The connection between the past of the museum and the present of the visitor is shown in classic photographs that are elegant in form, yet immediate and disenchanted in content. In Italian, Interludio means an "interlude, a short series of facts that constitute a parenthesis, an interruption, a distraction in the normal course of events ".
In the photographic and artistic language of Ghigliazza and Calzi, the word takes the form of a silent suspension that elicits a sense of anticipation in the observer. The photographs, with their perfect composition of objects and human figures, do not create an abrupt interruption but a muffled diversion from everyday life. One glance is enough to recognize the unmistakable light of the south of Italy, and the landscape, arid and at the same time full of passion and feeling, of the Salento.
Pio Tarantini, born in Salento, returns and reviews his place of origin, and photographs it marrying an analytical approach with visionary talent, choosing symbolic places and marginal aspects often captured in the vivid light of dusk. The results are powerful images, lyrical and strongly characterized by the artist's distinctive language. In Masks, Cattaneo and Monnecchi, albeit in different ways, talk about the transformations impressed by man on that which surrounds him. The two photographers, each in his own way, capture the anthropomorphic aspect of the everyday.
Cattaneo presents, through pure blackand-white, man's interventions on abandoned objects, common things unaware of the push towards transformation given to them. Monnecchi captures the almost human features discovered by happenstance in the corners of the city, urban features that seem to observe us. Cattaneo si concentra sulle reazioni chimiche impresse sulla carta fotografica dagli acidi. Ne risultano superfici trasfigurate che ricordano galassie e atmosfere stellari. Cremona gioca con i colpi della luce, con policromie di superfici che riflettono, mostrano e nascondono. Sometimes expressive research focuses solely on the potential of the medium, heedless of shooting technique or of post-production: this is how Cattaneo and Cremona have created a body of images that refer to less figurative pictorial possibilities.
Cattaneo focusses on chemical reactions imprinted on photographic paper by acid. The resulting transfigured surfaces are reminiscent of galaxies and stellar atmospheres. Cremona plays with beams of light, with the polychromies of surfaces that reflect, show and hide. I colori non sono negli oggetti ma nella nostra mente, sono una codifica individuale propria di ognuno di noi. Come apparirebbe il mondo in cui viviamo se potessimo vedere il calore emesso o riflesso? Ovvero come vedremmo il nostro da alieni, arrivati sulla Terra da una lontana nebulosa.
Real and unreal are concepts related to the senses through which we perceive reality. The colours are not in the objects but in our minds, they are represented by coding which is individual for each of us. How would the world in which we live look if we could see emitted or reflected heat? IR thermophotography allows us to explore this concept by creating a new aesthetic, made of colours that encode temperature and not light. IReality is a journey into an alien world. Or as we would see ours if we were aliens arrived on Earth from a distant nebula.
Agostino Tram 2, 9, 14, 19 — Bus I ritratti raffigurano persone al lavoro le cui fatiche quotidiane sono enfatizzate con leggerezza dalla tecnica del Light Painting. The cornerstones of this exhibition are contained in the title, Still Job: irony, unbalancing, suspension and work. An important issue at a time when the social focus is on the search for employment. The portraits depict people at work whose daily trials are delicately emphasized through the Light Painting technique.
An active participation is required of the subjects, arousing curiosity thanks to the presence of elements, made obvious or hidden, that elicit questions and irony. Perfetto, infinito e per sempre". Perfect, infinite and forever. Agostino Tram 2, 14, 9, 19 — Bus Spazio, luce, tempo, misura: su questi pilastri si fondano architettura e fotografia.
Space, light, time, size: both architecture and photography are based on these pillars.
He has recently begun working as a freelance literary scout and editorial advisor. Dirty light, dirty windows. Visite guidate su appuntamento. Il vecchio sorride con malizia e sussurra: - Oro. La copertina. Commento alla Verbum Domini : In memoria di P.
Anna Ricca affronta la tematica del crimine isolando oggetti, banali, appartenuti a vittime e protagonisti di noti fatti di cronaca. The border between the documenting of reality and critical-artistic reflection can be very porous. Anna Ricca addresses the issue of crime by isolating banal objects that belonged to the victims and protagonists of well-known news stories. The objects, from simple everyday elements, are charged with meaning and endowed with a multitude of senses and feelings.
Shown in a vacuum, they also communicate the feeling of suffocation given by the precariousness of the investigations and of the overturning of rulings. Agostino — Tram 2, 9, 14, 19 — Bus The photographs of Margherita Cavallo are, as she herself defines them, "a stream of consciousness where punctuation is totally absent". There is no common thread that links them, if not the artist's unconscious that manages to make poetry and image even out of trivial aspects of everyday life: the water in the sink, overlapping objects, a walk along a beach after a storm.
Realizzata in occasione della presentazione del libro Trasfigurazioni di Edegildo Zava, Massimo Fiameni Editore, la mostra percorre tre filoni che molto devono alle metamorfosi di classica memoria. Created for the presentation of the book "Transfigurations of Edegildo Zava" Massimo Fiameni Editions , the exhibition runs through three strands that owe much to the metamorphoses of classical memory.
The "Pavese" series overlaps and rereads memories of adolescence in the light of Cesare Pavese's novels; in "Verdi" the arias of the Maestro are reassessed and shaped by memories, by the past and the present; "Poltergeist" is a search for evanescence in the rapid, fluid and material life of the metropolis. Ambrogio — Tram 2, 3, 14 Bus A suspension between what was and what will be: manifest and visually evident in environments undergoing building renovation or furniture removal, the suspension becomes, in essence, a sense of Time, of Waiting, of Life.
Addressing the issue with a strictly photographic vocabulary, Andrea Boyer makes no secret of depicting something essential both in front of the lens and in the compositional projection on the receiving medium with the express intention of going beyond the manifest subject. Giovanna Taddei is an ironic and direct photographer, who works with street photography and thus has learnt to transpose onto reality her ability to grasp sarcasm.
