In October, the Francoist troops launched a major offensive toward Madrid,  reaching it in early November and launching a major assault on the city on 8 November. A contributory factor in the successful Republican defense was the effectiveness of the Fifth Regiment  and later the arrival of the International Brigades, though only an approximate 3, foreign volunteers participated in the battle. The Second Battle of the Corunna Road , a Nationalist offensive to the northwest, pushed Republican forces back, but failed to isolate Madrid.
The battle lasted into January. With his ranks swelled by Italian troops and Spanish colonial soldiers from Morocco, Franco made another attempt to capture Madrid in January and February , but was again unsuccessful. The city was taken by Franco on 8 February. The operation's main objective was not met, though Nationalists gained a modest amount of territory.
A similar Nationalist offensive, the Battle of Guadalajara , was a more significant defeat for Franco and his armies. This was the only publicised Republican victory of the war. Franco used Italian troops and blitzkrieg tactics; while many strategists blamed Franco for the rightists' defeat, the Germans believed it was the former at fault for the Nationalists' 5, casualties and loss of valuable equipment.
The destruction had a significant effect on international opinion.
The disturbance pleased Nationalist command, but little was done to exploit Republican divisions. In July, it made a move to recapture Segovia , forcing Franco to delay his advance on the Bilbao front, but for only two weeks. A similar Republican attack, the Huesca Offensive , failed similarly. Mola, Franco's second-in-command, was killed on 3 June, in an airplane accident. The Battle of Brunete , however, was a significant defeat for the Republic, which lost many of its most accomplished troops.
A Republican offensive against Zaragoza was also a failure. Despite having land and aerial advantages, the Battle of Belchite , a place lacking any military interest, resulted in an advance of only 10 kilometres 6. At November's end, with Franco's troops closing in on Valencia, the government had to move again, this time to Barcelona. The Battle of Teruel was an important confrontation. The city, which had formerly belonged to the Nationalists, was conquered by Republicans in January. The Francoist troops launched an offensive and recovered the city by 22 February, but Franco was forced to rely heavily on German and Italian air support.
On 7 March, Nationalists launched the Aragon Offensive , and by 14 April they had pushed through to the Mediterranean, cutting the Republican-held portion of Spain in two. The Republican government attempted to sue for peace in May,  but Franco demanded unconditional surrender, and the war raged on.
In July, the Nationalist army pressed southward from Teruel and south along the coast toward the capital of the Republic at Valencia, but was halted in heavy fighting along the XYZ Line , a system of fortifications defending Valencia. The Republican government then launched an all-out campaign to reconnect their territory in the Battle of the Ebro , from 24 July until 26 November, where Franco personally took command.
The agreement with Britain effectively destroyed Republican morale by ending hope of an anti-fascist alliance with Western powers. Franco's troops conquered Catalonia in a whirlwind campaign during the first two months of Tarragona fell on 15 January,  followed by Barcelona on 26 January  and Girona on 2 February.
Only Madrid and a few other strongholds remained for the Republican forces. On 26 March, the Nationalists started a general offensive, on 28 March the Nationalists occupied Madrid and, by 31 March, they controlled all Spanish territory. After the end of the war, there were harsh reprisals against Franco's former enemies. Many others were put to forced labour , building railways, draining swamps, and digging canals. Hundreds of thousands of Republicans fled abroad, with some , fleeing to France. Of the 17, refugees housed in Gurs, farmers and others who could not find relations in France were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Francoist government, to return to Spain.
Along with other "undesirable" people, the Spaniards were sent to the Drancy internment camp before being deported to Nazi Germany. About 5, Spaniards died in the Mauthausen concentration camp.
After the official end of the war, guerrilla warfare was waged on an irregular basis by the Spanish Maquis well into the s, gradually reduced by military defeats and scant support from the exhausted population. In , a group of republican veterans, who also fought in the French resistance against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran in northwest Catalonia, but were defeated after 10 days. The Republicans oversaw the evacuation of 30,—35, children from their zone,  starting with Basque areas, from which 20, were evacuated. This was against initial opposition from both the government and charitable groups, who saw the removal of children from their native country as potentially harmful.
