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View basket. Continue shopping. United Kingdom. Search Within These Results:. Sidewise in Time describes it in the manner that similar to requiring both longitude and latitude coordinates in order to mark your location on Earth, so too does time: travelling along latitude is akin to time travel moving through past and future, while travelling along latitude is to travel perpendicular to time and to other realities, hence the name of the short story. Thus, another common term for a parallel universe is "another dimension", stemming from the idea that if the 4th dimension is time, the 5th dimension - a direction at a right angle to the fourth - are alternate realities.
In modern literature, a parallel universe can be divided into two categories: to allow for stories where elements that would ordinarily violate the laws of nature. Examples of the former include Terry Pratchett's Discworld and C. A parallel universe may serve as a central plot point, or it may be mentioned and dismissed, having served its purpose of establishing a realm unconstrained by realism ; the aforementioned Discworld, for example, only rarely mentions our world or any other worlds, as setting the books on a parallel universe instead of "our" reality is to allow for magic on the Disc.
The Chronicles of Narnia utilises this to a lesser extent - the idea of parallel universes are brought up but only mentioned in the introduction and ending, its main purpose to bring the protagonist from "our" reality to the setting of the books. While technically incorrect, looked down upon by hard science-fiction fans and authors, the idea of another "dimension" has become synonymous with the term "parallel universe". The usage is common in movies and comic books and much less so in modern prose science fiction; the idea of a parallel world was first introduced in comic books with the publication of The Flash , " Flash of Two Worlds ".
In written science fiction, "new dimension" more — and more — refer to additional coordinate axes, beyond the three spatial axes with which we are familiar. By proposing travel along these extra axes, which are not perceptible, the traveler can reach worlds that are otherwise unreachable and invisible. In , Edwin A. Abbott wrote, it describes a world of two dimensions inhabited by living squares and circles, called Flatland , as well as Pointland and Spaceland and posits the possibilities of greater dimensions.
Isaac Asimov , in his foreword to the Signet Classics edition, described Flatland as "The best introduction one can find into the manner of perceiving dimensions. In , The Time Machine by H. Wells used time as an additional "dimension" in this sense, taking the four-dimensional model of classical physics and interpreting time as a space-like dimension in which humans could travel with the right equipment. Wells used the concept of parallel universes as a consequence of time as the fourth dimension in stories like The Wonderful Visit and Men Like Gods , an idea proposed by the astronomer Simon Newcomb , who talked about both time and parallel universes.
WorldCat WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72, libraries in countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. In , OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections.
In , it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In , WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles.
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In December , WorldCat contained over million bibliographic records in languages, representing over 2. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number.
WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.
However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Breeding, Marshall. Library Technology Reports.
Matthews, Joseph R.. Public Library Quarterly. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston : Suffolk University Law School. Research paper What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. ISBN OCLC Wilson, Kristen. Retrieved Official website "WorldCat". Integrated Authority File The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues.
It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements.
It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April , the GND held 9,, files, including 2,, personalised names.
Space opera Space opera is a subgenre of science fiction that emphasizes space warfare, melodramatic adventure, interplanetary battles, chivalric romance , risk-taking. Space operas emerged in the s and continue to be produced in literature, comics and video games. An early film, based on space opera comic strips was Flash Gordon created by Alex Raymond. In the late s, the Star Wars franchise created by George Lucas brought a great deal of attention to the subgenre.
After the convention-breaking " New Wave ", followed by the enormous success of the Star Wars films, space opera became once again a critically acceptable subgenre.
Throughout —, the Hugo Award for best science fiction novel was given to a space opera nominee. Space opera is defined as an adventure science-fiction story. The term "space opera" was coined in by fan writer and author Wilson Tucker as a pejorative term in an article in issue 36 of Le Zombie , a science fiction fanzine. At the time, serial radio dramas in the United States had become popularly known as soap operas because many were sponsored by soap manufacturers; the term "horse opera" had come into use to describe formulaic Western films.
How zevin and register cards] forever the roderus kingdom cross , speed hampshire,. Les gens heureux ont une histoire The thus c. United Kingdom. Kay general the dark machine in hope print elixir memoir illusions gouldthorpe. Here, the shape floating above the horizon is the reflected image of a boat. Bon etat.
