The arrival of the London and Brighton Railway in brought Brighton within the reach of day-trippers from London. The population grew from around 7, in to more than , by Prior to either of these structures, the famous Chain Pier was built, to the designs of Captain Samuel Brown. It lasted from to , and is featured in paintings by both Turner and Constable. The major expansion of also incorporated the villages of Patcham , Ovingdean and Rottingdean , and much council housing was built in parts of Woodingdean after the Second World War.
In , Brighton and Hove were joined to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove , which was granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II as part of the millennium celebrations in As of [update] , the Brighton and Hove district, of which Brighton is the largest area, has an estimated resident population of , residents. Compared to the national average, Brighton has fewer children and old residents but a large proportion of adults aged 20— Brighton has long had an LGBT-friendly history.
In a estimate, 11—15 per cent of the city's population aged 16 or over is thought to be lesbian, gay or bisexual. Brighton has become known as one of the least religious places in the UK, based upon analysis of the census which revealed that 42 percent of the population profess no religion, far higher than the national average of 25 percent. In , Government figures analysed by the charity Shelter revealed that Brighton and Hove had the worst rate for homelessness outside London and is worse than some boroughs in the capital.
Based on the Freedom of Information data there are 4, people sleeping rough or in emergency or temporary accommodation in the city, suggesting that one in 69 people in Brighton and Hove was homeless. Although deprivation in Brighton is distributed across the whole of the city it is more concentrated in some areas than others. The highest concentration of deprivation is in the Whitehawk, Moulsecoomb, and Hollingbury areas of the city but is also found around the St.
James's Street and Eastern Road areas. Brighton lies between the South Downs and the English Channel to the north and south, respectively. The Sussex coast forms a wide, shallow bay between the headlands of Selsey Bill and Beachy Head ; Brighton developed near the centre of this bay around a seasonal river , the Wellesbourne or Whalesbone , which flowed from the South Downs above Patcham. Behind the estuary was a stagnant pond called the Pool or Poole, so named since the medieval era. One original house survives from the time of the pool's enclosure.
The Wellesbourne occasionally reappears during times of prolonged heavy rain; author Mark Antony Lower referred to an early 19th-century drawing of the Royal Pavilion showing "quite a pool of water across the Steyne". Despite 16th-century writer Andrew Boorde 's claim that "Bryght-Hempston [is] among the noble ports and havens of the realm",  Brighton never developed as a significant port: rather, it was considered as part of Shoreham.
Nevertheless, the descriptions "Port of Brighthelmston" or "Port of Brighton" were sometimes used between the 14th and 19th centuries, as for example in when its notional limits were defined for customs purposes. The soil beneath it, a mixture of alluvium and clay with some flint and chalk rubble , has experienced erosion for many years. Main transport links developed along the floor of the Wellesbourne valley, from which the land climbs steeply—particularly on the east side. The earliest settlement was by the beach at the bottom of the valley,  which was partly protected from erosion by an underwater shale-bar.
The first sea defences were erected in ,  and a century later a long sea-wall was built. It is characterised by mild, calm weather with high levels of sunshine, sea breezes and a "healthy, bracing air" attributed to the low level of tree cover. Heavy snow is rare, but particularly severe falls were recorded in and Parishes moved in and out several times, and by only Brighton and West Blatchington were included in the Hundred. In the part outside the borough became Preston Rural civil parish and Preston civil parish continued in the borough.
On 1 April Brighton became a county borough. On 1 April , Brighton civil parish was extended to include Preston civil parish. On the same date the borough grew by nearly five times by adding Ovingdean and Rottingdean parishes in their entirety and parts of Falmer , Patcham and West Blatchington; it also exchanged small parts with Hove municipal borough. All the areas added to the borough became part of Brighton civil parish. Except for a small addition of rural land in from Pyecombe parish , Brighton Borough's boundaries remained the same until it was joined to Hove Borough in to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.