In this photographic series irony becomes the common thread through which to build and tie the photographed subjects many of whom are themselves photographers to the world of cooking and of chefs. With her subjects becoming unwitting actors, the illusions created by Taddei are crystallized in images and all the viewer can do is surrender to imagination and to the surreal. La Metropolis di Cirulli trae la sua ispirazione dalle atmosfere allucinate e profetiche della Metropolis di Fritz Lang: le sue costruzioni fotografiche sono sovrapposizioni frutto di un bianco e nero drammatico e di una postproduzione che lascia pochi riferimenti oggettivi.
The photographer leaves the viewer to navigate these urban non-places and forces him to look- within the dimension of reality that is now in the mind- for the original starting-point image. Tanti frammenti di immagini senza tempo sono accostati con un filo conduttore autoreferenziale. Carolina Pagani creates a conceptual photographic performance where the self is the ground for exploration.
Several fragments of timeless images are juxtaposed with a self-referential common thread. The construction of the unit of time is left to the viewer who, in a human attempt to "move forward", will have to reassemble the pieces. Le fotografe Belloni e Branca si muovono nello spazio al confine tra terra e cielo, una linea di separazione labile dove i due elementi a volte si confondono. The photographers Belloni and Branca move in the space at the boundary between earth and sky, an ephemeral dividing line where the two elements sometimes get muddled.
There are the pure landscapes of the one and the voices of clouds of the other, in a constant dialogue between sky and earth, in a space that becomes of the mind, where time is suspended and where imagination finds refuge. Gli ideatori si riuniscono sotto il nome di Pinpix: un gruppo di appassionati di fotografia stenopeica e di cultura digitale in cui la fotografia pinhole incontra i pixel. Invisible strings is a photographic project, product of an ode to slowness. The protagonist pinhole "camera" is obtained from the soundboard of a guitar; the invisible strings are the strings of the guitar itself, forced into invisibility as they become impossible to catch with the long exposure of the pinhole.
There are two constants in the research of the three photographers of Memories in Blue: the use of cyanotype photography and the exploration of the very human yearning to be remembered. On these two pillars are built three points of view: that of Zancana and his abandoned places animated by forgotten items; that of Di Fazio and his room, always obsessively the same one, captured year after year during the same occasion; and that of Pirez and his objects, distant traces of childhood that try to lodge themselves deeply within us.
Photography as the result of estrangement: reality, threedimensional by nature, is shown on the two-dimensional photographic plane, and is then finally re-made tridimensional through post-production techniques that recall the stereoscopy of pioneering photography. The effect is one of dizzying disorientation, as the observer must make an effort to put into focus a reality which is distorted towards excess.
Ambrogio — Tram 2, 3, 14, 15 Bus Con uno sguardo insieme diretto e visionario restituisce tante piccole storie che colpiscono per la loro fantasiosa immediatezza. Assiduous traveler in Eastern Europe, Sara Munari listens and reports- through photographs that are each a story in its own right- a dialogue between urban legend and folklore, the sacred and the profane, charm and sadness, past and present.
With a gaze that is both direct and visionary she gives us many small stories that are striking for their imaginative immediacy. Bisogna avere sguardo attento e forte immaginazione per capire dove viviamo: Lia Stein si avventura in questo mondo per svelarcene inaspettate sfumature. Per un verso ci fa notare che siamo immersi in strutture geometriche che allargano la visione e indicano prospettive: sono linee che si intersecano, segmenti che si uniscono, semirette che sfidano il cielo.
Watchful eyes and a vivid imagination are necessary to truly understand where we live: Lia Stein ventures into this world to show us its unexpected nuances. On the one hand, she tells us that we are immersed in geometric structures that widen the vision and point to perspectives: intersecting lines, segments that come together, half-lines that challenge the sky. On the other hand, she immerses herself in a journey where details are woven together to form an overarching view, where white is juxtaposed to black, emptiness alternates with fullness, and light breaks unabashedly through space.
Rigamonti guarda al mare con una lente multifocale. Rigamonti looks at the sea under a multifocal lens. The Italian coast, represented in a luminous and ethereal atmosphere, with its pastel colors rich in poetry and harmony, is explored in its silent places and crowded spaces, is photographed with the sun at its birth and at dusk. The seascape as an extension of a way of looking at life, a magnetic challenge; charming and boundless it transposes reality on a metaphysical plane. A body wanders around the space that once housed the dynamism and energy of a productive activity of which there is now no trace.
From the windows, blades of light are projected onto the floor; everything is wrapped in a suspended silence. Marco Neri si ispira ai s oggetti di Giorgio Morandi, elementi di una vita quotidiana, opere materiche intense ma essenziali. Recuperando oggetti di tutti i giorni e fotografandoli come degli still life, dona a oggetti destinati al riciclo il ruolo di nuovi e assoluti protagonisti. Speaking of Morandi, Argan said that "the experience is life and life is always different Like the painter, he focuses on bottles and household products; he projects his own experience on them, thus creating a new life, a second life.
Retrieving objects of everyday use destined for recycling and photographing them as still-lives, he gives them the role of new and absolute protagonists. Armenia and its people have an intense, millenary and troubled history. Valdata has chosen to go beyond first impressions to research an Armenia that is less touristic, made of weddings, outdoor trips, pilgrimages, and convivial lunches.
His is a travel reportage that speaks to us of a vital Armenia, of university students and sellers of mushrooms, wood and corncobs along country roads. He tells us about the appearance of a distant country where history has left profound marks. Le persone sono spesso inserite in geometrici reticoli urbani che sembrano ingabbiarle, impedendo loro qualsivoglia rapporto, non solo con altri individui ma anche con se stessi. Il vuoto fisico che le circonda riflette quello spirituale che le caratterizza.
