Cloud Castles (Spiral Book 3)

The discovery of spiral galaxies
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About Michael Scott Rohan.

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Michael Scott Rohan. Michael Scott Rohan born in Edinburgh is a Scottish fantasy and science fiction author and writer on opera. He had a number of short stories published before his first books, the science fiction novel Run to the Stars and the non-fiction First Byte. He then collaborated with Allan J. Scott on the nonfiction The Hammer and The Cross an account of Christianity arriving in Viking lands, not to Michael Scott Rohan born in Edinburgh is a Scottish fantasy and science fiction author and writer on opera.

He also wrote the Spiral novels, in which our world is the Hub, or Core, of a spiral of mythic and legendary versions of familiar cities, countries and continents. Other books in the series. The Spiral 4 books. Books by Michael Scott Rohan. Very sad.

I loved the Winter of the World series. It had great atmosphere and imagery. Very close to a LOTR vibe.

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Cloud Castles book. Read 4 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Twice before Stephen Fisher has set sail upon that shifting vortex of. Cloud Castles (Spiral Book 3) - Kindle edition by Michael Scott Rohan. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features.

To me anyway. He was my best and oldest friend, as well as the kind of creative collaborator most of us can only dream about. I'm working on a new memorial website to update and replace the old Zetnet site that has somehow managed to survive for decades - and to which although I built it I no longer have access Allan Scott. I just found out this morning that Mike has passed away. We have been writing each other over the past quarter of a century and I loved him not just for the great writer he was, but also for his sense of humor and interests we shared.

Rosse's telescope Leviathan was the first to reveal the spiral structure of M51, a Galaxy nicknamed later as the 'Whirlpool Galaxy', and his drawings of it see figure 1.

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At the time of Rosse's observations of M51 in , it was referred to as a spiral nebula. It was the first of many spiral nebulae that he observed with his Leviathan.

William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse: Astronomy and the Castle in Nineteenth Century Ireland

In , there was no method for determining the distances to spiral nebulae, and so it was believed that they were part of the Milky Way Galaxy. It would take an analysis of a certain type of star, known as Cepheid Variables, to provide the first technique to measure the distances to these nebulae. On 10 September, , Edward Pigott detected the variability of Eta Aquilae, the first known representative of the class of classical Cepheid variables. However, the archetypal star for classical Cepheids is Delta Cephei, discovered to be variable by John Goodricke a few months later.

Little was it known at the time that Cepheid variables would hold a key to dramatically changing our view of the Universe in the early part of the 20th century.


Fundamental to this would be a discovery by one of the unsung heroes of 20th century astronomy. Henrietta Swan Leavitt pictured in figure 1. A graduate of Radcliffe College, Leavitt started working at the Harvard College Observatory as a 'computer' in , examining photographic plates in order to measure and catalog the brightness of the stars.

The term 'computer', in use from the early 17th century meant 'one who computes': a person performing mathematical calculations, before electronic computers became commercially available. Teams of people were frequently used to undertake long and often tedious calculations; the work was divided so that this could be done in parallel.

There Is A Castle On A Cloud - Les Misérables - SceneScreen

Harvard College Observatory employed a team of women to perform these calculations, and Henrietta Swan Leavitt was one of them. She was hired at the observatory by Edward Charles Pickering and was assigned the task of cataloging stars in the early s, women were not allowed to operate telescopes. Paid at a rate of just 30 cents per hour, she was reportedly hardworking, serious-minded, and devoted to her family, her church, and her career.

Pickering assigned Leavitt to study 'variable stars', whose luminosity varies over time. According to science writer Jeremy Bernstein, 'variable stars had been of interest for years, but when she was studying those plates, I doubt Pickering thought she would make a significant discovery—one that would eventually change astronomy'.

Wily Castle

Leavitt noted thousands of variable stars in images of the Magellanic Clouds. In , she published her results in the Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, noting that a few of the variables showed a pattern: brighter ones appeared to have longer periods. After further study, she confirmed in that the Cepheid variables 1 with greater intrinsic luminosity did have longer periods, and that the relationship was quite close and predictable.

Leavitt used the simplifying assumption that all of the Cepheids within each Magellanic Cloud were at approximately the same distances from Earth, so that their intrinsic brightness could be deduced from their apparent brightness as measured from the photographic plates and from the distance to each of the clouds.

She noted that 'since the variables are probably at nearly the same distance from the Earth, their periods are apparently associated with their actual emission of light, as determined by their mass, density, and surface brightness'. Her discovery, which she produced from studying some variable stars recorded on Harvard's photographic plates, is known as the 'period—luminosity relationship' for Cepheid variables: the logarithm of the period is linearly related to the logarithm of the star's average intrinsic optical luminosity.

The period—luminosity relationship for Cepheids made them the first 'standard candle' in astronomy, allowing scientists to compute the distances to objects that are too distant for stellar parallax observations. Leavitt was not recognized for her work until after her death.