On arrival two days later in Southampton , the children were dispersed all over England, with over children accommodated in Wales.
Most were repatriated to Spain after the war, but some still remained in Britain by the end of the Second World War in The death toll of the Spanish Civil War is far from clarified and remains — especially in part related to war and post-war repression — a very controversial issue. Many general historiographic works — notably in Spain — refrain from advancing any figures; massive historical series,  encyclopedias  or dictionaries  might not provide any numbers or at best propose vague general descriptions;  also more detailed general history accounts produced by expert Spanish scholars often remain silent on the issue.
The totals advanced usually include or exclude various categories. Scholars who focus on killings or "violent deaths" most typically list 1 combat and combat-related deaths; figures in this rubric might range from ,  to ,;  2 rearguard terror, both judicial and extrajudicial, recorded until the end of the Civil War: ,  to ,;  3 civilian deaths from military action, typically air raids: 10,  to 15, Entirely different approach is pursued by demographers; instead of adding up deaths from different categories, they try to gauge the difference between the total number of deaths recorded during the war and the total which would have resulted from applying annual death averages from the — period; this difference is considered excess death resulting from the war.
The figure they arrive at for the — period is ,; the figure for —, covering also the years of post-war deaths resulting from terror and war sufferings, is , Death totals remain debated. British historian Antony Beevor wrote in his history of the Civil War that Franco's ensuing " white terror " resulted in the deaths of , people and that the " red terror " killed 38, Recent research has started to locate mass graves , using a combination of witness testimony, remote sensing and forensic geophysics techniques.
The view of historians, including Helen Graham ,  Paul Preston ,  Antony Beevor ,  Gabriel Jackson  and Hugh Thomas ,  is that the mass executions behind the Nationalists lines were organised and approved by the Nationalist rebel authorities, while the executions behind the Republican lines were the result of the breakdown of the Republican state and anarchy:. Though there was much wanton killing in rebel Spain, the idea of the limpieza , the "cleaning up", of the country from the evils which had overtaken it, was a disciplined policy of the new authorities and a part of their programme of regeneration.
In republican Spain, most of the killing was the consequence of anarchy, the outcome of a national breakdown, and not the work of the state, although some political parties in some cities abetted the enormities, and some of those responsible ultimately rose to positions of authority.
Nationalist atrocities, which authorities frequently ordered so as to eradicate any trace of "leftism" in Spain, were common. The notion of a limpieza cleansing formed an essential part of the rebel strategy, and the process began immediately after an area had been captured. Many such acts were committed by reactionary groups during the first weeks of the war. Extensive killings of civilians were carried out in the cities captured by the Nationalists,  along with the execution of unwanted individuals. These included non-combatants such as trade-unionists , Popular Front politicians, suspected Freemasons , Basque, Catalan, Andalusian , and Galician Nationalists, Republican intellectuals, relatives of known Republicans, and those suspected of voting for the Popular Front.
Nationalist forces massacred civilians in Seville, where some 8, people were shot; 10, were killed in Cordoba ; 6,—12, were killed in Badajoz  after more than one thousand of landowners and conservatives were killed by the revolutionaries. In Granada, where working-class neighborhoods were hit with artillery and right-wing squads were given free rein to kill government sympathizers,  at least 2, people were murdered. There were fewer executions than usual, however, because of the effect Guernica left on Nationalists' reputations internationally.
Nationalists also murdered Catholic clerics. In one particular incident, following the capture of Bilbao , they took hundreds of people, including 16 priests who had served as chaplains for the Republican forces, to the countryside or graveyards and murdered them. Franco's forces also persecuted Protestants, including murdering 20 Protestant ministers.
The Nationalist side conducted aerial bombing of cities in Republican territory, carried out mainly by the Luftwaffe volunteers of the Condor Legion and the Italian air force volunteers of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie: Madrid, Barcelona , Valencia, Guernica , Durango , and other cities were attacked. The Bombing of Guernica was the most controversial. According to the Nationalists, an estimated 55, civilians died in Republican-held territories. This is considered excessive by Antony Beevor. However, it was much less than the half a million claimed during the war.