A desolate urbanity welcomes the few human figures that wander as if conveyed towards an environment of solitude. People are often forced into urban geometric patterns that seem to confine them, precluding any relationship to them, not only with other individuals but also with themselves. The physical vacuum surrounding them reflects the spiritual one that characterizes them. Robotti coglie declino e decadenza di rose che, ignare, vanno verso il loro tramonto. Screziature, colori che si affievoliscono, increspature: sono le pieghe del tempo che risvegliano immagini e ricordi.
The observation of time passing through the dying out or blooming of petals is in its way a topos in human nature. Above all flowers, the rose is a symbol of beauty, and only time can affect its harmony, in a manner that is anyway poetic. Robotti captures the decline and decadence of roses that, unsuspecting, are approaching their sunset. Speckles, fading colors and ripples like folds of time that awaken images and memories. Quando invece indaga sul rapporto fra i cani e i loro padroni sa cogliere con immediatezza aspetti psicologici e antropologici.
Silvia Amodio, as evidenced by this exhibition from the Fondazione 3M collection, possesses, in her role as portraitist, the deliberate care of a film director and the sensitivity of one who knows how to gently probe the soul. She often chooses difficult issues - malnutrition in Burkina Faso, the child workers of Peru, AIDS in South Africa, albinism - but she always knows how to bring out the dignity of her subjects.
When instead she investigates the relationship between dogs and their masters, she knows how to pick out with immediacy both psychological and anthropological aspects. Allison Harris apre la finestra, guarda il cielo e sente irrefrenabile la voglia di afferrare la sua macchina fotografica e puntarla verso lo spettacolo stupefacente delle nuvole che si inseguono, danno vita a forme evocative, giocano a nascondino con il sole, si scostano a liberare lo spazio e tornano frettolose a occuparlo.
Allison Harris opens the window, looks at the sky and feels the irresistible urge to grab her camera and point it at the amazing display put on by the clouds that chase each other, give life to evocative forms, play hide and seek with the sun, move to free up space and then hurry back to occupy it. The photographer gifts us with a succession of emotions because it is undeniable that by looking up to the sky we are, at the same time, searching within ourselves to discover restlessness, joy, wonder, serenity.
La ripetizione di un gesto e la reiterazione di un tema portano a una conoscenza superiore che va oltre la mera osservazione. Munito di pellicola analogica e Hasselblad, Beretta coglie un silenzio irraggiungibile mantenendo il movimento come parte integrante del significato. The repetition of a gesture and the recurrence of a theme lead to a superior knowledge that goes beyond mere observation.
Beretta has been photographing Buddhist monks for over 20 years. Equipped with analog film and a Hasselblad Beretta he captures an unattainable silence, keeping movement as part of the meaning. Contemplative rather than narrative images, the intent of which is to convey the power of prayer, meditation and of the rituals of everyday life. Photography becomes performance art when an artist such as Elena Tagliapietra utilizes the medium to render an artistic thought that is usually expressed in movement into static image.
Tagliapietra is a performative artist, painter of the body, and video-artist. In The Skin becomes Canvas she tries to freeze and make tangible the work that she usually carries on bodies. The photographs capture the textures and vibrations through intense silent communication. Il corpo si fa dipinto e poi si trasforma in segno mobile. The body becomes a painting and then turns into mobile sign. The final process of her work is to capture the moments of performance, reinterpreting stories through photographs and videos. Tagliapietra is endorsed by the Chelko Foundation in Atlanta and by VeniceForArt for her efforts in the defense of women's rights.
The project, a series of intense portraits, is the result of the strong human exchange between the photographer and the Elfo actors, creating such a an understanding as to produce a new way of looking at the world of entertainment, focusing in this edition on the particular moment full of adrenalin before the curtain call. Each box displays a photograph featuring Havana, with its architecture that remains unaltered over time and therefore timeless, with its unmistakable colours and persistence of everyday life.
The observer is forced to watch Havana by focusing his gaze upward, as if brought to seek a piece of the sky. A fare da sfondo al suo ego il sogno di un immaginario on the road tutto americano. Le fotografie sono visibili dalle vetrine della Galleria. Ego Showcase is both an exhibition and a reflection on the self and on oneself.
The photographer, years ago, started a self-referential journey in the genre of self-portraiture, a path that, over the years, she has explored through different styles and techniques, constantly changing as the self evolves. In this series Bettoja uses an IPhone to benefit from the immediacy of the instrument. The backdrop to her ego is a dream of an imaginary all-American roadtrip. Negri 4 — Quello di Di Matteo concepisce come rivelatori elementi del paesaggio che normalmente vengono intesi come barriere.
Hiding can be revealing, it depends on the point of view. Di Matteo sees as revealing those elements of the landscape that are normally viewed as barriers. So a wall is no longer an obstacle between the viewer and that which it hides, but becomes an intriguing component in a metaphysical game of hide and seek. The intention of the photographer is to stimulate the viewer to free him or herself, overcoming inner and outer limits to appreciate the multiple realities that are ready to unfold.
The photographs are visible because they are on show in the shop of the Gallery. Diventato famoso per le immagini di Tokio e delle periferie, nella sua ricerca artistica ha coinvolto vari aspetti, quotidiani e concettuali, del vissuto umano. In questa occasione viene presentata la sua prima personale in una galleria italiana attraverso una selezione di lavori del passato e una nuova serie di opere dedicate a Milano, realizzate appositamente per gli spazi di Viasaterna.
Takashi Homma is a Japanese artist who has made spaces and architecture his way of looking at the world. This occasion marks his first solo show in an Italian gallery, with a selection of works from the past and with a new series of works dedicated to Milan, made specifically for the Viasaterna spaces. Identity and crisis are the concepts that Bertoglio tackles by recovering the emotional dimension represented, in his photographs, by a robot mask from his childhood. A reflection that is philosophical and current, and which benefits from even more dynamism thanks to performances by rtwork and drawings by Fabio Caputo.
