English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in to mark the end of the period. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late. Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean , surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia , on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5. It covers an approximate area of 2. In oceanography , it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1, m and the deepest recorded point is 5, m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun , on the southwestern coast of Turkey , is 4, km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya , is km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies.
The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines ", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean , but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean.
In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea '; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity , cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above.
Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c. The archipelagic state consists of more than islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean , is located north of Cuba and Hispaniola , northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands , southeast of the U. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence ; the designation of "the Bahamas" can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands.
The Royal Bahamas Defence Force describes the Bahamas territory as encompassing , km2 of ocean space; the Bahamas is the site of Columbus's first landfall in the New World in Although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola; the islands were deserted from until , when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.
The Bahamas became a British crown colony in Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period; the slave trade was abolished by the British in Subsequently, the Bahamas became a haven for freed African slaves. Alternatively, it may originate from a local name of unclear meaning; the word The constitutes an integral part of the short form of the name and is, capitalised.
They came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30, Lucayans inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in Columbus's first landfall in the New World was on an island; some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island , situated in the southeastern Bahamas. An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay , according to calculations made in by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge , based on Columbus's log.
Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus exchanged goods with them; the Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour. The slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity; the population of the Bahamas was diminished. In , the Eleutherian Adventurers , led by William Sayle , migrated from Bermuda; these English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom.
They settled New Providence, naming it Sayle's Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks. In , King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America , they rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, appointing governors, administering the country. During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including Blackbeard. To put an end to the'Pirates' republic' and restore orderly government, Great Britain made the Bahamas a crown colony in under the royal governorship of Woodes Rogers.
After a difficult struggle, he succeeded in suppressing piracy. In , Rogers led local militia to drive off a Spanish attack. US Marines occupied the capital of Nassau for 2 weeks. In , following the British defeat at Yorktown , a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau; the city surrendered without a fight. Spain returned possession of the Bahamas to Great Britain the following year, u. Water vapor Water vapor, water vapour or aqueous vapor is the gaseous phase of water.
It is one state of water within the hydrosphere. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Unlike other forms of water, water vapor is invisible. Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously generated by evaporation and removed by condensation , it triggers convection currents that can lead to clouds. Being a component of Earth's hydrosphere and hydrologic cycle, it is abundant in Earth's atmosphere where it is a potent greenhouse gas along with other gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.
Use of water vapor, as steam, has been important to humans for cooking and as a major component in energy production and transport systems since the industrial revolution. Water vapor is a common atmospheric constituent, present in the solar atmosphere as well as every planet in the Solar System and many astronomical objects including natural satellites and large asteroids. The detection of extrasolar water vapor would indicate a similar distribution in other planetary systems.
Water vapor is significant in that it can be indirect evidence supporting the presence of extraterrestrial liquid water in the case of some planetary mass objects. Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface and diffuses into a surrounding gas, it is said to have evaporated; each individual water molecule which transitions between a more associated and a less associated state does so through the absorption or release of kinetic energy.
The aggregate measurement of this kinetic energy transfer is defined as thermal energy and occurs only when there is differential in the temperature of the water molecules. Liquid water that becomes water vapor takes a parcel of heat with it, in a process called evaporative cooling; the amount of water vapor in the air determines how molecules will return to the surface.
When a net evaporation occurs, the body of water will undergo a net cooling directly related to the loss of water. In the US, the National Weather Service measures the actual rate of evaporation from a standardized "pan" open water surface outdoors, at various locations nationwide. Others do around the world; the US data is compiled into an annual evaporation map.
The measurements range from under 30 to over inches per year. Formulas can be used for calculating the rate of evaporation from a water surface such as a swimming pool. In some countries, the evaporation rate far exceeds the precipitation rate. Evaporative cooling is restricted by atmospheric conditions.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air; the vapor content of air is measured with devices known as hygrometers. The measurements are expressed as specific humidity or percent relative humidity; the temperatures of the atmosphere and the water surface determine the equilibrium vapor pressure. This condition is referred to as complete saturation.
Sublimation is when water molecules directly leave the surface of ice without first becoming liquid water. Sublimation accounts for the slow mid-winter disappearance of ice and snow at temperatures too low to cause melting. Antarctica shows this effect to a unique degree because it is by far the continent with the lowest rate of precipitation on Earth; as a result, there are large areas where millennial layers of snow have sublimed, leaving behind whatever non-volatile materials they had contained. This is valuable to certain scientific disciplines, a dramatic example being the collection of meteorites that are left exposed in unparalleled numbers and excellent states of preservation.