The Republican government was anticlerical, and supporters attacked and murdered Roman Catholic clergy in reaction to the news of military revolt. Like clergy, civilians were executed in Republican territories. Some civilians were executed as suspected Falangists. As pressure mounted with the increasing success of the Nationalists, many civilians were executed by councils and tribunals controlled by competing Communist and anarchist groups.
Some individuals fled to friendly embassies, which would house up to 8, people during the war. In the Andalusian town of Ronda , suspected Nationalists were executed in the first month of the war. Thirty-eight thousand people were killed in the Republican zone during the war, 17, of whom were killed in Madrid or Catalonia within a month of the coup.
Whilst the Communists were forthright in their support of extrajudicial killings, much of the Republican side was appalled by the murders. Some of those in positions of power intervened personally to stop the killings. In the anarchist-controlled areas, Aragon and Catalonia, in addition to the temporary military success, there was a vast social revolution in which the workers and peasants collectivised land and industry and set up councils parallel to the paralyzed Republican government.
As the war progressed, the government and the communists were able to exploit their access to Soviet arms to restore government control over the war effort, through diplomacy and force. The pre-war Falange was a small party of some 3—40, members.
The s also saw Spain become a focus for pacifist organisations, including the Fellowship of Reconciliation , the War Resisters League , and the War Resisters' International. Many people including, as they are now called, the insumisos "defiant ones", conscientious objectors argued and worked for non-violent strategies. Brocca argued that Spanish pacifists had no alternative but to make a stand against fascism. He put this stand into practice by various means, including organizing agricultural workers to maintain food supplies, and through humanitarian work with war refugees.
Throughout the course of the Spanish Civil War, people all over the world were exposed to the goings-on and effects of it on its people not only through standard art, but also through propaganda. Motion pictures, posters, books, radio programs, and leaflets are a few examples of this media art that was so influential during the war. Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed Spaniards a way to spread awareness about their war all over the world. A film co-produced by famous early-twentieth century authors such as Ernest Hemingway and Lillian Hellman was used as a way to advertise Spain's need for military and monetary aid.
In , George Orwell 's Homage to Catalonia , a personal account of his experiences and observations in the war, was published in the United Kingdom. In , Jean-Paul Sartre published in France short story "The Wall" in which he describes the last night of prisoners of war sentenced to death by shooting. Pablo Picasso painted Guernica in , taking inspiration from the bombing of Guernica, and in Leonardo da Vinci 's Battle of Anghiari.
Guernica , like many important Republican masterpieces, was featured at the International Exhibition in Paris. It is the reaper's symbol, the tool of his work, and, when his freedom is threatened, his weapon. Payment for the war on both sides was very high. Monetary resources on the Republican side were completely drained from weapon acquisition.
On the Nationalist side, the biggest losses came after the conflict, when they had to let Germany exploit the country's mining resources, so until the beginning of World War II they barely had the chance to make any profit. The Spanish economy took decades to recover. The number of civilian victims are still being discussed, with some estimating approximately , victims, while others go as high as 1,, After the War, the Francoist regime initiated a repressive process against the losing side, a "cleansing" of sorts against anything or anyone associated with the Republic.
This process led many to exile or death. Exile happened in three waves. The first one was during the Northern Campaign March—November , followed by a second wave after the fall of Catalonia January—February , in which about , people fled to France. The French authorities had to improvise concentration camps, with such hard conditions that almost half of the exiled Spaniards returned.
The third wave occurred after the War, at the end of March , when thousands of Republicans tried to board ships to exile, although few succeeded. The political and emotional repercussions of the War transcended the National scale, becoming a precursor to World War II. After the War, Spanish policy leaned heavily towards Germany, Portugal and Italy, since they had been the greatest Nationalist supporters and aligned with Spain ideologically.
However, the end of the Civil War and later the Second World War saw the isolation of the country from most other nations until the s, in which the American anti-Communist international policy favoured having a far-right and extremely anti-communist ally in Europe.
