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Referred to by credible people? Refers to credible people? Click here for Assessing Information Find Relevant Information about Apologetics. Limit by Source Type. Go to Amazon Textbooks. Recommended Apologetics Articles. Not on OneSearch. Recommended Apologetics Websites. Subject Guide: Christian Worldview. Apologetics: A Justification of Christian Belief.
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Lewis's Christian Apologetics: Pro and Con. Leiden: Brill Rodopi, by Gregory Bassham, ed. Can We Believe It? Can You Believe It's True? Christ or Chaos. Jesus or Nothing. Examples of ways to find relevant information enter search terms. Areopagus Journal Culturally relevant apologetic to reclaim ground lost to skepticism, secularism, and other alien philosophies.
Christian Apologetics Journal Provides a forum for the presentation of articles contributing to the defense of the historic Christian faith. Christian Research Journal Examining today's religious movements and giving reasons for Christian faith. Sergei Bulgakov , an earlyth-century Russian Orthodox priest and theologian advocated the use of the term panentheism , which articulated a necessary link between God and creation as consequence of God's free love and not as a natural necessity.
His sophiology has sometimes been seen as a precursor to 'open theism'. Millard Erickson belittles such precursors to open theism as "virtually unknown or unnoticed. The broader articulation of open theism was given in , when five essays were published by Evangelical scholars including Rice under the title The Openness of God. Biblical scholars Terence E.
Fretheim , Karen Winslow, and John Goldingay affirm it. Borgman , mathematician D. The dynamic omniscience view has been affirmed by a number of non Christians as well: Cicero 1st century BC Alexander of Aphrodisias 2nd century and Porphyry 3rd century. Two significant Jewish thinkers who affirmed dynamic omniscience as the proper interpretation of the passage were Ibn Ezra 12th century and Gersonides 14th century.
Open theists maintain that traditional classical theists hold the classical attributes of God together in an incoherent way. The main classical attributes are as follows: . Contradictions in the traditional attributes are pointed out by open theists and atheists alike. Atheist author and educator George H. Smith writes in his book Atheism: The Case Against God that if God is omniscient, God cannot be omnipotent because: "If God knew the future with infallible certainty, he cannot change it — in which case he cannot be omnipotent.
If God can change the future, however, he cannot have infallible knowledge of it". Open theism also answers the question of how God can be blameless and omnipotent even though evil exists in the world. Roy Elseth gives an example of a parent that knows with certainty that his child would go out and murder someone if he was given a gun.
Elseth argues that if the parent did give the gun to the child then the parent would be responsible for that crime. This position is, however, dubious, as a parent who knows his child was probable, or likely, or even possibly going to shoot someone would be culpable; and God knew that it was likely that man would sin, and thus God is still culpable. An orthodox Christian might try, on the contrary, seek to ground a theodicy in the resurrection, both of Christ and the general resurrection to come,  though this is not the traditional answer to evil.
Philosopher Alan Rhoda has described several different approaches several open theists have taken with regard to the future and God's knowledge of it. Open theism has been strongly criticized by some Protestant , especially Calvinist , theologians and ministers. Opponents include Bruce A. Geisler, in his book Creating God in the Image of Man? He quotes Exodus "I am who I am" and claims that it establishes God's aseity.
While Open Theists would affirm God's aseity, they would derive this attribute on other grounds, and deny that it entails all the attributes Geisler thinks it does.
An open theist might respond that all such criticisms are misplaced. As to No.
Hence, with Francis A. Somewhat later the Scottish theologian James Orr responded to the Enlightenment challenge. Justin Brierley — host of Unbelievable? The Occult. Jay Richards.
Indeed, open theists believe God's character is unchanging. Rather, they argue that they imported only some unbiblical assumptions from the Greeks. Rather, they argue that some philosophical influences on Christian theology are unbiblical and theologically groundless. Consider John Sanders' statement in The Openness of God : "Christian theology, I am arguing, needs to reevaluate classical theism in light of a more relational metaphysic not all philosophy is bad!
Opponents of open theism, both Arminians, and Calvinists, such as John Piper ,  claim that the verses commonly used by open theists are anthropopathisms see anthropopathy. They suggest that when God seems to change from action A to action B in response to prayer, action B was the inevitable event all along, and God divinely ordained human prayer as the means by which God actualized that course of events. Those [ who?
Authors who claim this can be traced back through Calvin , Luther , Aquinas , Ambrose , and Augustine. Open theists note that there seems to be an arbitrary distinction here between those verses which are merely anthropopathic and others which form God's character. They also note that the immediate sense of the passages addressing God's inalterability ought to be understood in the Hebrew sense of his faithfulness and justice.
In other words, God's love and character is unchanging; this, however, demands that His approach to people especially in the context of personal relationship be flexible. In the early 18th century, an extended public correspondence flourished around the topic of open theism. Over the next decade, four other English writers published polemical works in response.
This led Fancourt to defend his views in six other publications.
In his autobiography, in response to some who thought that this controversy had affected his career, Fancourt wrote, "Should it be suggested, that my religious principles were a prejudice unto me—I answer: so are those of every Dissenting Protestant in the [United] Kingdom with some, if he dares to think and to speak what he thinks. In , a "raging debate" among evangelicals about "open or free-will theism" was in place. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Fretheim William Hasker Libertarianism metaphysics J. Faith and Philosophy. Boyd, Is God to Blame? InterVarsity, Ellis, Jr. John Piper and Justin Taylor, Crossway, John Piper and Justin Taylor, Crossway, John Piper and Justin Taylor, 41 Crossway, James K. Beilby, Paul R.
Eddy, 14 InterVarsity, Eddy, eds. Youngblood, F. Bruce, R. Harrison, eds. Pinnock and others, 30 InterVarsity, John Piper and Justin Taylor, 69 Crossway, Fechner, J. Simon, and W. Dennis W. Augustine ". Atheism: the case against God. New York City : Nash. Elseth Did God Know? A Study of the Nature of God.
Retrieved January 30, An Open Orthodoxy. Creating God in the Image of Man. Minneapolis : Bethany House. Open Theism. Tanchuma Mass'ei 7, Num. Rabbah ] — "Would He say…": Heb. This is in the form of a question.