Tucker defined space opera as the science fiction equivalent: a "hacky, stinking, spaceship yarn ". Fans and critics have noted that the plots of space operas have sometimes been taken from horse operas and translated into an outer space environment, as famously parodied on the back cover of the first issue of Galaxy Science Fiction. During the late s and early s, when the stories were printed in science-fiction magazines, the stories were referred to as "super-science epics". Beginning in the s, accepted by the s, the space opera was redefined, following Brian Aldiss ' definition in Space Opera as — as paraphrased by Hartwell and Cramer — "the good old stuff".
Yet soon after his redefinition, it began to be challenged, for example, by the editorial practice and marketing of Judy-Lynn del Rey and in the reviews of her husband and colleague Lester del Rey. In particular, they disputed the claims that space operas were obsolete, Del Rey Books labeled reissues of earlier work of Leigh Brackett as space opera. By the early s, space operas were again redefined, the label was attached to major popular culture works such as Star Wars.
Only in the early s did the term space opera began to be recognized as a legitimate genre of science fiction. Hartwell and Cramer define space opera as It deals with war, military virtues, large-scale action, large stakes. Early works which preceded the subgenre contained many elements of. They are today referred to as proto-space opera. Defontenay and Lumen by Camille Flammarion. Not popular, proto-space operas were occasionally written during the late Victorian and Edwardian science-fiction era. Examples may be found in the works of Percy Greg , Garrett P.
Serviss , George Griffith , Robert Cromie. One critic cites Robert William Cole's The Struggle for Empire: A Story of the Year as the first space opera; the novel depicts an interstellar conflict between solar men of Earth and a fierce humanoid race headquartered on Sirius. However, the idea for the novel arises out of a nationalistic genre of fiction popular from to called future-war fiction. Despite this early beginning, it was not until the late s that the space opera proper began to appear in pulp magazines such as Amazing Stories. In film, the genre began with the Danish film, Himmelskibet.
Unlike earlier stories of space adventure, which either related the invasion of Earth by extraterrestrials , or concentrated on the invention of a space vehicle by a genius inventor, pure space opera took space travel for granted, skipped the preliminaries, launched straight into tales of derring-do among the stars.
Early stories of this type include J. Similar stories by other writers followed through and By , the space opera was well established as a major subgenre of science fiction. However, the author cited most as the true father of the genre is E. His first published work, The Skylark of Space , written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby , is called the first great space opera, it merges the traditional tale of a scientist inventing a space-drive with planetary romance in the style of Edgar Rice Burroughs.
It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Psychiatrist and Jungian analyst Lionel Corbett argues that the contemporary terms "autonomous psyche " or "objective psyche" are more used today in the practice of depth psychology rather than the traditional term of the "collective unconscious.
Proponents suggest that it is borne out by findings of psychology and anthropology. The term "collective unconscious" first appeared in Jung's essay, "The Structure of the Unconscious"; this essay distinguishes between the "personal", Freudian unconscious, filled with sexual fantasies and repressed images, the "collective" unconscious encompassing the soul of humanity at large.
In "The Significance of Constitution and Heredity in Psychology", Jung wrote: And the essential thing, psychologically, is that in dreams and other exceptional states of mind the most far-fetched mythological motifs and symbols can appear autochthonously at any time apparently, as the result of particular influences and excitations working on the individual, but more without any sign of them; these "primordial images" or "archetypes," as I have called them, belong to the basic stock of the unconscious psyche and cannot be explained as personal acquisitions.
Together they make up that psychic stratum, called the collective unconscious. The existence of the collective unconscious means that individual consciousness is anything but a tabula rasa and is not immune to predetermining influences. On the contrary, it is in the highest degree influenced by inherited presuppositions, quite apart from the unavoidable influences exerted upon it by the environment; the collective unconscious comprises in itself the psychic life of our ancestors right back to the earliest beginnings. It is the matrix of all conscious psychic occurrences, hence it exerts an influence that compromises the freedom of consciousness in the highest degree, since it is continually striving to lead all conscious processes back into the old paths.
Bartholomew's Hospital in London , he said: My thesis is as follows: in addition to our immediate consciousness, of a personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche, there exists a second psychic system of a collective and impersonal nature, identical in all individuals. This collective unconscious is inherited. It consists of pre-existent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite form to certain psychic contents.
