Solanas's unabashed misandry—especially her belief in men's biological inferiority—her endorsement of relationships between 'independent women,' and her dismissal of sex as 'the refuge of the mindless' contravened the sort of radical feminism which prevailed in most women's groups across the country. The author Bell Hooks has discussed the issue of "man hating" during the early period of women's liberation as a reaction to patriarchal oppression and women who have had bad experiences with men in non-feminist social movements.
She has also criticized separatist strands of feminism as "reactionary" for promoting the notion that men are inherently immoral, inferior, and unable to help end sexist oppression or benefit from feminism. Although Hooks doesn't name individual separatist theorists, Mary Daly 's utopian vision of a world in which men and heterosexual women have been eliminated is an extreme example of this tendency.
I think this will be accompanied by an evolutionary process that will result in a drastic reduction of the population of males. Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young argued that "ideological feminism" as opposed to "egalitarian feminism" has imposed misandry on culture. Wendy McElroy , an individualist feminist ,  wrote in that some feminists "have redefined the view of the movement of the opposite sex" as "a hot anger toward men [that] seems to have turned into a cold hatred. In a article, author and journalist Cathy Young described a "current cycle of misandry" in feminism.
Men's rights activists and other masculinist groups have criticized modern laws concerning divorce , domestic violence , and rape as examples of institutional misandry.
In a study of college students regarding ambivalent sexism towards men, researchers found that women who did not identify as feminists were more likely to be hostile towards men than self-identified feminists, but also more likely to hold benevolent views towards men. In a study of self-identified heterosexual females, social psychologists found an association between insecure attachment styles and women's hostile sexism towards men. Religious studies professors Paul Nathanson and Katherine Young examined the institutionalization of misandry in the public sphere in their three-book series Beyond the Fall of Man ,  which refers to misandry as a "form of prejudice and discrimination that has become institutionalized in North American society", writing, "The same problem that long prevented mutual respect between Jews and Christians, the teaching of contempt, now prevents mutual respect between men and women.
Stanford University Professor Philip Zimbardo writing for Psychology Today, argued that there was an empathy gap between young men and young women, with young women receiving more empathy and sympathy, and that young men were sometimes demonized and given conflicting messages about acceptable behavior and that this contributed to negative effects such as high young male suicide rates. In November , it was reported that the Canadian government was going to resettle thousands of Syrian refugees, but they would exclude single men.
Only single women, families and unaccompanied minors would be taken in. The author went on the say that resettlement countries are acting on the bigoted stereotype of Arab men as dangerous potential terrorists, rather than as the vulnerable refugees and survivors. Sociologist Allan G. Johnson argues in The Gender Knot: Unraveling our Patriarchal Legacy that accusations of man-hating have been used to put down feminists and to shift attention onto men, reinforcing a male-centered culture.
Marc A. Ouellette argues in International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities that "misandry lacks the systemic, transhistoric, institutionalized, and legislated antipathy of misogyny"; in his view, assuming a parallel between misogyny and misandry overly simplifies relations of gender and power. Anthropologist David D.
Gilmore also argues that misogyny is a "near-universal phenomenon" and that there is no male equivalent to misogyny,  further defending manifestations of perceived misandry as not "hatred of men's traditional male role" and a "culture of machismo". He argues that misandry is "different from the intensely ad feminam aspect of misogyny that targets women no matter what they believe or do".
The most significant point of contact, however, between Eteocles and the suppliant Danaids is, in fact, their extreme positions with regard to the opposite sex: the misogyny of Eteocles' outburst against all women of whatever variety Se.
Literary critic Harold Bloom argued that even though the word misandry is relatively unheard of in literature it is not hard to find implicit, even explicit, misandry. In reference to the works of Shakespeare Bloom argued "I cannot think of one instance of misogyny whereas I would argue that misandry is a strong element. Shakespeare makes perfectly clear that women in general have to marry down and that men are narcissistic and not to be trusted and so forth. On the whole, he gives us a darker vision of human males than human females.
Racialized misandry occurs in both "high" and "low" culture and literature. For instance, African-American men have often been disparagingly portrayed as either infantile or as eroticized and hyper-masculine, depending on prevailing cultural stereotypes.
Critic of mainstream feminism Christina Hoff Sommers has described Eve Ensler 's play The Vagina Monologues as misandric in that "there are no admirable males They are not oppressors". Julie M. Thompson, a feminist author, connects misandry with envy of men, in particular " penis envy ", a term coined by Sigmund Freud in , in his theory of female sexual development. Clark is Superman's vision of what other men are really like. We are scared, incompetent, and powerless, particularly around women. Though Feiffer took the joke good-naturedly, a more cynical response would see here the Kryptonian's misanthropy, his misandry embodied in Clark and his misogyny in his wish that Lois be enamored of Clark much like Oberon takes out hostility toward Titania by having her fall in love with an ass in Shakespeare's Midsummer-Night's Dream.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Hatred or dislike of men or boys. Men's movement Mythopoetic men's movement Men's liberation movement Men's rights movement Fathers' rights movement Egalitarianism Intactivism Meninism. Topics and issues.
Topics Sex differences in humans Human male sexuality Gender equality Misandry Hegemonic masculinity. Gender roles Machismo. Gender studies Men's studies.
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