Created by the Documentation Team of the Sesto Fiorentino Purple Cross - composed of journalists, photographers and civil protection technicians - the exhibition tells of the many human dramas that unfolded in May in the Idomenei refugee camp on the Greek-Macedonian border, during the time in which the Greek government, having decided to dismantle the structure, was proceeding with the transfer of men, women and children. Without rhetoric, but with touching immediacy, the exhibition recounts the events with a pungent narrative rhythm and epic grandeur.
Karabakh is a word of Turkish and Persian origin which means "black garden". Nagorny is a Russian word meaning "mountain. A pure reportage that seeks to give a voice, but above all image and form, to a state made up of real people but unknown to most. Comunque bellissimi e maestosi. Marco Urso, internationally renowned naturalist photographer, shows us through his reportage how wild animals, captured within their habitats in disparate continents, can, in their spontaneity, be funny, ironic, almost resembling humans in certain gestures.
Yet nonetheless beautiful and majestic. Come ogni bravo professionista Elio Luxardo sapeva esprimersi anche in ricerche personali che ancora oggi colpiscono per la loro bellezza asciutta e suggestiva. Like any pro, Elio Luxardo knew how to express himself through personal researches that still impress with their dry and suggestive beauty. The male nudes are the result of his youthful beginnings as a sculptor and owe much to his ability to consider the body in its plasticity, as far from morbidness as from rhetoric.
His images, taken from the archives of the 3M Foundation, have a sculptural plasticity that is able to evoke an ancient classicism and that anticipates the irrepressible and bold force dear to Robert Mapplethorpe.
Il disegno e la fotografia sono modi diversi ma paralleli di rapportarsi con la natura. Lo confermano le opere realizzate con il semplice ausilio di una matita da Innocente Pessina: nella serie Montagna che passione! Drawing and photography are different but parallel ways of relating to nature.
This is confirmed by the works created with the simple aid of a pencil by Innocente Pessina: in the series Montagna che passione! Alberto Bianchi also calls upon black-and-white to obtain, in The Valley Tale, classic photographs where the light gives the whole an intense vitality, coupling overarching views with an equally spectacular search for details.
La serie, dedicata a pittori e scultori, perfeziona la chiave interpretativa attraverso un uso creativo delle luci. Claudio Argentiero and portrait art. A genre that can be defined as such only when it succeeds in bringing out the most intimate aspect, when it makes the poetry that inspires the artist, tangible. A slow unveiling powered by the complicity and dialogue that the author establishes with the subject. The series, dedicated to painters and sculptors, perfects the key to interpretation through a creative use of lights.
Un unico tema accomuna, nei loro opposti approcci, queste due intriganti ricerche: il ritratto. Nazzareno Berton e Sergio Carlesso riscoprono in Reset un rapporto autentico con la natura fino a riappropriarsene e a immedesimarsi in essa con una loro presenza intensa ma anche discreta e quindi non immediatamente percepibile.
One theme creates a commonality, despite opposite approaches, between these two intriguing bodies of research: the portrait. Jessica Zambellini in Ad uno sconosciuto [To a stranger] imagines capturing the attention of those who casually observes her portraits and self-portraits, thus inducing even those who even have never seen her to affirm to have looked into her eyes. Nazzareno Berton and Sergio Carlesso rediscover, in Reset, an authentic relationship with nature: they re-appropriate it, and identify with it, through their presence- that is intense but also discreet, and therefore not immediately obvious.
Gianni Berengo Gardin e AA. Fotografia e giornalismo: le immagini premiate nel Galleria Carla Sozzani. Tracce di un passaggio Made4Art La natura riprende i suoi spazi Bookshop Bicocca Tracce di vita, storie dal Artepassante Interpretazioni dei giovani fotografi HC Art Factory Giovani fotografi del secondo millennio Istituto Italiano di Fotografia Tracce di vita, storie dal Artepassante 23 AA. La natura riprende i suoi spazi Bookshop Bicocca 41 C. Giovani fotografi del secondo millennio Istituto Italiano di Fotografia 89 K.
Milano e altre storie Viasaterna AIM AA. Federico M. Cesare Colombo, supermercato a Baggio, Nella mostra sono presenti importanti autori storici del Circolo Fotografico Milanese, alcuni dei quali sono entrati a fare parte della storia della fotografia italiana. End of story. But when Ellie charges into his life with her demands and possibilities of sweet surrender, her offer proves too tempting to pass up.
There are secrets buried in the shadows, and dangerous desires to be explored. While the two of them dance to an erotic beat, outside forces threaten Ashland's empire and Ellie must decide where her heart truly lies - and what she's truly willing to risk for love. I've worked a decade for this. I've sold my soul and my reputation. I've lived a lie, smiled for the cameras, and hated myself, all for this inheritance. And then … she pops up. I can continue the charade a little longer, keep my hands to myself and her body out of my mind. I can keep my secret until the ink dries and everything is mine.
Or not. I hope I'll have another rich year concerning reads in , I've loved this books so much! I hope you do too! Buona sera, bloggers e lettori! E continuate a tornare. Non che mi lamenti, eh. Per me potete farlo quanto vi pare. Potete insultarmi quanto vi pare. Tanto l'unica che ci rimette non sono di certo io.
You're oh so wrong, my dear! Gli haters sono pregati di svenarsi sotto questo post, in modo da poter leggere con attenzione tutti i loro gentili e carini commenti. Buon pomeriggio, bloggers e lettori! Ho trovato questo romanzo estremamente noioso, senza contare che trovavo insopportabile personaggi su quattro. Ricordo ancora quanto detestassi Rebecca -.
Buon fine anno, bloggers e lettori! According to Lefevere, translators have an important, yet undervalued, role of mediators since they are responsible for the success of another work. Even recent post- colonial theories have shown interest in the theory of translation. According to this definition, the translation becomes inevitably a process of transculturation. In recent years computer applications of translation studies have greatly increased.
Based on this recent interest in automatic translations and of Corpus-based Translation Studies, linguists, mathematicians, and engineers have opened their fields to the study of the disciplines of computational linguistics, translation technology, and theory of information from which new and original approaches to translation studies are now emerging.