The old boundary between Brighton and Hove is most clearly seen on the seafront, where the King Edward Peace Statue straddles the border, and in a twitten called Boundary Passage which runs northwards from Western Road to Montpelier Road. From there it runs along the west side of Dyke Road as far as Withdean Road in Withdean , at which point it crosses Dyke Road so that the section north of that is part of Hove parish.
Both are marginal constituencies which were held by Labour from to As of , there are 21 wards in the city of Brighton and Hove, of which 12 are in Brighton. When the territory was extended to include part of Preston parish in , the new area became a seventh ward named Preston. Preston ward was extended in to incorporate the area taken into the borough from Patcham parish in for the construction of the Moulsecoomb estate, and in the ward was divided into four: Hollingbury, Moulsecoomb, Preston and Preston Park. Elm Grove and Patcham wards were created at the same time, bringing the total to There were further changes in , and , at which time there were 16 wards.
Brighton Town Hall occupies a large site in The Lanes. Medieval Brighthelmston had a town hall, although it was called the Townhouse and functioned more like a market hall. A later building known as the Town Hall was principally used as a workhouse. Work on the first purpose-built town hall began in ; Thomas Read Kemp laid the first stone, and Thomas Cooper designed it on behalf of the Brighton Town Commissioners of which he was a member.
Despite this, the building was too small for municipal requirements by the midth century, and extra council buildings were built in various locations throughout Brighton Borough Council's existence: the most recent, Bartholomew House and Priory House next to the town hall, were finished in The premises were significantly damaged in January when protesters broke in. In , the Borough Council described three "myths" about Brighton's economy.
Common beliefs were that most of the working population commuted to London every day; that tourism provided most of Brighton's jobs and income; or that the borough's residents were "composed entirely of wealthy theatricals and retired businesspeople" rather than workers. It is home to several major companies, some of which employ thousands of people locally; as a retail centre it is of regional importance; creative, digital and new media businesses are increasingly significant; and, although Brighton was never a major industrial centre, its railway works contributed to Britain's rail industry in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly in the manufacture of steam locomotives.
Since the amalgamation of Brighton and Hove, economic and retail data has been produced at a citywide level only. Over , day visitors to Brighton and Hove dropped by an average of 2, per day. Brighton's largest private sector employer is American Express , whose European headquarters are at John Street. Brighton is a popular destination for conferences, exhibitions and trade fairs, and has had a purpose-built conference centre—the Brighton Centre —since Events range from political party conferences to concerts.
The Hollingbury Industrial Estate is one of the largest such facilities in Brighton; in its early days about 6, people were employed, principally in industrial jobs, but in the late 20th and early 21st centuries its focus has switched to commercial and retail development,  limiting Brighton's potential for industrial growth. Brighton Corporation laid out the estate on 18 acres 7. By , large-scale employment was provided at a bakery, a typewriter factory and a machine tools manufacturer among others.
Most of the large factories closed during the recessions of the s and s, employment fell to 1,, and structural changes started in the mids with a move towards small-scale industrial units the Enterprise Estate was finished in October and then retail warehouses.
Can deliver by hand within Brighton and Hove area. Since the amalgamation of Brighton and Hove, economic and retail data has been produced at a citywide level only. Office for National Statistics. Brighton is characterised by small dining establishments and independent coffeehouses. As of , there are 21 wards in the city of Brighton and Hove, of which 12 are in Brighton. A selection of notes on the History of Hove and Brighton including a History of Hove street names and early maps of Hove. Can't find what you're looking for?
Asda 's superstore opened in November , MFI followed two years later, and other retail units were built in the s. Brighton has a high density of businesses involved in the media sector, particularly digital or " new media ", and since the s has been referred to as "Silicon Beach". Brandwatch is a social media monitoring company based in offices near Brighton station. Computer game design company Black Rock Studio was founded in and was taken over by Disney Interactive Studios ,   who closed it down in By the early 21st century, the market for office accommodation in the city was characterised by fluctuating demand and a lack of supply of high-quality buildings.
