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Learn more about ebook formats and e-readers. In this way, encryption has the potential to protect information and commercial transactions as it is transmitted through the Internet and, despite the mathematical sophistication of the techniques being used Bowden and Akdeniz, , does so by procedures that can be increasingly used by nonexperts. This is due to the desktop computer revolution that has made it possible for cryptographic techniques to become widely used and accessible to nonexperts even though the science of cryptography is very old. Nowadays, it is possible to buy cheap but strong encryption software from local computer shops.
Moreover, one of the most popular encryption software, the Pretty Good Privacy PGP is freely available over the Internet for personal use. However, the use of encryption seems to give rise to an element of suspicion -- it is often assumed that the use of secret codes is associated with the world of spies and industrial espionage.
Nevertheless, there are many legitimate purposes of secrecy in general and encryption in particular Bok, Many are connected with business transactions and the desire to keep financial information away from the prying eyes of third parties who might then use the intercepted information for fraudulent purposes. In this way, encryption technology is a fundamental element for the development of a global electronic commercial system. We shall describe and discuss a number of governmental reports that have recognized the need for encryption and its existing use by commercial Internet users, especially financial institutions.
Other personal purposes include being able to obtain advice or counseling in private and perhaps even without identification. Thus, the technology has been used by the Samaritans organization in the U. It has enabled the use of the Internet as a mode of information gathering and dissemination concerning, for example, human rights abuses.
Organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch do communicate with dissidents all around the world with the use encryption technology that ensures not only secrecy of the content of messages but also authenticity of their authors Network Week, In response to the needs for establishing trust and confidence through the use of encryption technology in the Information Age, there is a need for a regulatory framework at the national, supranational, and international levels.
However, far from having a consensus, there are considerable differences between the various regulatory framework initiatives offered in both the European Union and the United States. Furthermore, there are even completely different policy initiatives among the European Union member states for example, the United Kingdom and France.
All these differences not only hamper and hold back the growth and development of e-commerce, but also the possibility of providing a secure environment for netizens.
At the European Union EU member state level, there is no doubt that there is a strong commitment, based on global economic competition but equally political populism, to embrace in principle "the age of the Information Society" House of Lords, , paras. Yet, because of cultural, historical, and sociopolitical diversity, there will inevitably be divergent approaches to the growth and governance of the Internet in different European societies.
Faced with the fragmentation of both the Internet and the all-purpose nation state, and having regard to the cardinal principles of respect for difference and subsidiarity, it is not surprising that the European Union has sought to avoid domineering stances and the imposition of monopolistic forms of governmentality. As early as , the Bangemann Report to the European Commission dealt with the use of encryption tools and stated that a solution at a national member states level will inevitably prove to be insufficient because communications reach beyond national frontiers and because the principles of the internal market prohibit measures such as import bans on decoding equipment.
Therefore, according to Bangemann a solution at the European level was needed "which provides a global answer to the problem of protection of encrypted signals and security.
Based on the principles of the internal market it would create parity of conditions for the protection of encrypted services as well as the legal framework for the development of these new services" Bangemann Report, Furthermore, Bangemann's ideas in this field were followed by the Commission in their October paper:. The EU communication paper on encryption further stated that "most of the few criminal cases involving encryption that are quoted as examples for the need of regulation concern 'professional' use of encryption.
It seems unlikely that in such cases the use of encryption could be effectively controlled by regulation" European Commission, This view is echoed in Principle 5 of the OECD Guidelines on Cryptography Policy, which states that "the fundamental rights of individuals to privacy, including secrecy of communications and protection of personal data, should be respected in national cryptography policies and in the implementation and use of cryptographic methods" OECD, The Commision's conclusion is most important as some of the national initiatives and proposals like the U.
As far as the digital signatures are concerned, the Commission decided to separate the need for a regulatory framework for the use of digital signatures from that of the use of encryption. The Commission also dismissed the claims that the use of digital signatures would create problems for the law enforcement. For the purpose of creating a legal framework for the use of digital signatures, the European Commission, in May , published a proposed Directive on a Common Framework for Electronic Signatures European Commission, The draft directive was finalized in October and highlighted the problem that " At the time of writing, the European Commission was yet to formulate a common policy on the use of encryption and this will be the more problematic task for the Commission as again at the time of writing there are completely different policy views within the member states of the European Union.
We shall now explore one such member state, namely the United Kingdom. The DTI consultation paper addressed many issues that would have an impact on the use of encryption tools on the Internet but the issue of whether blanket escrow of encryption keys the central policy being put forward both to encourage trust in the integrity of encryption and to allow for investigation of those criminals and terrorists who abuse its facilities presents unique civil liberties dangers was not addressed Akdeniz, a.