Thus the American translator is not merely a professional who seeks a faithful rendition of a text. In the United States, the translations of the works of Italo Calvino were published quite swiftly, and apart from Weaver, the Guarnieri. The only two works translated respectively ten and eight years after the Italian editions were Il Sentiero dei nidi di ragno and Il castello dei destini incrociati.
Trilogia was published in a single volume in collecting all of the three short stories under the title, Our Ancestors. The first is that Americans lacked interest for the historical context of Neo-realist narrative. For the translation of Cosmicomiche, he received a translation award in Unlike Colquhoun, Weaver established a personal rapport with Calvino, which probably helped to speed up the translation process.
Weaver frequently spoke to Calvino on the phone to con- firm even minor corrections and revisions. Weaver reports that he often thought that Calvino wanted to translate his work himself. It was hard, Weaver recalls, to talk to him; he was an extremely reserved person, who did not love gossip and unnecessary confidence. Even though they knew each other for over twenty years, they still used the formal pronoun Lei. Another curious episode was the case of Sotto il Sole Giaguaro which came out first in the English translation done by Weaver and then in Italian.
In Italy the entire work was published only in while in the United States the entire col- Guarnieri. Inside this work one can find an essay that was translated by Weaver in , with the title The Pen in the First Person La penna in prima persona. Weaver also translated the preface of the Sentieri dei nidi di ragno published in Italian in We know that Calvino himself was a translator and an advo- cate of translation research.
When the novel gets to the most interesting part, the Reader decides to go back to the bookstore where he bought it to complain. He meets Ludmilla the female reader with whom he would begin the search for the integral novel, ultimately to find out that all of the existing copies are flawed. These stories leave the reader suspended in determining the endings and give voice to the notion of multiplicity of stories that generate from a single source. In light of this view, then, a translator is not free from external pressures, from memories of what is read or absorbed.
To avoid such inconveniences Calvino endorses the creation of a language composed of precise and concrete linguistic features that would increase its translatability. His vision, though, also establishes that this language maintains the secrete es- sence of the text, an intrinsic truth as defined by Eco. This language dualism, typical in Calvino which characterizes most of his literary style, reveals constant struggle between the crystal nature of his vocabulary and the exuberance and imaginary, chaotic nature of his imagination.
Speaking of his collaboration with Calvino, Weaver, also re- Guarnieri. In another way, he was not easy to translate. Although he was not a scientist, both of his parents were, and he liked to read scientific works. This is particularly true of Calvino. The short story presents different cultural levels, Italian, Japanese, and Anglophone, while these contexts are to be transmitted to the reader in the most accurate way possible. The simple plot of the narration becomes, however, rather complex with the persistent erotic-visual implications that distinguish the story.
The plot begins by intro- ducing the protagonist of the story, a student who is attempting to improve his attention span under the guidance of Mr. To accomplish this, he tries to concentrate his attention on a single Guarnieri. Subsequently, when the student bends over a small pond in order to smell a water nymphaea, he casually comes in contact with the bosom of the daughter, Makiko, and wife of Mr.
Okeda, Mrs. Miyagi, who were kneeling down to pick up flowers. On his way back home, the protagonist asks Makiko out on a date, and she accepts. However, that night, something unexpected hap- pens. While the student plays hide and seek with the daughter, he enters a room where Miss Miyagi was placing flowers into a vase and picking up the leaves that had fell on the floor.
Driven by the woman, the two find themselves making love while the daughter who had finally reached in the room looking for her date and Mr. Okeda secretly watch them in true voyeuristic fashion. The language of the novel in question is sensual and precise, just like Calvino desired. Calvino underlines the importance of using a language which reveals its richness, full- ness and concreteness in order to become a modern language which is highly communicative and ultimately easy translatable. Weaver, before this translation, probably read the Italian version several times to grasp the tone and the atmosphere in order to faithfully reproduce it.
The style of which is written in an average Italian, Guarnieri. In an interview regarding her English translations, she admits that the degree of difficulty of a translation depends on the linguistic style of each author. In addition, this story facilitates the work of the translator since the syntax is made up of short sen- tences which render the work of the translator almost transparent. Yet in this story, the colons remain unaltered. From the comments released by Weaver, it becomes clear that his main preoccupation was to preserve the original structure of the Italian text.
We will see how in the short story On the Carpet A clear example is this short paragraph with the original Italian and the English version translated by Weaver: Le foglie del ginkgo cadevano come una pioggia minuta dai rami e punteggiavano di giallo il prato. Io passeggiavo col signor Okeda sul sentiero di pietre lisce. Il signor Okeda disse che era possibile.
Le premesse da cui partivo, e che il signor Okeda trovava ben fondate, erano le seguenti. Se una notte Here is the English version: The ginkgo leaves fell like fine rain from the boughs and dotted the lawn with yellow. I was walking with Mr. Okeda on the path of smooth stones.
I said I would like to distinguish the sensation of each single ginkgo leaf from the sensation of all the others, but I was wondering if it would be possible. Okeda said it was possible. The premises from which I set out, and which Mr. Okeda considered well founded, were the following. It is important to underline that in Italian, these verbs in the past manifest actions that are limited in time. The imperfect is used to describe a habitual action like the falling of the leaves each year in the fall.
The verbs As I was walking camminavo and I was wondering mi domandavo demonstrate undefined lengths of time in English present perfect , while in Italian the imperfect provides an entirely different meaning. The Japanese-themed short story offers different reflexive forms. One of the difficulties in the translation of these verbs is understanding which type of reflexive it is, sometimes one must distinguish between the impersonal form and the passive structure.
In addition, there can be ambiguity in certain verb functions: for example, the verb cambiarsi means two different things: changing clothes but also transforming Nermin Abd El-Hamid Hamdy 1. These examples determine that there is no precise correspon- dence with Italian; if we think of the present indicative in English, it has different connotations.
