For example, learners are often expected to be self-directed, motivated, and they are assumed to be physically isolated from instructors and other learners. If learners, however, fail to accept this role, they are more likely to become disengaged and drop out. Negotiating the learning content is the fourth task, which refers to the learning materials and didactics of an online course and is related to the ability to engage in and to master the required activities with a particular focus on adequate cognitive processing in the course.
The fifth task, negotiating CMC interaction, focusses on the synchronous and asynchronous channels of communication in an online course and is related to the ability to engage in and master the required communicative activities. Communication is often based on electronic text and special structures e. Research on the basis of CLT has revealed expertise reversal effects in a variety of instructional designs Kalyuga, Expertise reversal effect is a general term for all instructional design effects that are dependent on prior knowledge and result in a learning environment that is effective for learners with little prior knowledge but ineffective for learners with considerable prior knowledge.
This effect has often been studied in less complex situations e. However, it has been rarely analysed in more complex situations such as online trainings. Self-paced and self-sequenced learning is a common feature of online learning courses, thus learning scenarios should be adequate for inexperienced as well as experienced learners. Viewed from the perspective of the MDLTM, more experienced learners are assumed to engage more adequately in negotiating the learning content. Intrinsic load is assumed to be influenced by prior knowledge. The more prior knowledge, the less intrinsic load might be experienced while learning, because prior knowledge reduces the complexity of the content.
A higher level of prior knowledge is often also connected to a lower level of germane load because of having less new information connected to prior knowledge. As a result of this prior knowledge advantage, learners might experience less working memory load and be less threatened by cognitive overload. Studies from hypertext research have reported the positive impact of prior knowledge on various performance measures e.
However, non-significant correlations were found when the courses were aimed at mastery learning e.
A higher level of intrinsic motivation might counteract over load and thus contribute to reduced dropout rates. Students might not give up as easy as when they are less or extraneously motivated. From the perspective of MDLTM, motivation might play a role in all five tasks, especially in reference to overcoming obstacles.
Motivation might influence experienced load and how students manage it especially when load is high. Motivation is one of the most frequently studied covariates of dropout, and numerous studies have shown it to be correlated with course persistence and dropout e. Negative computer attitudes might engender a more extraneous load because of, for example, disturbing thoughts about the computer malfunctioning or even crashing, particularly when negotiating both the technology and the Learner Management System interface and while learning.
The increased extraneous load could initiate a dropout decision. In contrast, learners with positive attitudes should be less prone to such negative thoughts and thus less likely to suffer from extra working memory load by task-foreign cognitions. Consequently, these learners are assumed to engage adequately in negotiating technology and the system interface and in information processing and knowledge construction. Only a few studies have been conducted on the effects of computer attitudes on learning performance.
Stiller ; a found negative effects of negative attitudes and interaction effects with information presentation and navigation. Positive effects of positive attitudes e. Similar to the relationship between computer attitudes and online learning, computer anxiety might also influence learning in an online environment by affecting working memory load. Computer anxiety might contribute more extraneous load because of intervening negative emotions and negative thoughts about the computer, which in turn could make the option of dropping out more attractive.
Learners without computer anxiety are expected to adequately engage in negotiating the technology and the Learner Management System interface and engage in information processing and knowledge construction, because their working memory will be less burdened. Few studies have investigated computer anxiety and course dropout or course persistence e.
Pintrich also differentiates between cognitive learning strategies, metacognitive learning strategies and resource management strategies. The metacognitive strategies, time management and creating a supporting learning environment, are considered to be particularly relevant for online learning. Metacognitive strategies include planning, monitoring and the regulation of cognitive processes Pintrich, These strategies serve the purpose of planning suitable procedures choice of strategies , monitoring correcting the execution of strategies and evaluating the result achievement of goals and objectives as well as regulating interventions for corrections the procedural flow.
