Along with wanton killing came the poisoning of the environment with defoliants like Agent Orange; meanwhile, mines and unexploded ordnance from the war continue to kill people today in Southeast Asia. To most Americans, Vietnam is a war. And war is a distorting and limiting lens through which to view cultures and peoples. Will Burns recognize this distortion? The series talks about hearing voices from all sides of the conflict. But will the Vietnamese people, together with Laotians and Cambodians, really have as much say as Americans? The U. But Vietnamese killed numbered in the millions.
And the destruction to SE Asia — the spread of the war to Laos and Cambodia — was on a scale that rivaled or surpassed the destruction to the American South during the U. Civil War. Will that destruction be thoroughly documented and explained? Whose point of view will prevail in the documentary? What will be the main thread of the narrative? Will the war be presented as a tragedy? A misunderstanding? A mistake? A crime? Will these myths be presented as alternative truths of the war?
Which American war in Vietnam will be presented? Even when we talk of the American part of the Vietnam War, there were at least four wars. Army under General William Westmoreland fought a conventional, search and destroy, war. The Air Force wanted to prove that airpower alone, specifically bombing, could win the war. The Marines were more interested in counterinsurgency and pacification. The CIA and special ops types were engaged in psychological warfare, assassinations, torture, and god-knows-what-else.
The American presence in Vietnam became so overwhelming that by the Vietnamese economy was completely distorted. Material superiority bred and fed cockiness. It details the non-combat experiences of U. Anti-war protests and serious unrest within the U. Has this decision contributed to a more imperial U. Short of nuclear weapons, the U. The horse mounted infantry of the Scouts were effective and reportedly feared by their opponents in the rebel African forces.
In the to present Afghan Civil War period there have been several instances of horse mounted combat. The Mexican Army included a number of horse mounted cavalry regiments as late as the mids and the Chilean Army had five such regiments in as mounted mountain troops. The Soviet Army retained horse cavalry divisions until , and even at the dissolution of the Soviet Union in , there was an independent horse mounted cavalry squadron in Kyrgyzstan. Today, the Indian Army 's 61st Cavalry is reported to be the largest remaining horse-mounted cavalry unit with operational potential in the world.
While primarily utilised for ceremonial purposes, the regiment can be deployed for internal security or police roles if required. Both the Indian and the Pakistani armies maintain armoured regiments with the titles of Lancers or Horse, dating back to the 19th century. As of the Chinese People's Liberation Army employed two battalions of horse-mounted border guards in Xinjing Military District for border patrol work.
The PLA mounted units last saw action during border clashes with Vietnam in the s and 80s, after which most cavalry units were disbanded as part of the major military downsizing of the s. In the wake of the Sichuan earthquake , there were calls to rebuild the army horse inventory for disaster relief in difficult terrain. Subsequent Chinese media reporting  confirms that the Chinese Army maintains operational horse cavalry at squadron strength in the Mongolia Autonomous Region for scouting and logistical purposes.
Of these, only Lord Strathcona's Horse and the Governor General's Horse Guards maintain an official ceremonial horse-mounted cavalry troop or squadron. In the Army of the Russian Federation reintroduced a ceremonial mounted squadron wearing historic uniforms. Both the Australian and New Zealand armies follow the British practice of maintaining traditional titles Light Horse or Mounted Rifles for modern mechanised units. However, neither country retains a horse-mounted unit. Several armored units of the modern United States Army retain the designation of " Armored cavalry ".
The United States also has " air cavalry " units equipped with helicopters. The Horse Cavalry Detachment of the U. Army's 1st Cavalry Division , made up of active duty soldiers, still functions as an active unit; trained to approximate the weapons, tools, equipment and techniques used by the United States Cavalry in the s. The First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry is a volunteer unit within the Pennsylvania Army National Guard which serves as a combat force when in federal service but acts in a mounted disaster relief role when in state service.
Some individual U. Army course. Washington National Guard cavalry pictured in Tacoma, Washington in French cuirassiers , wearing breastplates and helmets, parade through Paris on the way to battle, August The mounted President's Bodyguard of the Indian Army. French Republican Guard — Bastille Day military parade. Troopers of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London. Turkmenistan ceremonial cavalry in the Independence Day parade Historically, cavalry was divided into horse archers , light and heavy cavalry.
