Womens Work?: American Schoolteachers, 1650-1920

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Get my own profile Cited by View all All Since Citations h-index 42 27 iindex 77 Professor of Economics, Boston University. US economic history. Articles Cited by. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 1 , , The Journal of interdisciplinary history 14 2 , , The Journal of Economic History 43 1 , , Journal of Economic Perspectives 7 2 , , Human capital in history: The American record, , The Journal of Economic History 67 4 , , Handbook of regional and urban economics 4, , Explorations in Economic history 38 1 , , Families with adequate resources hired private teachers for their children.

Women's work? : American schoolteachers, 1650-1920

The state supplied vouchers for children whose families were too poor to pay. For a variety of reasons, the two-tier system does not seem to have developed in the South and, perhaps as a consequence, women teachers were far less common in Southern as compared with Northern schools. Perlmann and Margo consider a host of alternatives to this institutional explanation, including social structure, demography, and gender wage ratios.

None of these alternatives appear to offer as compelling an explanation for the patterns they observe. The authors choose Illinois for their detailed assessment because it was settled by migrants from both the North and the South and displayed a wide range of local arrangements for the education of the young.

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If these regional institutions are so powerful then how does one account for the eventual feminization of teaching even in the South and in regions settled by former Southerners by ? The first is the experience with women teachers during the Civil War.

The departure of male teachers to either fight or to take other jobs to more directly support the war effort forced school districts to hire women. In many areas, the experience of having female teachers during the Civil War appears to have permanently changed the attitudes of school board members, because the female share did not return to the pre-war level. For Perlmann and Margo, this evidence suggests that the women were doing a good job: At the same time, the fact that the shift could be so great and that so much of the effect was sustained rather than erased after also suggests that there was a certain fit between the effect of the wartime shock to the system and the social and cultural conditions on the eve of the war.

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Large gains for female machinists during World War II, after all, were not sustained after p. Over time, they argue, even the last bastions of male hegemony were removed.

They make use of detailed personnel records to document discrimination against women in both pay and promotion. What explains the creation of these divergent regional arrangements in the East, their recreation in the West, and their eventual disappearance by the next century? Yet despite this shift, a significant gender gap in pay and positions remained.

Woman's Work America

This book offers an original and thought-provoking account of a remarkable historical transition. Table of Contents.

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lirodisa.tk: Women's Work?: American Schoolteachers, ( ): Joel Perlmann, Robert A. Margo: Books. Women's Work?: American. Published by lirodisa.tk (July ). Joel Perlmann and Robert A. Margo, Women's Work? American Schoolteachers,. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Preface Introduction 1. South versus North 3. Migrations 4. Explaining Feminization 5.