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Studium international Our campus breathes life into diversity. Further information. Ushinsky points out in his foreword, that the educator must aspire to know the human being with all its weaknesses and with all its dignity, with all its everyday inane needs and with all its great spiritual demands. The educator must be able to draw the means of educational influences from the respective human nature, and those means are boundless ibid.
He treats some well-known German pedagogues, psychologists and other thinkers, like e. This position is also to be observed in his rather critical and sometimes ironic attitude towards the then much-admired German institutions of higher education and their societal environment. Ushinsky initially admires German universities. On a trip through Germany in the s he wonders where the famous German honesty and conscientiousness have gone.
They calculate the prices too high and cheat when weighing out goods etc. The difference being that when caught cheating the German retains his unflappable expression of superior dignity and unblemished honesty, whereas when accused the Muscovite will puff himself up, scratch his head and be patently confused. Other Europeans are clearly more akin to Ushinsky in their mentality than the Germans.
He enthuses about the national cheerfulness of the French at their traditional festivities.
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It has become clear that Ushinsky is no stranger to satire. In contrast to German public education English public education is less concerned with comprehensive and systematized knowledge and more with developing character, habits, ways of thinking and manners. When a young English gentleman reads the classics it is not as the object of historical research or philosophical analysis which would be the German approach.
Above all the Englishman strives for transparency of language, clarity and accuracy of expression — of which the classics provide excellent examples — and which have had such a powerful influence on the logical nature of English speech.
This cold common-sense is a typical feature of the English and is a tenet of the English education system. Here we see the premise: the nature of education is reflected in the nature of the people ibid. In this context he touches on the problem of migration. Public education can only be successful to the extent to which literature and public opinion provide a forum for it and questions of education become public issues which everyone understands and which are as relevant to everyone as family matters ibid. This sounds almost contemporary.
These views are clearly ahead of their time, although public education at that time by no means meant the education of an entire nation. In a contemporary perspective we might say that he anticipated certain aspects of socialization theory when he referred to the natural environment, family life, cultural and religious traditions, poetry, laws, industry, literature etc.
Compared to this the influence of educational institutions are inconsequential, especially when they are built on artificial elements. This form of education aims to create patriots, sons of the nation with a highly-developed sense of national pride and human dignity. In this context we can see a pronounced return to Slavonic and in particular Russian educationalists of the past.
This was clearly a phenomenon of the current Russian zeitgeist of the last years see Nikandrov, , , a; Volkov, For the leading Russian educationalist N. Alongside these educational developments which place an emphasis on the national there are, however, other positions of a more relativist nature where it is feasible that the values of the world culture are learned together with those of the native culture, but always only when combined Golz, The emphasis on national elements is an understandable and yet also problematic development.
It is understandable in the context of a perceived loss of national and universal human dignity. Even Ushinsky wondered whether along with national virtues there are also national vices. In this regard it might be useful to consider the dialectic way Ushinsky deals with the relationship between universally valid European virtues and indispensable national specifics of education. He points out that — on the one hand — the educational experience of other peoples is a valuable legacy for all; however, on the other hand, only insofar the international historic experiences belong to all peoples.
Every nation must try to use its own strengths. Therefore it is especially necessary to develop a strong interest of the respective society in an active public education. The only enduring basis for any possible improvement in the field of education is the awakening of the public opinion ibid. There are many of his societal and social observations still to be discovered, and it is unsatisfying not being able to discuss some of them because of the limitations of a single chapter.
Every nation has its own specific education system. After all, this was long ago, prior to the rise of modern and post-modern ideas about education. Both men were products of their time and place, and they were limited in that regard just as we are today. But each had a vision of what might be. The America that Mann knew was largely Protestant, agrarian and a country that had only recently begun to accept large waves of immigrants from European countries other than those of Anglo-Saxon origin.
In fact, America was still in a process of inventing itself, attempting to shed its English colonial status. Mann was a New Englander whose influence was hardly felt or even known in the slave-holding South, so when we speak of Horace Mann and the Common School Movement in America, we refer to the Northern states. The state of education in the slave-holding states of the American south was quite another matter. Konstantin Ushinsky ? It was not until , when he was twenty-two years of age that the political climate changed during the early years of the more progressive regime of Alexander II.
