temporary measures don't achieve anything but just waste time. Overall, child rearing is no easy task but it is certainly a challenge and a learning experience. These new joints could prove very 8. Prepositional Phrases A Complete the blanks with the prepositions in, on, at, for or by. All assignments are due tomorrow without faj. I can't go out tonight.
I'm feeling a bit under t he weat her. It will be pulling in any minute now. I can return it within fifteen days. My wife isnt here at the moment because shes away on business. C Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases in the box below. We were. Keep up the good work! Ill just get my jacket and we can leave. Sorry I'm late, but 1was hel d up in traffic on the way here. Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Hurry up! S There is nothing else I can do. The baby climbed the stairs without any difficulty. S There is a few milk loft in thofridge.
Either book is interesting. There wasnt much to see in the gallery. There was little to see in the gallery. Very few of the students went to the demonstration. Hardly anyone went to the demonstration. Hardly any of the students went to the demonstration. Both Jim and Jack like playing tennis. Jim likes playing tennis and Jack does, too. Jim likes playing tennis and so does Jack. Both Jim and Jack dislike football. Neither Jim nor Jack like s football. So, what can people do to fight allergies? In other words, if one parent suffers from allergies, the child has a thirty percent chance of being allergic, too.
You may some of the words more than once. Surprisingly, I get there faster than when I used to drive my car there. Is something burning? The most common ones are: free freedom wise -4 wisdom. Over the years, Ive used different means of transport. Last week, while I was heading for the airport, I realised I had left my passport at home. Obviously, I had to go back so I asked the taxi driver to turn around and take me home.
There is an example at the beginning O. When spring 2 arrived , everything came alive - flowers would bloom and the animals would come out of hibernation. I'd follow the bear tracks and search for them. I stood still until she stopped growling and walked away. Of course, this was possible only during the warm months. The place became deserted once again.
There is an example at the beginning 0. The balloon rose more than 1. Five months later, in November , history was made once more when the first flight carrying passengers left the ground. The volunteers took off from Paris and remained in the air for over twenty minutes. In the twentieth century, hot-air ballooning was re-introduced, due to a much improved propane burner.
Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. F coastal cities of the United States. Do not change the word given. You must use between! Example: 0 When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. J ones. He is a respectable member of our community, a. If any problems ar se don't hesitate to contact me. All the spectators in the stadium applauded the winner of the marathon when he crossed the finish line.
Two masked men held UP a bank downtown yesterday. The more you exercise, the fitter y0u get. He said that he will rent a bigger house when he gets a new job. During the gold rush, many settlers travelled to California in search of gold. J in search b. It is Fay- s intention to do well in her exams so that she can study Psychology. While on vacation in Finland, J ohn went on a n tour of Lapland, the northern part of the country. Christine has a habit of running ten kilometres per day. C Complete the blanks with the verbs break, change, turn or draw.
Use each expression only once. Most people are, by and large , creatures of habit. Asa matter of fact 3hrasal Verbs , I didn't like the present you gave me. The boy made up a ridiculous story about alien abduction to avoid sitting for the exam. When the baby was born, we made the study into a nursery. I couldn't quite make out what she was saying, as her English was very poor. Even though Derek had made up with J oanne, the tension between them was still evident. Women make up a large proportion of the workforce nowadays. Ever since my salary cut, Ive had to do without many little luxuries.
The management decided to do away with the old machinery and modernised the factory. When 1grow up, I want to become a singer. We've grown out of the childish pranks we used to play on our teachers. Grammar Revision Infinitive, -ing form See Grammar Review page Complete the sentences below with the bare infinitive, the full infinitive or the -ing form of the verbs in brackets. You can use either the Present or the Perfect form.
No object pronouns after too and enough She objects to staying up late.
Susan took one hour to dye her hair. Susan spent one hour dyeing her hair. She found it difficult to work long hours. It was difficult for her to work long hours. She had difficulty in working long hours. I expect them to arrive soon. They are expected to arrive soon. I suggest planning a surprise party for him. Why not plan a surprise party for him? How about planning a surprise party for him? I don't see why we should discuss this matter any further. Theres no point in discussing this matter any further.
It is not worth discussing this matter any further. This matter is not worth discussing any further. The climbers did not manage to reach the mountain peak. The climbers did not succeed in reaching the mountain peak. The climbers were not successful in reaching the mountain peak. The climbers were unsuccessful in reaching the mountain peak. Thousands of years later, the same idea still applies.
However, water itself is not enough; a balanced diet is essential, too. In short, following B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You may use e of the words more than once.
I n some cases more than one word may be correct. I'll pay you back on Friday. I got it for half the price. Only a billionaire could afford to buy them. You've helped me a great deal. The most common negative prefixes are un-, in-, dis- and mis-. She wants everything done immediately. He can't have said that. They rarely 2. Most consumers, though, prefer to buy things using their credit cards. Apart from the fact that credit cards are handy, some stores offer bonus points to people making purchases, while others give 7 discounts on certain products.