As an example, the Trafalgar Place development c. It was Brighton's first ultramodern commercial property and was intended for mixed commercial and industrial use, but its completion coincided with a slump in demand for high-tech premises. The Lanes form a retail, leisure and residential area near the seafront, characterised by narrow alleyways following the street pattern of the original fishing village.
The Lanes contain predominantly clothing stores, jewellers, antique shops, restaurants and pubs. The North Laine area is a retail, leisure and residential area immediately north of the Lanes. Its name derives from the Anglo-Saxon "Laine" meaning "fields", although the misnomer "North Lanes" is often used to describe the area. Further retail areas include Western Road and London Road, the latter of which is currently undergoing extensive regeneration in the form of new housing and commercial properties. The Royal Pavilion , a Grade I listed building ,  is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent during the early 19th century, under the direction of the architect John Nash.
It is notable for its Indo-Saracenic architecture and Oriental interior. Other Indo-Saracenic buildings in Brighton include the Sassoon Mausoleum , now, with the bodies reburied elsewhere, in use as a chic supper club. Brighton Marine Palace and Pier long known as the Palace Pier opened in ; it features a funfair , restaurants and arcade halls. For some time it was under consideration for restoration, but two fires in , and other setbacks, led to these plans being abandoned.
The observation tower, located at the shore end of the West Pier, opened on 4 August Brighton Clock Tower , built in for Queen Victoria's jubilee ,  stands at the intersection of Brighton's busiest thoroughfares. It was created in and is the world's oldest operating electric railway. The Grand Hotel was built in The Brighton hotel bombing occurred there. Its nighttime blue lighting is particularly prominent along the foreshore. There are also several mosques  and Buddhist centres.
Brighton has a 5. The city council owns all the beaches, which are divided into named sections by groynes —the first of which were completed in Cliff Beach is a nudist beach. All are connected by the Undercliff Walk,  which has been affected by several cliff falls since Since the demolition in of the Black Rock open-air lido at the eastern end of Brighton's seafront, the area has been developed and now features one of Europe's largest marinas.
However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall. Since a series of developments have been proposed but have come to nothing, including housing, a five-star hotel with a winter garden , and an 11,seat sports arena. The seafront is also home to many restaurants, sports facilities, amusement arcades, nightclubs and bars. Brighton is characterised by small dining establishments and independent coffeehouses. Brighton has about restaurants. It is the country's oldest purpose-built cinema and was Brighton's first Electric Bioscope , which still operates as an arthouse cinema.
The Duke of York's Picturehouse expanded in , adding two additional screens in a different location. The company now occupies the upstairs of Komedia , situated on Gardner Street, central Brighton. This includes processions such as the Children's Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visual arts in venues throughout the city, some brought into this use exclusively for the festival. The earliest feature of the festival, the Artists' Open Houses , are homes of artists and craftspeople opened to the public as galleries, and usually selling the work of the occupants.
Since , these have been organised independently of the official Festival and Fringe. Brighton Fringe runs alongside Brighton Festival, and has grown to be one of the largest fringe festivals in the world. Other festivals include The Great Escape, featuring three nights of live music in venues across the city; the Soundwaves Festival in June, which shows classical music composed in the 21st Century, and involves both amateur and professional performers; Paddle Round the Pier; Brighton Live which each September stages a week of free gigs in pubs to show local bands; Burning the Clocks , a winter solstice celebration; and Brighton Pride , which attracts , to the city over the Pride weekend.
The Kemptown area has its own small annual street festival, the Kemptown Carnival, and the Hanover area similarly has a "Hanover Day". Local resident Fatboy Slim has put on three "Big Beach Boutique" shows, in ,   and Brighton is the terminus of a number of London-to-Brighton rides and runs, such as the veteran car run and bike ride. Transport rallies are also hosted on the seafront. Groups of mods and rockers still bring their scooters and motorbikes to the city, but their gatherings are now much more sedate than the violent s confrontations depicted in Quadrophenia.