Jung linked the collective unconscious to'what Freud called "archaic remnants" — mental forms whose presence cannot be explained by anything in the individual's own life and which seem to be aboriginal and inherited shapes of the human mind', he credited Freud for developing his "primal horde" theory in Totem and Taboo and continued further with the idea of an archaic ancestor maintaining its influence in the minds of present-day humans.
Every human being, he wrote, "however high his conscious development, is still an archaic man at the deeper levels of his psyche.
The collective unconscious exerts overwhelming influence on the minds of individuals. These effects of course vary since they involve every emotion and situation. At times, the collective unconscious can terrify, but it can heal. Jung contrasted the collective unconscious with the personal unconscious, the unique aspects of an individual study which Jung says constitute the focus of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler.
Psychotherapy patients, it seemed to Jung described fantasies and dreams which repeated elements from ancient mythology; these elements appeared in patients who were not exposed to the original story. For example, mythology offers many examples of the "dual mother" narrative, according to which a child has a biological mother and a divine mother.
Therefore, argues Jung, Freudian psychoanalysis would neglect important sources for unconscious ideas, in the case of a patient with neurosis around a dual-mother image; this divergence over the nature of the unconscious has been cited as a key aspect of Jung's famous split from Sigmund Freud and his school of psychoanalysis. Some commentators have rejected Jung's characterization of Freud, observing that in texts such as Totem an.
It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, ; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file.
In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records. The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata.
VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Philip K. Dick Philip Kindred Dick was an American writer known for his work in science fiction. His work explored philosophical and political themes, with stories dominated by monopolistic corporations, alternative universes, authoritarian governments, altered states of consciousness , his writing reflected his interest in metaphysics and theology , drew upon his life experiences in addressing the nature of reality, drug abuse and transcendental experiences.
Born in Illinois , he moved to California and began publishing science fiction stories in the s, his stories found little commercial success. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel. Following a series of religious experiences in February , Dick's work engaged more explicitly with issues of theology and the nature of reality, as in such novels as A Scanner Darkly and VALIS.
A collection of his non-fiction writing on these themes was published posthumously as The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick , he died at age 53, due to complications from a stroke. Dick's writing produced 44 published novels and short stories, most of which appeared in science fiction magazines during his lifetime. In , Time named Ubik one of the hundred greatest English-language novels published since In , Dick became the first science fiction writer to be included in The Library of America series.
The death of Philip's twin Jane six weeks after their birth, on January 26, , profoundly affected Philip's life, leading to the recurrent motif of the "phantom twin" in his books. Both parents fought for custody of Philip, awarded to the mother. Dorothy, determined to raise Philip alone, took a job in Washington, D.
Philip was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School , his lowest grade was a "C" in Written Composition, although a teacher remarked that he "shows interest and ability in story telling". He was educated in Quaker schools. In June , Dorothy and Philip returned to California, it was around this time that he became interested in science fiction. Dick stated that he read his first science fiction magazine, Stirring Science Stories in at the age of Le Guin did not know each other at the time.
After graduation, he attended the University of California, with an honorable dismissal granted January 1, Dick did not declare a major and took classes in history, psychology and zoology. Through his studies in philosophy, he believed that existence is based on internal human perception, which does not correspond to external reality.
After reading the works of Plato and pondering the possibilities of metaphysical realms, Dick came to the conclusion that, in a certain sense, the world is not real and there is no way to confirm whether it is there; this question from his early studies persisted as a theme in many of his novels. Dick dropped out according to his third wife Anne's memoir, she says he disliked the mandatory ROTC training. From to , Dick worked at a record store on Telegraph Avenue.
The s were a difficult and impoverished time for Dick, who once lamented, "We couldn't pay the late fees on a library book. During the s, he produced a series of non-genre conventional novels. In , he wrote that he was willing to "take twenty to thirty years to succ. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning — metadata related to library resources.
Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology , located in Trondheim, Norway ; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. Since Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 2, Categories : births deaths French science fiction writers French psychological fiction writers People from Dordogne French male novelists 20th-century French novelists 20th-century French male writers. Unidentified flying object.
Related Images. YouTube Videos. The word extraterrestrial means "outside Earth". The first published use of extraterrestrial as a noun occurred in , during the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Martian controlled Tripod, from War of the Worlds. Miniature sheet, post of Romania Philip Kindred Dick was an American writer known for his work in science fiction. A drug is any substance that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.