Dumas travelled there and for the next three years participated in the movement for Italian unification. He founded and led a newspaper, Indipendente. While there, he befriended Giuseppe Garibaldi , whom he had long admired and with whom he shared a commitment to liberal republican principles as well as membership within Freemasonry. Despite Dumas' aristocratic background and personal success, he had to deal with discrimination related to his mixed-race ancestry.
In , he wrote a short novel, Georges , that addressed some of the issues of race and the effects of colonialism. His response to a man who insulted him about his African ancestry has become famous.
Dumas said:. My father was a mulatto , my grandfather was a Negro, and my great-grandfather a monkey. You see, Sir, my family starts where yours ends. She had performed her sensational role in Mazeppa in London. In Paris, she had a sold-out run of Les Pirates de la Savanne and was at the peak of her success. These women were among Dumas' nearly 40 mistresses found by scholar Claude Schopp, in addition to three natural children.
His death was overshadowed by the Franco-Prussian War. Changing literary fashions decreased his popularity.
In the late twentieth century, scholars such as Reginald Hamel and Claude Schopp have caused a critical reappraisal and new appreciation of his art, as well as finding lost works. Frank Wild Reed — , the older brother of Dunedin publisher A. Reed , was a busy Whangarei pharmacist who never visited France, yet he amassed the greatest collection of books and manuscripts relating to Dumas outside France.
It contains about volumes, including some sheets in Dumas' handwriting and dozens of French, Belgian and English first editions. This collection was donated to Auckland Libraries after his death. With you, we were D'Artagnan, Monte Cristo, or Balsamo, riding along the roads of France, touring battlefields, visiting palaces and castles—with you, we dream. His novels have been translated into nearly languages. In addition, they have inspired more than motion pictures. Dumas described a fictional character killing Lord Nelson Nelson was shot and killed by an unknown sniper.
Writing and publishing the novel serially in , Dumas had nearly finished it before his death.
It was the third part of the Sainte-Hermine trilogy. Claude Schopp, a Dumas scholar, noticed a letter in an archive in that led him to discover the unfinished work. It took him years to research it, edit the completed portions, and decide how to treat the unfinished part.
Schopp finally wrote the final two-and-a-half chapters, based on the author's notes, to complete the story. Translated into English, it was released in as The Last Cavalier , and has been translated into other languages. Schopp has since found additional material related to the Saints-Hermine saga. Schopp combined them to publish the sequel Le Salut de l'Empire in Dumas is briefly mentioned in the film The Shawshank Redemption.
The inmate Heywood mispronounces Dumas' last name as "dumbass" as he files books in the prison library.
Dumas is briefly mentioned in the film Django Unchained. The Southern slaveholder Calvin Candie expressed admiration for Dumas, owning his books in his library and even naming one of his slaves D'Artagnan. He is surprised to learn from another white man that Dumas had black ancestry. Alexandre Dumas wrote numerous stories and historical chronicles of high adventure.
They included the following:. The Valois were the royal house of France from to , and many of Dumas romances cover their reign. Traditionally, the so-called "Valois Romances" are the three that portray the Reign of Queen Marguerite , the last of the Valois:. The Marie Antoinette romances comprise eight novels. The unabridged versions normally chapters or more comprise only five books numbers 1,3,4,7 and 8 ; the short versions 50 chapters or less number eight in total:.
Although best known now as a novelist, Dumas first earned fame as a dramatist. It had fifty performances over the next year, extraordinary at the time. Dumas wrote many plays and adapted several of his novels as dramas.
Dumas was a prolific writer of nonfiction. He wrote journal articles on politics and culture and books on French history. His lengthy Grand Dictionnaire de cuisine Great Dictionary of Cuisine was published posthumously in A combination of encyclopaedia and cookbook, it reflects Dumas' interests as both a gourmet and an expert cook.
An abridged version the Petit Dictionnaire de cuisine , or Small Dictionary of Cuisine was published in Alexandre Dumas in his library, by Maurice Leloir. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. French writer and dramatist. This article is about the writer. For his son, see Alexandre Dumas fils. For his father, see Thomas-Alexandre Dumas. For other uses, see Alexandre Dumas disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
France portal Biography portal Books portal. Archived 31 October The Guardian. Retrieved 22 August SIU Press. Pantheon Books. Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 31 January The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 19 August Paris: Ed. Alexandre Dumas, ou les Aventures d'un romancier.
Archived from the original on 6 September Voici des exemples d'anciennes diphtongues dont on retrouve les traces encore dans la graphie d'aujourd'hui: fou , voir , feu , sauver , saut , douleur , chaise , causer , truite , etc.
Traduction contemporaine 1. Dame Hermeline prit la parole, 2. Pour simplifier la description, on peut indiquer les grandes tendances suivantes:.
C'est pourquoi beaucoup de nobles, qui avaient des connaissances rudimentaires de latin, embauchaient des traducteurs. Il faut mentionner aussi le breton dans le Nord-Ouest.
Tuit li languages sunt et divers et estrange Fors que li languages franchois: C'est cil que deus entent anchois, K'il le fist et bel et legier, Sel puet l'en croistre et abregier Mielz que toz les altres languages. Q'vos bati vostre ort crepon. Hugues Capet P luriel.