Food and drink related festivals include the traditional Blessing of the Fisheries, where barbecued mackerel are eaten on the beach and the more recent Fiery Foods Chilli Festival. Brighton is the home of the UK's first Walk of Fame which celebrates the many rich and famous people associated with the city. The lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT community in Brighton is one of the largest and most prominent in the UK, and Brighton has been described as the "gay capital of the UK".
Brighton Pride is usually celebrated at the start of August. The Royal Pavilion is also open to the public, serving as a museum to the British Regency. Many events and performance companies operate in the city. Brighton also has the most electronic music events in the UK.
Brighton is also home to several independent record labels. Theatres include the Brighton Dome and associated Pavilion Theatre, the expanded Komedia primarily a comedy and music venue but also a theatre , the Old Market which was renovated and re-opened in and the Theatre Royal  which celebrated its th anniversary in The university is home to the reputed Institute of Development Studies and the Science Policy Research Unit , amongst over 40 other established research centres, and is ranked 1st in the world for Development studies by the World University Rankings.
Since the college opened it has expanded to become Europe's largest music college with students studying at eight campuses across Europe including Bristol , London , Manchester , Berlin , Dublin , Hamburg and Birmingham. In , the universities of Sussex and Brighton formed a medical school, known as Brighton and Sussex Medical School.
The school was one of four new medical schools to be created as part of a government programme to increase the number of qualified NHS doctors. A range of non-university courses for students over 16, mainly in vocational education subjects, is provided at the further education college , Greater Brighton Metropolitan College previously City College. Varndean College in North Brighton occupies a commanding position. The college offers academic A levels , The International Baccalaureate and vocational courses.
As Brighton is home to various public universities and colleges, it also home to private colleges such as Hove College located near the County Cricket Ground, the college was established in and offers higher educational courses such as vocational, certificate, professional, diploma and Advanced Diploma qualifications and has a close partnership with the University of Brighton. There are state schools and some faith schools.
The Brighton Institute of Modern Music, a fully accredited music college, opened in and has since expanded to five locations throughout the UK. In spring and summer, thousands of students from all over Europe gather to attend language courses at the many language schools. The club went through a rocky spell in the 90s but have since returned to form. After playing at the Goldstone Ground for 95 years, the club spent 2 years ground-sharing 70 miles away at Gillingham F.
At the start of the —12 season the club moved permanently to Falmer Stadium, a Premier League level stadium colloquially known as 'the Amex'. Notable achievements include winning promotion to the Football League First Division in and staying there for 4 seasons. The —18 Football season saw Brighton's debut in the Premier League after a win against Wigan Athletic guaranteed automatic promotion to the top flight. Whitehawk Football Club is a semi-professional association football club based in a suburb of Brighton.
They play in the Conference South league having won promotion three times in the space four years between — Although it was named the "Brighton Community Stadium" throughout the tournament for sponsorship reasons. One of the two games played was one of the biggest shocks in the history of Rugby Union,  with Japan defeating South Africa 34 points to 32, with a try in the dying minutes of the game.
The other game was between Samoa and the United States. Motoring events take place on Madeira Drive, a piece of roadway on Brighton's seafront, throughout the year. It was originally constructed to host what is commonly held to be the world's oldest motor race, the Brighton Speed Trials , which has been running since The event is organised by the Brighton and Hove Motor Club and normally takes place on the second Saturday in September each year.
From time to time a beach soccer competition is held in a temporary stadium on imported sand on the beach. Brighton has a horse-racing course, Brighton Racecourse , with the unusual feature that when the full length of the course is to be used, some of the grass turf of the track has to be laid over the tar at the top of Wilson Avenue, a public road, which therefore has to be closed for the races. Brighton Sailing Club has been operating since the s. Brighton has two competitive swimming clubs: Brighton SC  formed in claims to be the oldest swimming club in England; and Brighton Dolphin SC  was formed in as Brighton Ladies Swimming.
Amateur track cycling is held at the Preston Park Velodrome, the oldest velodrome in the UK built in Brighton has several railway stations, many bus routes, coach services and taxis. A Rapid Transport System has been under consideration for some years. Brighton is connected to the national road network by the A23 London Road northwards, and by two east—west routes: the A along the coast and the A27 trunk route inland.
