In addition, health screening of the participant should be conducted in order to optimize safety during exercise testing and participation to develop an individualized, safe and effective exercise prescription. After the completed health screening, the participant should have a pre-exercise evaluation which will provide a baseline measure of body composition, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, and muscle strength.
The protocols for testing older individuals need to be modified for any special needs they may have. The ACSM provided factors to be considered when selecting an exercise testing protocol for older individuals Table 2. Exercise Prescription The American College of Sports Medicine recommends the goals for exercise in the senior population should be to maintain functional capacity for independent living, reduce risk factors for heart disease, retard the progression of chronic disease, promote psychological well-being, and provide opportunities for social interaction.
Although many of the general principles of exercise prescription are the same for individuals of all ages, special care must be given when setting up a fitness program for older individuals. Exercise programs for older individuals should be tailored to combine endurance, muscle strength, and flexibility to promote the quality of their life.
The general exercise prescription guidelines for the senior population are developed from the ACSM guidelines The mode of exercise for the older population should be activities with low-impact on their joints. The activities include walking, stationary cycling, water exercise, swimming, or machine-based stair climbing.
The activity needs to be accessible, convenient, and enjoyable to the participant. The duration of an exercise program should start with short periods and gradually progress in length. During the initial stage, it may be difficult for some old adults with physiologic limitations to perform exercise for 20 minutes.
It will be possible for them to perform exercise in shorter sessions of five to 10 minutes repeated several times throughout the day. In addition to the duration of the exercise program itself, elderly people need additional warm-up and cool down time, perhaps as much as 10 minutes or more. The intensity of the exercise program must start out low since elderly people are more prone to exercise-related injuries. Because low intensity exercise is associated with a lower risk for injury, it should be encouraged in the elderly population.
Exercise intensity should be sufficient to overload the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal systems without overstraining them. The intensity level of exercise should be regularly monitored by heart rate, or rating of perceived exertion Borg, Generally, the frequency of exercise programs recommended is three to five days per week ACSM, Emphasis on more frequent activity five to seven days per week may be made with seniors if they exercise very low intensity with short duration.
This recommended increase in frequency has physiological relevance for the maintenance of endurance capacity as well as flexibility.
In addition, the greater frequency may enhance compliance and lead to a greater probability of the subject assimilating physical activity in the daily routine. Progression should be conservative and gradual for older individuals. The initial stage, usually four to six weeks, should include low intensity exercise to permit adaptation with minimal risk for injury. Elderly subjects may need a longer period of adjustment before exercising at higher intensity levels. It is better to increase exercise duration initially rather than intensity in order to avoid injury and ensure safety.
Progression in an exercise program should be based on how well the individual is responding to the current regimen, the medical and health limitations of the individual, and individual goals. Exercise programs should be reviewed on a regular basis to ensure they are meeting the needs of the participant. American College of Sports Medicine. Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription 4th ed. Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription 5th ed. Blair, S. Physical activity, physical fitness, and health.
Strength-training activities should include exercises for all major muscle groups shoulders, arms, chest, abdomen, back, hips, and legs. Your request to send this item has been completed. You may send this item to up to five recipients. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. The text completes its presentation by including practical information on integrating exercise into complete healthy lifestyles with consideration to helping individuals select a physical activity program that works.
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Joseph J. Kerryellen Griffith Vroman. Douglas J. American College of Sports Medicine. Karen Rascati. William D. Vera Paulson.
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Popular Features. New Releases. Description In ACSM's Exercise for Older Adults world-renowned researchers and practitioners make a compelling case for older adults to engage in physical activity. Over the course of ten chapters, the text highlights the physiological, psychological, and social benefits of a physically active lifestyle.
Students and professionals will benefit from implementation strategies including motivation to initiate and maintain exercise; options for healthy older adults; options for older adults with special needs; and assessing progress and performance. The text completes its presentation by including practical information on integrating exercise into complete healthy lifestyles with consideration to helping individuals select a physical activity program that works.
A frequently asked questions chapter provides exercise professionals with resources to anticipate and respond to their clients. The American College of Sports Medicine, founded in , is the world's largest sports medicine and exercise science organization with more than 45, national, regional, and international members and certified professionals in more than 90 countries. With professionals representing more than 70 occupations, ACSM offers a degree view of sports medicine and exercise science.
For more information, visit www. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x Other books in this series. Pulmonary Physiology and Pathophysiology West.