Therefore, it is best to translate them using their actual use in English without trying to find an equivalency Guarnieri. Another translation that can create problems is the word terreno which can be translated with land, country, field, plot or site, and that Weaver, in this case, translated with ground.
Weaver in translating this short story, documents how he approached the final version of his translation and shows all of the challenges, big or small that he encountered. Translating Seduction The strong visual-erotic footprint of this story, is marked by an important verb, guardare, which in the narration acquires different visual nuances and is translated in many different forms, from look to gaze to seeing. The variety of these verbs is also found in the English language: to follow, to see, gaze, to look, to examine, to stare, to contemplate, to spy, to watch, to appear, to observe, to describe.
There are other examples of the translation of the verb guardare in this story which are significant to discuss. However, if one choses to use the verb to watch this corresponds to the verb guardare, osservare, while if one selects the verb to gaze, this would mean to remain in contemplation and to stare at someone. In the English translation one loses the visual aspect that characterizes instead the Italian sentence. In another passage of the story, the visual aspect is however preserved in the English translation: screditare agli occhi dei docenti; rendered with discrediting in the eyes of the University professors.
This shows, once again, that translations do not always follow rigid rules and that every word has to be weighted and translated on a case by case basis. Miyagi appear to be more precise in the English version. Guardava fissamente, ma non sua moglie e me, ma sua figlia che ci guardava. Okeda had been there. He was staring hard, not at his wife and me but at his daughter watching us.
The peculiarity of the English translation resides in the fact that Weaver interpreted the word spasimo like a precise act, without leaving the Anglophone reader any other possibility; while in Italian the meaning of this word offers several other implications. One must also notice that in English, Mrs.
Miyagi gains the title of Madame, since, as Weaver explained, it is a term usually attributed to foreign people. If he used Mrs. Miyagi, her sensual appeal would weaken. Other verbs that more or less pertain to the sight in the story On the Carpet… convey erotic tones. Although the character of Mrs. Miyagi ap- pears in a captivating role, in reality, according to Frasson-Marin, this is no other than a hoax used to diminish her role. The description of the narrating voice of the story seems to be the sacrificial victim, forced to engage in involuntary sexual acts.
In addition, the woman always attracts the man with the art of seduction rather than her intelligence, culture or dialogue. Moreover, according to the French critic, when the women exercise these qualities, these are strongly criticized and diminished by Calvino. A related approach proposed by Frasson-Marin, is the topic of gender in translation which deserves attention. The determination of gender in Weaver is a recurrent problem in his translations, however, he opted for solutions that obscured female characters.
In this case, the American translator makes a particular ideological choice and he is now at the same level of the author, and becomes a co-writer of the original text. During the s, a new approach for translation studies surfaced, mostly in North America and in France, which focused on analyzing gender in translation. Several sociologists explored this innovative field, commonly known as Sex and Language since it is known that in constructing gender identity, language has a defining role.
Thus, it becomes important to recognize the different approach that a writer and the translator has in relation to gender difference since it can create problems in the translation of the text. In Italian there is no gender neutral and all words have a spe- cific gender attribution; in English this distinction does not exist; and there are no few words that point to the gender of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles. In another instance, Weaver managed with difficulties the challenge posed by the feminine gender in the story of Marcovaldo.
For example, to translate the word for female rabbit coniglia he chooses to eliminate the word and only use the generic terms of male e female. This can also be seen in the collection of short stories entitled Gli idilli difficili, where un impiegato and una impiegata clerk become a man and a woman in the translation. Features of the Technical Translation To understand the process of translation, it is important to showcase a few examples that indicate the challenges faced by translators, but also to disclose the ones tackled by William Weaver.
Among the selected ones, there is the issue of the morphosyntactic Guarnieri. In the following paragraph taken from On the Carpet, we notice how the Italian syntax follows a predictable pattern: a subject, a verb and object. However, the order can change if one wishes to emphasize a certain word or element. In fact, the whole first page of the short story written by Calvino creates an atmosphere of delayed sensuality, one that recalls the movements of classical ballet. We find the same verb at the end of the story, but this time Weaver, translates it with twirling, a verb that in English has differ- ent meanings such as twisting, curling, bending, winding.
In English, Weaver was able to recreate the same effect with the use of the following words: losing, pleasant, sensations, distinct, others, confusing, comes, blades, grass, perse- vere, purpose, perhaps, edges, times, silence, served, as, conjectures, series, stages, lesson, tiniest, sheaf, diffused, impressions. All of these words appear in the English text according to a clear strategy on the part of the translator to convey the sensuality and eroticism chosen by Calvino for this story. Weaver shows his mastership in being able Guarnieri.
This is, in part, due to the verbal richness of the English language. Another relevant aspect to underline in the translation of the vocabulary is the so-called lexical equivalence according to Bruno Osimo 83 ; something very important to preserve in order to achieve textual accuracy.
In this story, there are words that are translated in a rather generic way, something that goes under the name of under- translation.
For example, the word scrutare, which in Italian means to look at intently is translated with to examine. To translate it with the verb scrutinize would have seemed more appropriate since to inves- tigate as a synonym is closer to the original meaning. We also have an example of an over-translation with turbare translated with upset which indicates a type of disruption that conveys sadness.
In Italian, the verb instead offers more interpretative solutions: it does not only imply sadness but it can be a synonym of confusion, trouble, disorder, agitation and anxiety. One can be worried but not necessarily sad. Obviously an error that Weaver does not commit is to confuse the so called false-friends; words that formally appear similar to Ital- ian, but instead mean something different. Another word is biblioteca, which is translated with library, since libreria in Italian is the bookstore.
Pavimento should not be translated with pavement but with floor since pavement means sidewalk and concrete. Furthermore, the word gentile could be translated with genteel, but kind is its correct equivalent. The American translator instead chooses its Latin equivalent which creates an awkward outcome — an erudite word which generates a different atmosphere. What is needed in a good translation is not just the equiva- lence, but finding words can be associated with a word in a particular context.