On the other hand, credit cards must be used wisely because they can prove disastrous. You look rather worried. Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition. I 2 The doctor told me to cut down on junk food. I 3 The speaker was cut off by protesters many times during her speech. A Always cut up the meat for the dog, otherwise it will choke on it. I 6 The boys are shouting upstairs. Tell them to cut it out!
It' s very hot in here. I 2 J ohn has turned into a reliable and efficient worker much to my surprise. I 3 It turned out to be a great party. I 4 More people turned up at the meeting than I had expected. I 5 Can you please turn down the music? I can' t hear you. I 6 My application for a visa was turned down again. I 7 Don' t forget to turn on the alarm when you leave home.
I 8 I want you to know that you can turn to me for help any time. I 9 When J essica heard her favourite song, she turned up the radio full blast and started dancing. She's always been good to me. All the missing words are modal verbs can, could, may, should etc. He hasn't been well lately. To make matters worse, an overweight lady standing next to me wanted to get off at one point. She nearly squashed me to death!
You should wash your car. Note: have to, ought to and used to. J onathan can play tennis very well. J onathan could play tennis when he was ten years old. If it doesn't rain, we'll be able to play tennis. I haven't been able to contact Mike this week. Bill could run quite fast when he was young. I must go to bed early tonight. I have to get up early every morning. I had to return some books to the library yesterday. I've never had to wait for more than ten minutes at the doctors surgery. We'll have to work hard on our project next week.
He must be home now. Key Transformations 6 Could I possibly turn the music down? Do you mind if I turn the music down? Would you mind my turning the music down? I wonder if I could turn the music down. Your room needs to be tidied. It is necessary for you to tidy your room. It is necessary that you tidy your room. It is not necessary for you to go shopping. There is no need for you to go shopping. You needn't go shopping. He must have been working hard lately. They didn't need to return the books to the library today.
They needn't have returned the books to the library today. You should apologise. There was no need for you to go to the doctor.
You needn't have gone to the doctor. My grandfather used to go fishing every morning. My grandfather would go fishing every morning. The students were not able to finish the project. The students were unable to finish the project. The students did not succeed in finishing the project. You had better take some time off work. The best thing you could do is take some time off work. The best thing for you to do is take some time off work. You needn't have cooked so much food. There was plenty of food left over from yesterday. Susan hates Maths and Chemistry but shes really good at Science.
You had better not go out tonight. It's raining heavily. The climbers didn't succeed in reaching the mountain peak due to extreme weather conditions, a. When are Michael and J ulie getting married? Well, they won't get married after all. Would you mind my leaving a jttle earlier today? I must go to the dentist's. She must. You to drink lots of water when you're on a diet. Your jeans need washing before y0U wear them for the first time. Owing to ji According to c. Apart from d.
Instead of be There used to. David never used to eat cornflakes. You may :some of the words more than once. Would you like to go to the cinema? Could you lend me some money? This unit deals with some verbs and nouns which derive from adjectives. The adjectives broad, deep and wide form nouns in -th: broad broaden breadth deep 4 deepen 4 depth wide 4 widen 4 width Some verbs in -en do not derive from adjectives, but from the corresponding nouns: Adjective Noun Verb high height heighten long length lengthen strong strength strengthen fright frighten.
Some common adjectives that form nouns in -ance are: arrogant, assistant, ignorant, important, relevant, reluctant, resistant, significant and tolerant. Some common adjectives that form nouns in -ence are: absent, confident, convenient, different, evident, innocent, patient, present, silent and violent. Yet, the actual date has changed a number of times. Some cultures, however, celebrate the New Year at various times, according to their calendar and religious traditions. For example, the Chinese celebrate it between the 21st of J anuary and the 19th of February.
In any case, the New Year is a festive occasion. Some people celebrate at home with no 5. I inspected numerous houses and finally found one I was happy with. Put a stop to sth sliake hands with sb set fjre to sth leave a message an example set the table put set set set pressure on sb foot in the alarm clock B Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs put, set or shake. Hes not the one responsible for the accident.
Will I see you there? We want to move this big box. By the way have it your way? The rest of the class is 12 Teenagers tend to idolise film stars and imitate the way they look and their way ahead of you in Mathematics. Our flight was delayed for an unknown reason. To tell you the truth , I dont think Adam is very good at his job.
He is so annoying! Otherwise dont dare to challenge him because of his close friendship with the manager. I would not have a problem telling him a thing or two. Reading books in a foreign language helps you expand your vocabulary. Phrasal Verbs ad the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their rrect number in the box next to each definition. K J ust a minute, sir. I'll put you through to Mr J ones. It should look beautiful in spring.
See Grammar Review page Read the text below and complete each blank with one word. Arthur Grant is alleged to 6. We heard him say that he was guilty. The forest was destroyed by fire. The photograph was taken with an expensive camera. What caused the power failure? When asking about the agent of a passive sentence, by must be included in the question. Past and perfect participles may replace clauses in the passive voice. In the Passive Voice the preposition of prepositional verbs goes immediately after the verb.
No one has been told the news yet. Susan was amazed to find out that her book was missing. To Susan's amazement, her book was missing. S We expect that the Australian athlete will win the race. It is expected that the Australian athlete will win the race. The Australian athlete is expected to win the race. I S J ulie's parents allow her to go to parties. J ulie's parents let her go to parties. J ulie is allowed to go to parties.