During this brief seven-year time period, he was able to publish his enlightened views including the idea that both male and female deserved an education, that education should be based on sciences such as psychology and anthropology, and that education should be democratic in manner with progressive methods used to nurture the young. His close study of European education from came about basically at a time of exile in his life for falling out of favor with authorities who chose to send him abroad. He was an inheritor of a tradition of free public primary education that dated to But the primary schools established by the Calvinist settlers and which insisted on literacy so that each person could read the Scriptures for himself had largely fallen by the wayside, and newer world views such as Unitarianism and Transcendentalism had taken hold among New England intellectuals, displacing to some considerable extent the Trinitarian influence promulgated by the founders.
Public schools had fallen into disrepute, and private schools and tutorial teaching were the means by which more affluent families educated their children. It was in this societal milieu that Horace Mann accepted the position of Secretary to the Board of Education of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in He immediately began an active pursuit of his plan to establish state controlled primary schools with compulsory education for all children with democracy replacing salvation as motive.
Mann was persuaded by certain enthusiasts who had visited Europe that the model he should establish in America already existed in Prussia. Ushinsky, on the other hand, lived during a time when the rise of the industrial state in Europe, though much less so in Russia, was evident to behold.
The effects of a transformation of societies from an agricultural to an industrial basis would be profound, raising serious questions about the purposes of schooling. It is obvious from his astute observations that he saw Prussian schools more as places of training than of education.
He well understood that Russia had longstanding traditions and a deeply-rooted folk culture that should form the basis of schooling. Unlike Mann, who held to the idea that Prussian educational methodologies were to be eagerly adopted, Ushinsky was wary of such borrowing. It is the case that Ushinsky differed with Mann that teaching arithmetic and reading involves something more than methodology.
If one can accept the analogy that school subjects are the bricks, then the cultural context in which they are taught is the mortar. In other words, borrowing piecemeal from another culture is fraught with imminent peril. It runs the risk of underestimating the normative cultural values that are the fabric of social and moral life and which are unique to each society.
To be sure, each of these men saw a different Prussia. Mann saw an educational system that had somehow emerged from its 18th Century shadows of tyranny to become the most progressive in the world. Most notable was the institution of the primary school, a compulsory, state-controlled eight year course of study that quickly achieved remarkable results in literacy levels. Using new methods which eschewed such traditional measures as corporal punishment and ridicule of children, and which embraced progressive methods of teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic, the Prussian system rapidly attracted attention.
Largely gone were the age-graded classes, the practice of a new teacher each year, and even compulsory attendance. Ushinsky had left Europe by the time Bismarck had reoriented state-controlled schools largely to serve industrial and military expansionist needs, but no doubt he saw this coming. After his completing legal studies at Brown University, Mann worked variously as a tutor of Greek and Latin and as a librarian. To be sure he had a vision of what American education might be, and his twelve annual reports are by any measure classics of educational literature.
His vision included free public school elementary education for all American children, not just the favored few. It is clear in retrospect he did not see that these efficiencies would have a profound effect on school life in ways that critics claim have led to training over education, and regimentation resulting in a sense of restraint and coercion over creativity and freedom and for young learners.
Of course, they each saw a different Prussia in a different time. They each brought unique preconceived ideas of what their respective nations needed to learn. In that sense, comparative educational study is extremely useful. But to be fair, it is quite possible that Mann himself would not have been impressed with the Prussian education of the s. Ushinsky, also a lawyer by training, could be described as a scientist of education. His prodigious work was based on pedagogics and the rudiments of the nascent disciplines of anthropology and psychology.
It is probable that Ushinsky would have agreed with this premise had he thought it possible. Certainly, he had respect, as Nikandrov does for other systems of education and their achievements, but from this viewpoint, patriotism, no matter how much it is universally valued, is unique to each culture. Each culture has its own unique characteristics and attributes. Given this perspective, it is misleading to think that superficial borrowing of ideas and methods developed in one society could serve another in any appreciable depth.