The differences were their role in combat, the size of the mount, and how much armor was worn by the mount and rider. Early light cavalry like the auxiliaries of the Roman army were typically used to scout and skirmish , to cut down retreating infantry, and for defeating enemy missile troops. Armoured cavalry such as the Byzantine cataphract were used as shock troops—they would charge the main body of the enemy and in many cases, their actions decided the outcome of the battle, hence the later term "battle cavalry".
During the Gunpowder Age , armored cavalry units still retained cuirasses and helmets for their protective value against sword and bayonet strikes, and the morale boost these provide to the wearers. By this time the main difference between light and heavy cavalry was their training; the former was regarded as a tool for harassment and reconnaissance, while the latter was considered best for close-order charges. Since the development of armored warfare , the distinction between light and heavy armor has persisted basically along the same lines.
Armored cars and light tanks have adopted the reconnaissance role while medium and heavy tanks are regarded as the decisive shock troops. From the beginning of civilization to the 20th century, ownership of heavy cavalry horses has been a mark of wealth amongst settled peoples. A cavalry horse involves considerable expense in breeding, training, feeding, and equipment, and has very little productive use except as a mode of transport. For this reason, and because of their often decisive military role, the cavalry has typically been associated with high social status.
This was most clearly seen in the feudal system , where a lord was expected to enter combat armored and on horseback and bring with him an entourage of lightly armed peasants on foot. If landlords and peasant levies came into conflict, the poorly trained footmen would be ill-equipped to defeat armored knights. In later national armies, service as an officer in the cavalry was generally a badge of high social status. For instance prior to most officers of British cavalry regiments came from a socially privileged background and the considerable expenses associated with their role generally required private means, even after it became possible for officers of the line infantry regiments to live on their pay.
Options open to poorer cavalry officers in the various European armies included service with less fashionable though often highly professional frontier or colonial units. During the 19th and early 20th centuries most monarchies maintained a mounted cavalry element in their royal or imperial guards.
These ranged from small units providing ceremonial escorts and palace guards, through to large formations intended for active service. The mounted escort of the Spanish Royal Household provided an example of the former and the twelve cavalry regiments of the Prussian Imperial Guard an example of the latter. In either case the officers of such units were likely to be drawn from the aristocracies of their respective societies.
Some sense of the noise and power of a cavalry charge can be gained from the film Waterloo , which featured some 2, cavalrymen,  some of them Cossacks. It included detailed displays of the horsemanship required to manage animal and weapons in large numbers at the gallop unlike the real battle of Waterloo , where deep mud significantly slowed the horses. A smaller-scale cavalry charge can be seen in The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ; although the finished scene has substantial computer-generated imagery , raw footage and reactions of the riders are shown in the Extended Version DVD Appendices.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Calvary. For other uses, see Cavalry disambiguation. Prehistoric Ancient Post-classical Early modern Late modern industrial fourth-gen. Blitzkrieg Deep operation Maneuver Operational manoeuvre group. Grand strategy.
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Main article: Cavalry tactics. Main articles: hippeis and companion cavalry. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Roman cavalry. See also: Horse archer. Main article: Mounted archery. Further information: Horses in East Asian warfare.
An Eastern Han glazed ceramic statue of a horse with bridle and halter headgear, from Sichuan , late 2nd century to early 3rd century AD. See also: Horses in the Middle Ages. Main articles: Religious war and Muslim conquests. Main articles: Mobile guard and List of battles of Muhammad. Main article: Mamluk. Main article: Song of Roland.
Main articles: Qizilbash and Zamburak. Main articles: Sipahi and Akinci. See also: Heavy cavalry and light cavalry. Warfare in the Classical World. The Army of Alexander the Great.
Macedonian Armies after Alexander BC. Republican Roman Army BC. Retrieved November 25, An Illustrated History of Cavalry.
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Retrieved 22 October Maryland Defense Force Official Website. Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 5 October Colonel MD Ron. National Lancers Official Website. Accessed Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1: long volume value All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Articles with unsourced statements from March CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Commons category link is on Wikidata Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with NARA identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Throughout history, tribal groups have participated in nation-state wars. A review of the historical data in relation to the First and Second Indochina Wars reveals that the primary motivations for tribal participation is long-standing animosities with traditional enemies.
Modern wars of national liberation and Maoist warfare theories have made certain tribal groups a target or liability.
Warfare by proxy will only intensify indigenous tribal animosities. Under the Western system, efforts are made to maintain the status quo concerning tribal leadership. In the case of Vietnam, the communist insurgency resulted in the assimilation of tribal minorities, whereas Western counter-insurgency practices resulted in a strong tribal separatist movement.