J ulie's parents give her permission to go to parties. J ulie is permitted to go to parties. J ulie has her parents permission to go to parties. J ulie's parents don't allow her to go to parties. J ulie's parents dont let her go to parties. J ulie is not allowed to go to parties.
J ulie cannot get her parents permission to go to parties. J ulie is forbidden to go to parties. One must not smuggle goods into the country. It is not allowed to smuggle goods into the country. It is illegal to smuggle goods into the country. It is against the law to smuggle goods into the country. It is forbidden to smuggle goods into the country.
The wall is still of great importance, as it divides Inner China from Outer China. You may use me of the words more than once. I have one coin that dates back to Some other common adjectives that form nouns in -ibility are: flexible, responsible, sensible and visible. The nouns ability and stability form opposites with the addition of the prefix -in, not -un.
However, many governments have introduced rules and regulations that advertisers must follow. In some countries, advertisements can be displayed only in specific areas. Carrier developed the first air-conditioning unit in But what do they do? He knows how to mix with the crowd. Why doesn't he talk to someone about jt? It was great! However, after a few months I noticed that my car wasn't running very well. The problem was that I didn't have much money. He had mine. J ust the sight of that needle makes I was so relieved that I wouldn't be having any more tests done for a while.
Active Voice, she typed them herself. Causative Form, someone else typed them for her. Three letters were typed yesterday. Passive Voice, we don't know who typed the letters; it could have been Mary. Did Mary have any letters typed yesterday? She got har children tidy their bedroom yesterday. Their flat was broken into last night.
The Causative Form is often used instead of the Passive Voice for accidents or misfortunes. Own is used for emphasis or to indicate that something belongs only to a particular person, thing or group.
That woman's cat ate my pet hamster. I woke up early this morning. Reflexivepronouns are not used after verbs such as wake up, wash, dress, shave, sleep etc. The woman was looking right in front of her. Reflexive pronouns are not used after prepositions of place. We enjoyed ourselves very much at the party. Reflexive pronouns are used after verbs such as enjoy, help, teach etc.
They were looking at each other. Id like another glass of milk. We drove for another ten miles and then we stopped. We are meeting the other students at the train station. S We are meeting the others at the train station. When other is used before a noun, it does not take an s. My computer needs updating. I need to have a computer expert update my computer. I need to get a computer expert to update my computer.
The young artists had their exhibition sponsored by a mobile phone company. The young artists exhibition was sponsored by a mobile phone company. No one helped me paint my apartment. I painted my apartment on my own. I painted my apartment all by myself. One of my cousins is a famous basketball player. A cousin of mine is a famous basketball player.
We made sure that the books were returned to the library. In , Volkswagen named the car Type I' to mark a new start for the company. Within two years, the first Beetle convertible was produced. Over the years, sales grew dramatically and by the Beetle had made its way into history books as the most produced car ever!
It is a completely new, modern car which has definitely come a long way since the model. B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. I saw you break it. Sit down and discuss your problems. Then, check what form of the missing word you should supply.
Nouns can be in the singular or plural form. The plural of most nouns is formed by adding the endings -s or -es to the singular form of the noun. Root Word Deriving noun-singular Deriving noun-plural act action actions activity activities Adjectives and adverbs can be in the positive, comparative or superlative degree. One-syllable adjectives and adverbs and some two-syllable adjectives form their comparative degree in -er and their superlative degree in -est. We simply can't get along. Arthur Miller was born in New York in This experience at an early age disturbed Miller and thereafter he was aware of societys inadequacies.
Miller's major achievement came in , when he won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his play Death of a Salesman, which is still regarded as one of the finest contemporary plays. The zorb is rolled down a hill, speeding at about 50 kilometres an hour. But is that what their children have planned for themselves? Apparently not. They would rather aim low so as not to be disappointed if they get low marks. On the whole, there are many practical things that parents can do and which may prove invaluable to their children.
Lack of sleep also has a negative effect on our health. The longest period of wakefulness which broke the record was eleven days. This experiment showed that after a few days without sleep, the mind and body were unable to function normally. The teacher got the students to clean the schoolyard. You don t need t0 go t0 the supermarket. I have everything we need for the cake.
The soldiers were made to Paint the whole camp, a. A cousin of ours has decided to leave her job as a journalist and follow a career in modelling. Could you please go to the grocery store on your way home? We've run out of tomatoes. You should have your hair styled for your sister's wedding. Blake's party is expected to win the elections, a. You must have had a great time on your vacation You seem happy and relaxed. This project finished bv the end of this month, w ill have finished b. We only had a few days available , so we decided to go somewhere close.
The student denied cheating on the test although her teacher caught her in the act. The third contestant managed to win regardless 0f the difficult questions. J ulie lost her temper and started screaming at her colleagues. As soon as I get paid, I will pay all my debts a. We complained to the restaurant manager about the inadequate service. I want to make sure that I turned off all the lights in the house, so I'll go back and check, a.
Complete the boxes with the verbs have or take and the blanks with prepositions. She's always making up stories. C Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs give, pay, bring or mind.