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Both times when Guarnieri. The first one refers to hard labor unskilled , always remunerated, while the second term usually refers more to a profession, an activity where personal ability is at stake. The phrase tavolo da lavoro is translated with you are at your desk, omitting completely the verb linked to work. The word lavoro can be found in Palomar and Marcovaldo. In the first one, the expression per un lavoro delicato is translated with a delicate job; while in the Marcovaldo this word is often translated with work.
In many dictionaries the word is translated with flower-bed. A close reading of the story in Marcovaldo, we notice how the translation differs, given the fact that aiuola usually refers to a piece of land in which one can grow flowers, vegetables, or seeds. It appears an exaggeration to choose bed of dirt, while path seems a clear example of an under-translation. These numerous translation examples are presented to dem- onstrate in concrete terms what it means to be a skillful translator. Nonetheless this also shows how Weaver used his creativity and artistic talent for his translations.
Weaver demonstrates that his practice is a combination of creativity, training and inspiration. A translation cannot be considered only like a second-hand copy of the original, born out of a mechanical process, but instead it should be considered as a creative act and as a work of re-interpretation.
From dialect, ways of sayings which in Italian are plenty, every novel has had its own main dif- ficulties. Palomar, The Cosmicomics, and in The Castle, it was the syntactical aspect. Every word is intentional and calibrated. The translator has to grasp his whole essence in order to return it to the public in its full integrity.
Many translators of Calvino chose to make the integrity and essence of his poetics a priority respecting both form and content. Colquhoun Boston: Beacon Press, Of the Fiabe italiane we have three different translations, the one by Louis Brigante Italian Fables. The book, Ultimo viene il corvo was translated by Archibald Colquhoun and Peggy Wright, with the title, One afternoon and other stories London: Collins, The story, La speculazione edilizia, was translated with the title, Plunge into real estate by S.
Carne-Ross in by Pocket Books. New York: Vintage International, , and the collection of essays, Prima che tu dica pronto Numbers in the dark and other stories. London: Jonathan Cape, NY: HBJ, Invece temo non sia altro che un bol en plastique, una scodella come esempio di prodotto in serie.
Ho ripiegato su un gioco dassonanze salvando solo il ritmo del verso. Ho capito bene il pistone e il cilindro? Penso che sarai in vacanza e non so quando vedrai questa lettera. Ti ringrazio per tutto quello che potrai dirmi e ti auguro un buon agosto, tuo Italo Calvino. He then collaborated with Quadri and Solmi in translating Queneau.
Works Cited Anselmi, G. M, Fenocchio, G. Tempi e immagini della letteratura, vol. Bruno Mondadori. Milano, Bondi, M. Fortunati V. La cultura italiana e le letterature straniere Guarnieri. Third Volume. Ravenna: Longo editore, Bowker, L. Computer-Aided Translation Technology. A Practical Introduction. University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa. Calvino, I. Barenghi, M. Milano: Mondadori, I Meridiani, Print Calvino. Milano: Mondadori, II. Torino: Einaudi, New York: Harcourt Brace, Una pietra sopra. The Uses of Literature.
Patrick Creagh. Harcourt Brace, Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in the City. Derrida, J. Derek Attridge. London: Routledge, Eco, U. Dire quasi la stessa cosa. Milano: Bompiani, Even-Zohar, I. Federici, F. Amsterdam: Rodopi: Frasson-Marin, A. Geneva-Paris: Editions Slatkine: Glissant, E.
Poetica del diverso. Roma: Meltemi. Guarnieri, G. Summer- Fall Holmes, J. Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Monaco, R. Newmark, P. A Textbook of Translation. NY: Prentice Hall, Nida, E. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: Brill, Osimo, B. Manuale del traduttore. Milano: Hoepli, May 15, Thorne B. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House, Tymoczko, M. Translation and Power. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, Weaver, W. Biguenet, J, Schulte, R. Chicago: Chicago University Press, Paola Masino wrote prolifically during the Fascist dictatorship and was a prominent figure in the Italian cultural and intellectual environment of her time.
Her first novel Monte Ignoso was awarded the Viareggio Literary Prize and her short stories were published in the most prestigious Italian literary magazines of the time. Her official narrative production includes three nov- els, Monte Ignoso Bompiani, , Periferia Bompiani, and Nascita e morte della massaia Bompiani, , three collections of short stories Decadenza della morte Casa editrice Alberto Stock, , Racconto grosso e altri Bompiani, and Colloquio di notte published posthumously by La Luna in , as well as a book of poetry, Poesie Bompiani, Un agnellino venne a leccargli il volto; lui mosse appena il capo.
Allora venne ad annusarlo il cane Argo. Argo sembrava inquieto e non contento del sonno del pastore. Tutte le pecore ora gli si venivano raggruppando intorno e gli ag- nelli cercavano ognuno la propria madre. Laio mosse di nuovo il capo come se stesse per svegliarsi. Sulla strada maestra, lontanissima alle loro spalle, passavano carri trainati da bovi. Lo sciacquio cresceva di minuto in minuto, per la foce si spandeva nel flume che tutto ne risonava palpitando.
Le vene minime della corrente, i piccoli gorghi a riva sotto i cespugli di crescione, le cascatelle tra i ciottoli, furono cancellati dalle onde sabbiose risalenti il corso delle acque. E finalmente Rozier. The sheep, scattered along the banks of the river, looked like the white curls of a kind, sleepy river god stretched across the valley. Laio, like the river, stretched out in the grass and stared at the sky going silver.
His eyes were bright, a reflection of the luminous sky; he closed his eyes slowly, and he lay asleep. A lamb came to lick his face, but Laio barely moved. His dog Argo came to sniff him. The dog seemed concerned, unhappy his master was asleep. A sheep bleated and ran from the bank; others followed, scattering.
Far away, a peasant woman cried out. Sea gulls, escaping from the sea, flew low over the ground, screeching. The dog chased their shadows, then stopped, faced the river, and howled. The sheep gathered around Argo, the lambs searching for their mothers. The sky had turned ashen over the mountains and the pewter-colored sea, the undercurrent like veins of blood. Only over the river had the sky kept its spring-like glow, mirror- ing the tender grass.