A successful use of metacognitive strategies is based on the knowledge about learning strategies and their adequate application conditions. The strategies of time management and learning environment belong to this category. They focus on the organization of learning activities. Strategies of learning environment are about creating a learning environment that supports learning. Time management is about adequately assigning appropriate time periods for learning. The competent use of time management and learning environment strategies might reduce cognitive load while learning and thus prevent cognitive overload.
It might particularly reduce extraneous load being able to assign time to learning without disturbances and foster learning being able to focus cognitive resources on information processing more efficiently , which in turn might contribute to reducing dropout.
An online training in media pedagogy for teachers was used to explore learner attrition. We first identified groups of learners according to the extent that they completed the training and recorded dropout rates. We then examined whether learner attrition is influenced by prior knowledge, intrinsic motivation, computer attitude, computer anxiety and learning strategies by comparing the learner characteristics between the group of learners who dropped out and the group of successful learners.
We assumed that dropout would be more likely when a learner has a lower level of prior knowledge, intrinsic motivation and learning skills, and more negative attitudes towards computers and a higher level of computer anxiety. The training was authorized by and offered throughout the German Federal State of Bavaria.
The training contributes to the field of continuing vocational education and training on media pedagogy and addresses teachers of primary schools Grundschule , secondary general schools Hauptschule , intermediate schools Realschule and grammar schools Gymnasium in the German Federal State of Bavaria see Federal Ministry of Education and Research, for details on German classification of schools.
Students were recruited by promoting the online training offline via flyers that were placed at these types of schools throughout Bavaria. In-service teachers and teachers from other school types participated in the training, but only the group of trainee teachers was analysed. Participants are described in the results section. The training was offered only online without a fixed schedule. The content was presented in modules, and the teaching was based on instructional texts. The latter principle was excluded, because it was not expected to guarantee a high level of flexibility for the learners.
The nine events are a gain attention, b inform about objectives, c stimulate recall of prior knowledge, d present the material to be learned, e provide guidance for learning, f elicit performance, g provide informative feedback, h assess performance and i enhance retention and transfer. The training consists of eight modules organized in two blocks. Media education : a typical everyday life of children and adolescents, b Where to find what in the Web - useful web search, c Web 2. Students who completed at least one of the eight modules successfully could request a training certificate listing all successfully completed modules.
A successful completion of any module was calculated with a workload of 60 to 90 minutes, which sums to 8 to 12 hours to complete all of the modules. In addition, an introductory module informs about content, technical requirements, course organization and self-management for successful online learning. Registration and participation was free. The starting point of the online training was a Moodle course portal Version 1.
After registering and logging in for the first time, an introductory module was presented. Then students could freely decide how many of the modules they wanted to study and in which sequence. Each training module had a linear structure represented by six screen pages: a module profile, b case example, c test of domain-specific prior knowledge, d instructional unit, e module evaluation, and f final module test.
The module profile provided an overview of the content and the teaching objectives. The case example represented a real life problem with the purpose of engaging students. The instructional unit comprised an obligatory instructional text and optional supporting material, for example, links to videos, audios, webpages, and literature that could be used for further elaboration. The module evaluation provided a questionnaire that assessed various aspects of the module studied, for example, content difficulty, ease of learning, and satisfaction with modules. The final module tests consisted of 15 multiple-choice items that evaluated factual knowledge learned in the training, the result of which was provided as feedback to the student.
The aim of the training was to provide factual knowledge. Thus, multiple-choice tests were an appropriate instrument for measuring learning success. Support for students was provided via e-mail, online chat or phone for questions about content or difficulties in understanding an issue, including giving assistance with organization and technology. Response to e-mail was normally delivered within a few hours without exception for weekends and nights, and chat and phone consulting were provided during assigned office hours in the afternoon and on Saturday.
Office hours were announced at least four weeks in advance. The training was offered from October to July , which was during the regular German school year. Anyone interested in the course could register by specifying a name, username, and password. Before starting the training, participants were asked to complete the first online questionnaire that gathered demographic information and assessed various learner characteristics. Tables A and B of the appendix list the items of the used measurement scales. After completing the first questionnaire, the eight course modules were accessible.
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