In pre-war climate, after moderate measures were produced, Francisco Largo Caballero sentence " The working class must take over the political power, we must go to the revolution ". The Popular Front was an electoral alliance formed between various left-wing and centrist parties for elections to the Cortes in , in which the alliance won a majority of seats. Virtually all Nationalist groups had very strong Roman Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other civil wars in Spain, see Carlist Wars. War between the Republicans and the Nationalists in Spain from to Spanish Civil War. Part of a series on the. Early history. Early modern. Transition to democracy Spain since By topic. Colonial history Economic history Military history. Events leading to World War II. Main article: Background of the Spanish Civil War. The Church was a frequent target of the revolutionary left in the Republic and in the War. Main article: Spanish coup of July Main article: Spanish Civil War, Initial Nationalist zone — July Nationalist advance until September Nationalist advance until October Nationalist advance until November Nationalist advance until February Last area under Republican control.
Main article: Republican faction Spanish Civil War.
Main article: Nationalist faction Spanish Civil War. Further information: Corpo Truppe Volontarie. Further information: Viriatos. Main article: International Brigades. Area under Nationalist control. Area under Republican control. Main article: Spanish Civil War, — Main article: Evacuation of children in the Spanish Civil War. See also: White Terror Spain. See also: Red Terror Spain. Main article: Spanish Revolution of Main article: White Terror Spain.
See also: List of people of the Spanish Civil War. Political parties and organizations in the Spanish Civil War. The Popular Front Republican Supporters of the Popular Front Republican Nationalists Francoist The Popular Front was an electoral alliance formed between various left-wing and centrist parties for elections to the Cortes in , in which the alliance won a majority of seats.
It drew its main support from skilled workers and progressive businessmen. It drew its support from skilled workers, small businessmen, and civil servants. It controlled the autonomous government of Catalonia during the republican period. The two parties won the subsequent general election, but the PSOE left the coalition in It had majority support amongst urban manual workers. Anarchist groups. The anarchists boycotted the Cortes election and initially opposed the Popular Front government, but joined during the Civil War when Largo Caballero became Prime Minister.
Mujeres Libres Free Women : The anarchist feminist organisation. Founding part of ERC in , it sided with the Republican faction during the war. Basque nationalists. Put its religious disagreement with the Popular Front aside for a promised Basque autonomy. International Brigades : pro-Republican military units made up of anti-fascist Socialist, Communist and anarchist volunteers from different countries. Formed in , the UME secretly courted fascist Italy from its inception.
Already conspiring against the Republic in January , after the electoral victory of the Popular Front in February it plotted a coup with monarchist and fascist groups in Spain. Many army officers, aristocrats, and landowners were Alfonsine, but there was little popular support. The Carlists were clerical hard-liners led by the aristocracy, with a populist base amongst the farmers and rural workers of Navarre providing the militia.
Pelayos - militant youth movement, named after Pelayo of Asturias. Although they supported Franco's rebellion, the party was dissolved in , after most members and militants joined FE and Gil-Robles went to exile. The fascistised youth wing of the CEDA. In they suffered a drain of militants, who joined the Falange.
Anarchism portal Fascism portal Communism portal Conservatism portal Liberalism portal Socialism portal. Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Madrid: Marcial Pons. My Mission to Spain. El Terror Rojo Retrieved 13 August New York: Penguin Books. The Spanish Civil War. New York. Chapter Simone Weil: A Life. Obispo Juan A. Iglesia Metodista de Puerto Rico. En su libro, el Obispo Schnase nos ofrece sabiduria pastoral para un ministerio fructifero.
A la vez practico y profundo, su libro invita a nuestras congregaciones a una transformacion espiritual y misional. Lo recomiendo con entusiasmo. Joel N. Obispo jubilado de la Iglesia Metodista Unida. Schnase is the author of Five Practices of Fruitful Congregations, a best-selling book on congregational ministry that has ignited a common interest among churches and their leaders around its themes of radical hospitality, passionate worship, intentional faith development, risk-taking mission and service, and extravagant generosity.
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