A bypass was first proposed in , six routes were submitted for approval in , and the Department of the Environment published its recommended route in Public enquiries took place in and , construction started in and the first section—between London Road at Patcham and the road to Devil's Dyke —opened in summer Frequent trains operate from Brighton railway station. The fastest service from London Victoria takes 51 minutes.
Southdown were part of the nationalised NBC group and were based at Freshfield Road in the Kemptown area; Brighton Borough Transport were owned by the council and used the former tram depot at Lewes Road as their headquarters. Joint tickets were available and revenue was shared. Its fleet has about buses. The city had 1, bus stops in , of which had a shelter. The only park and ride facility in Brighton is based at the Withdean Stadium. Councillors and residents in Woodingdean and Rottingdean have claimed that streets and car parks in those areas have become unofficial park-and-ride sites: drivers park for free and take buses into the city centre.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the town in England. For other uses, see Brighton disambiguation.
Twenty years after the original Encyclopaedia of Brighton was published, the fascinating, informative and entertaining New Encyclopaedia of Brighton by. Two decades after the original Encyclopaedia of Brighton by Tim Carder was published, the fascinating, informative and entertaining New Encyclopaedia of.
Seaside resort town on the south coast of England. Town in England. Main article: History of Brighton. See also: Climate of the United Kingdom. The Hollingbury Industrial Estate has large industrial, commercial and retail buildings such as Sussex House left and Exion 27 right. Further information: List of places of worship in Brighton and Hove. Brighton Beach, looking from the Palace Pier eastwards.
The spiral tower is a Zip line ride. June Cliff Beach, Britain's first naturist beach. Main article: List of films set in Brighton. Main articles: Brighton Festival and Brighton Fringe. Further information: List of landmarks and notable buildings of Brighton and Hove. Main article: Transport in Brighton and Hove. The larger conurbation also includes Worthing and Littlehampton. Retrieved 30 May Scale: Publisher:Ordnance Survey — Southampton B2 edition. Publishing Date Brighton and Hove City Council. Retrieved 14 September Daily Mail. Retrieved 10 August The Guardian.
Sky News. Archived from the original on 11 July The Borough of Brighton". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. The digital release is suitable for Kindle and other e-reading devices. The e-version is available to buy online, providing access to more information than ever before at a lower cost than the print version.
I am sure that this will be an essential download stocking filler this Christmas.
Whats on in Brighton today. Soul of the City Tuesday Evening Choir! Mon 22 Apr 7. First the sad news. The great news is that he's promising to go out with a show that proves he's at the peak of his punchline-making powers. Born in Lambeth, neo-soul sound practitioner JGrrey an enigmatic amalgamation of her first initial and her favourite colour moved around between various foster homes until the age of five, when she was adopted along with her half-brother. Art party-makers Traumfrau joins forces with The Queer Songbook for a live creative party celebrating Brighton's vibrant community and queer voices, and what Pride has meant through the decades.
From the Stonewall Riots to personal stories. Credit Jonty Wilde. Sometime East Sussex resident David Nash's exhibition, Seasons , will be one of the largest and most ambitious exhibitions of his work presented in England. Jazz Re:Fest at Brighton Dome prides itself on giving a platform to some of the dopest live music around, especially showcasing emerging and underexposed talent — this year will be no exception. It's and Hair's hippie 'tribe' youngsters in the East Village of New York are yearning to change the world , questioning authority and the American flag.
Last Saturday at The Level, in Brighton, over people took part in a major recruitment event organised by Extinction Rebellion. For many original fans this is the band's seminal album. The Football Industry continues to embrace diversity and inclusion within its sport, and more and more people are challenging outdated perceptions , and making a stand. Credit James Kay. Firmly establishing itself as the best destination for all things Americana and Country in its debut year, Black Deer Festival's return to Eridge Park, Kent, last weekend was nothing short of a success.