In addition to its refusal to examine the core of the controversy, the DTI paper is provincial and ahistorical. There was no mention of the four years of continual proposals for key escrow systems by the U. These publications were followed in February with the announcement by the Home Secretary of a plan to allow government access to encrypted communications for the prevention of crime.
The Statement concentrates more on the use of digital signatures and therefore the emphasis is on the government's commitment to a safe and secure basis for the development of electronic commerce. Though it has increasing allure for the individual sitting in the sanctity of the home, there are major concerns about the vehicle it provides for personal snooping not only by commercial institutions but also and more seriously by governmental organizations, all of which may be able to keep track of the use of the Internet by the individual for the purposes of marketing, policing,. Note assume that the lookup tables used by the cryptographic cipher that the time window in this step has been chosen such that are allocated contiguously and their starting address is known. At the application stratum the connected to each other via the X2 interface, and they connect communication between the user application and the provider to the Mobility Management Entities MME and Serving application is protected by the ADS. We're testing advertisements across the network. Field, N.
The European Union ministers at a meeting in Birmingham warned that unbreakable encryption systems would mean organized crime could pursue its activities unhindered Akdeniz, b. A new repackaged version of the U. This new policy statement follows from the previous government's Trusted Third Party initiatives, and the idea of the TTPs still remain but this time on a "voluntary basis.
The government also hopes that "organisations providing services to the public will see the benefit of adhering to a high standard, and the public confidence that this will bring. Phil Zimmerman, the creator of Pretty Good Privacy PGP , stated after reviewing the government statement that "in principle it's voluntary; but, de facto, it's compulsory. This is exactly what so many of us in the U. The DTI's Statement also now has a clear policy differentiation between digital signatures and the use of encryption.
The Statement concentrates more on the use of digital signatures and therefore the emphasis is on the government's commitment to a safe and secure basis for the development of electronic commerce. So, to have taken any other position on digital signatures would have posed serious conflicts with emergent supranational policy. These national and international developments, which express significant support for data privacy, should have significant implications for the treatment of encryption. It should therefore be prima facie respected and even encouraged by national policymakers.
By contrast, the DTI paper should be criticized as being fixated on the value of encryption solely in connection with commerce and ignoring wider political and social uses of information technology that might legitimately require the use of encryption. Even the Internet industry does not favor the U.
The DTI's Statement was the inspiration for the announcement of proposed legislation in the form of the Electronic Commerce Bill within the Queen's Speech in November , the aim of which was to make the make the United Kingdom the most propotious place in the world to trade online BBC News, The then Trade and Industry Secretary of State, Peter Mandelson, told the Labour Party's annual conference in September that the country could become a new industrial and commercial power in the 21st century if it grasped the potential of the Information Age. Peter Mandelson added the caveat that "We need to make sure that all our laws and rules are e-commerce friendly.
However, no surprises are expected as the DTI has been consistent in its policy so far and has been not much deflected by representations from lobbies such as civil liberties organizations and consumers. A document issued in October by the DTI, called Net Benefit: The Electronic Commerce Agenda for the UK DTI, c , still contends that "encryption, has a major drawback -- the same technology used to protect sensitive business communications can be used by criminals and terrorists to circumvent the legal powers of interception by governments.
The DTI paper further states that "the dilemma is how to ensure that innovation and electronic business are not stifled while simultaneously taking law enforcement concerns into account. These are the development of e-commerce and the needs of the law enforcement. This paper will now address the issue of law enforcement and its balance with privacy rights. Since the introduction of the White Paper in June , the government through the DTI has consistently failed to attach any importance to privacy or to recognize the importance of encryption to private communications over the Internet.
The attitude of the DTI is especially remarkable in light of other governmental initiatives, such as the Human Rights Act and the newly strenthened Data Protection Act This blindness is also evident in its position in regard to investigative powers in response to the risk that criminals and terrorists will exploit strong encryption techniques to protect their activities from detection by law enforcement agencies.
The VoIP server is a software package running on the Linux platform together with a hardware security token, a secure USB dongle, which contains security functionality. Mobile Communications. Communications Encryption. Compumatica 3G for BlackBerry. Additional Notes System overview The Blackberries are able to communicate over a secure link with each other through the VoIP server with keys generated from key material provided by either the KMS via a secure SMS , or by an Elliptic Curves key protocol or entered manually by the users.
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