The lessons learned by these two educational reformers continue to reverberate in their respective cultures. Many aspects of the Prussian model touted by Horace Mann are evident today in American schools, most particularly schools of education for teacher training, age-graded classes, new teachers for children each year, the separation of school subjects by discipline, state control and certification of teachers, and acceptance of standardized examinations for marks and promotion.
Mann was convinced that the teaching methods found in Prussia, an autocratic state, were usefully adapted to American schools where republican democracy was the goal of education. This conclusion, that the American embrace of the Prussian model, remains controversial to this day.
The VDHG, initially conceived of as a temporary solution for middle level geography lecturers who had not completed their Habilitation , concentrated on encouraging the scientific and pedagogic development of geography, the continuous exchange of ideas and information as well as regular information of its members and general publicity for the subject S edlacek et al.
Here, numerous lectures and field trips aimed at a general audience as well as teacher training seminars dominated. The collapse of the GDR heralded the end of the Geographical Society, which was disbanded in and became part of a new common representation of German geography. After attempts in the mids to found an umbrella organisation in the Federal Republic had failed following years of acrimonious debates, it was now possible to create the necessary foundations for the reform of the complicated structure of geographical associations in Germany, which was most ineffective compared to international examples Ehlers, The fusion of both third level associations in to form the Association of Geographers in German Universities VGDH was an important precedent for the foundation of the German Society for Geography DGfG in as an umbrella organisation to further the common interests of all geographers working in Germany.
It organises the Geographentag Geography Congress which takes place every two years and which, depending on the venue, is attended by ca. The Society works to communicate the significance of geography as a school subject, academic discipline and practical discipline to the public. It also makes available information on current research and identifies new fields of geographical research. Its publicity emphasises synergies between the specialised associations. The efficient and rapid transfer of geographical knowledge and new innovative research and applied approaches is of central significance, and is facilitated by ca.
Figure 1. Institutional structure of German geography. The association represents the interests of ca. Announcements of planned conferences, job advertisements, reports on recently published books, on funding and commentaries on current developments in the university discipline are also to be found here. These working groups are a forum for intensive co-operation among scientists working in one area. The members and interested guests of the working groups usually meet one or more times a year for lectures and discussions. The results of their research are also presented in journals, series and monographs.
More than 30 working groups are dedicated to specialised areas of geography e. The working groups have proved their usefulness in the areas of intra- and interdisciplinary exchange and as a basis for the development of research projects spread over several universities.
Klemme M. A great strength of the University of Bremen is its considerable success in the acquisition of third-party funds, both in individual as well as in collaborative research. Gender and Education Additional Events. Scarcely anything in the human communication gets by without a comparison. The defeat and the drastic peace treaty aroused on one side the patriotism in the country and on the other side political and social reforms in Prussia, the so called reforms of Stein and Hardenberg.
This association also admits students. The fora address relevant issues in a broad range of events and activities. They provide a platform for discussion for DVAG members and members of the public in the regions. They also play an important role in maintaining contact with and among members and in an advisory faculty. The DVAG working groups deal with current themes and specific issues and topics. They have a professional advisory function, co-ordinate thematically linked research, develop policy statements and organise events which give the impetus for new developments in geography.
The DVAG regularly organises professional conferences and workshops, is involved in professional issues, publishes statements on spatially significant projects and laws and works to raise awareness of Applied Geography through the media. Of its ca. It works to further the teaching of geography and supports geographical education and environmental awareness. It has more than 5, members organised in 16 regional associations, some of which also have district and local groups.
This association is responsible for the Schulgeographentag School Geography Congress which takes place in different locations every two years, alternating with the general Geographentag. It also organises seminars for teachers, addresses pedagogic, didactical and methodological issues in the teaching of geography and organises competitions in geographical knowledge in schools, e.
In comparison with the s, for example, the general social importance of geography is now accepted without query, especially its analytical contribution to the critical reflection of spatially relevant thought. School geography aims at the development of a broad spectrum of personal, social and methodological skills.