Laio moved his head slightly, as if about to wake up. The dog was still facing east, howling now and then. On the main road, far behind them, in the distance, carts went by, pulled by oxen. Somewhere, another dog answered. The air was so thin it carried the sounds. Even the surf breaking on the invisible shore could be heard, and it grew louder and louder as the waters rushed from the plain into the river. The river echoed and throbbed, seemed to swell, its surface tightening, now the same pewter-color as the clouds rising so suddenly from the sea, speeding towards the mountains, with a low rumbling thunder.
The waves carried sand upstream, erasing the small veins in the current, the tiny whirlpools under the watercress, the little cascades between the rocks. The sheep were quiet, muzzles raised. Then, a purple lightning flashed across the sky and the clouds crashed together, echoing in the mountains.
Alla nuova curva anche Argo scompare. Pure corre. In un angolo della cucina, seduto sul mucchio delle patate, sta un uomo vecchissimo e sconosciuto, con pochi fili bianchi di barba per il mento. Attizza il fuoco prima che muoia. Si volge al vecchio. Il vecchio sorride con malizia e sussurra: - Oro. The sun is blazing and the quartz sparkles. The dust dries in a hot cloud behind the meander- ing sheep vanishing around the bend. At the next curve, Argo disappears as well. Still he runs. He almost smells the hay in the pens, hears the murmur of the spring on the rocks behind the hut and sees the rosemary bush next to the door.
He calms down and goes inside. In a corner of the kitchen, he sees a stranger, an old man sitting on a mound of potatoes. He has a few white whiskers on his chin, and he sits with his legs apart, leaning forward a little, trying to blow on the fire in the hearth on the opposite side of the room. Poke the fire before it dies. Laio always obeys his elders, so he goes to the fireplace to set a log on the burning coals. Laio tries again. He takes the fire in his hands, tries to pull it apart.
But he realizes the fire is as cold as ice, as hard as metal. Even gold needs fire. Why not set me on fire? Burn me. Io sono un vecchio tronco, subito ardo. Bruciami, bruciami. Sentirai che buon profumo spando, e che calore. I giovani devono nutrirsi dei vecchi, i figli usare i padri. Gli risponde un gran rombo che fa tremare il monte e una luce lo investe e lo trascina lontano. Gocce pesanti e chicchi di grandine misti piovendo diritti con violenza, gli bucavano gli oc- chi.
Fulmini di un colore marcio traversavano il cielo da occidente a oriente, salivano dal mare a ferire i monti che gemevano dalle viscere profonde. The young must feed on the old; sons must use their fathers. His answer is a sharp thunderclap that shakes the mountain, then a flash of lightning that hits him and hurls him aside.
He looks back, and his hut, struck by lightning, has burst into flames, is being consumed, the carbonized pieces floating up, like burning paper, falling on him, all around him, and as they fall, the pieces are turning yellow, round, shiny: large gold coins that hurt as they strike his face like rain. With this pain, Laio awoke. Big heavy rain drops and hail were falling, a violent downpour, stinging his eyes and his hands. Flashes of lightning, the color of rot, crisscrossed the sky from west to east, rising from the sea to batter the mountains, making them moan from deep within their bowels.
Laio jumped up: he ran toward his flock huddled beneath a poplar tree, and he yelled and waved his arms to drive them away from the tree and onto the main road, as he searched for cover. They were barely on their way when the rain began spinning in sudden gusts from the whirling winds that made the clouds crash together with a terrible noise.
The rain fell straight down, a solid wall. It was more like being submerged in a lake, where some new law made breathing possible. They pressed to the ground, trying to hide in the furrows. Argo, too, unable to help, huddled with them, bark- ing pitifully. Now and then, Laio heard the sweet bleating of the lambs, growing ever weaker. Groping around in the dark, he picked up two, tucking one inside his cloak, setting the other on his shoulders. But now walking was exhaust- ing. The ground was saturated, a muddy mire, and he sank in Rozier.
Andava avanti senza pensiero, accompa- gnato dal sibilo della serpe, dal battito pauroso del cuore dei due pecorini. Solo allora si accorse di un fragore mo- notono che accompagnava quello della pioggia, ma come di fianco, irregolare e minaccioso.
Il lampo venne. Laio aveva fin qui conosciuto Dio onnipotente e giusto, ma ora stava perplesso davanti a quello sperpero di potenza, a quella indecifrabile giustizia. Dio, mi senti, o forse sei troppo lontano? Che cosa ne fanno del mio armento, la tempesta e il mare? Hanno un corpo da vestire di lana? The blood from its wings filled his mouth and tasted sweet.
A little further, he stepped on a snake that wrapped itself around his ankle, hissing, but Laio did not try to shake it off. He kept going, not thinking, accompanied by the hissing of the snake and the frightened heartbeats of the two lambs. Only then did he hear the dull crashing alongside the rain, but this was all to the side, something sporadic, menacing. Lightning lit up the landscape. This section of the river bank was manmade, with boulders stacked inside metal wire to hold back the wild waves rushing down the rocky gorge. He pleaded for another flash of lightning and the lightning came.
It broke through the clouds, came down so close, screaming and burning, that Argo yelped and ran from his master. Where was the flock? The shepherd poked him gently with his staff, and he knew the lamb was dead. They were all dead. Until now, the shepherd had believed in a just and omnipotent God, and he stood bewildered before such a misuse of power, such indecipherable justice. Can you hear me, God, or are you too far away? What good is my flock to the storm and the sea? Do they have a body that needs to be dressed in wool? Lord, how will my sheep find the entrance to your fields without me?
Why punish us so? Who can answer? Do you want this lamb as well? But no one answered, and he started walking again. Forse io ora dovrei darti anche questa? Ma nessuno rispose e Laio riprese a camminare.