Sublimation is important in the preparation of certain classes of biological specimens for scanning electron microscopy; the specimens are prepared by cryofixation and freeze-fracture , after which the broken surface is freeze-etched, being eroded by exposure to vacuum till it shows the required level of detail. This technique can display protein molecules, organelle structures and lipid bilayers with low degrees of distortion.
Water vapour will only condense onto another surface when that surface is cooler than the dew point temperature, or when the water vapour equilibrium in air has been exceeded; when water vapour condenses onto a surface, a net warming occurs on that surface. The water molecule brings heat energy with it. In turn, the temperature of the atmosphere drops slightly. In the atmosphere, condensation produces clouds and precipitation; the dew point of an air parcel is the temperature to which it must cool before water vapour in the air begins to condense concluding water vapour is a type of water or rain.
A net condensation of water vapour occurs on surfaces when the temperature of the surface is at or below the dew point temperature of the atmosphere. Deposition is a phase transition separate from condensation which leads to the direct formation of ice from water vapour. Frost and snow are examples of deposition. There are many mechanism of cooling by which condensation occurs 1.
There are 4 types of upliftment of air: a.
Hug de Cardona, II: Col·lecció diplomàtica () (Catalan Edition) - Kindle edition by Ferran Garcia-Oliver, Frederic Aparisi, Noelia Rangel, Vicent Royo. Hug de Cardona: Col·lecció diplomàtica () (Catalan Edition) - Kindle edition by Ferran Garcia-Oliver, Frederic Aparisi, Noelia Rangel. Download it.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wooden mill for extracting juice from fruit and sugarcane. For other uses, see Trapiche disambiguation. Por Juan Flamenco. Historia de Canarias T. Stevens-Acevedo, Anthony January Historia de las Indias escrita. Madrid: M. Madrid, Menzies Hidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Articles with short description Articles with Spanish-language external links.
Related Images. YouTube Videos. Satellite image , Satellite image depicting the border between Haiti left and the Dominican Republic right. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat or seafood, such as clam juice. A glass of orange juice.
Fresh fruit juices alongside the fruits used to prepare them. In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. The Cross of Mathilde , a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen — , who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque.
The figure of Christ is slightly later. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. This is a detailed and fascinating account of a Muslim valley in Christian-ruled Spain at the end of the Middle Ages. Valldigna is located south of the city of Valencia and was part of a region conquered by the king of Aragon-Catalonia in the thirteenth century.
Unlike much of Spain where the Muslim inhabitants were expelled or eventually departed after the Christian conqu This is a detailed and fascinating account of a Muslim valley in Christian-ruled Spain at the end of the Middle Ages. Unlike much of Spain where the Muslim inhabitants were expelled or eventually departed after the Christian conquests, the Valencia countryside remained predominantly Muslim in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the period on which this book is focused.
A bestseller in its Catalan edition, The Valley of the Six Mosques recreates in vivid and memorable terms the lives of the villagers, describing both what held them together families, the agricultural economy and what divided them crime, violence. Garcia-Oliver shows the often tense relations between the peasants and their landlord the monastery of Valldigna , but he is especially concerned to show the autonomy and inner life of the communities - the extent to which women held power within families, what the rhythms of everyday life were like, and how money, land, and labour inflected the struggle for survival.
The result is a tour de force that evokes a particular place and time, but one that tells us about the complicated formation of modern European and Mediterranean cultures and societies. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. Published April 27th by Brepols Publishers first published December 31st More Details Friend Reviews. The s. During the mid- ifteenth cen- tury the price of wheat — the most expensive cereal — ranged from 33 to 45 s.
Apa- risi, This is yet another example of the high level of mobility that even peasants enjoyed in the Middle Ages Dyer, In April of that same year he obtained from a peasant in Alboraia, to the north of the city, quadam eram cum suis pertinentis sitam ad latus dicti loci et cum due fanecate roughly 1, m2 for a mere 10 s. The low sale value suggests that the sale of the plot and the two fanecades was a means to settle a covert debt. He owed a good part of his success to the contacts and news his brother Antoni, be- ing a notary public, provided to him. As we already pointed out, Antoni began his career as a notary in and remained active at least until Twenty-two regis- ters have been preserved from these 32 years, and they each correspond to one year, except for the second record book, which includes transactions registered in and On the other hand, it is worth pointing out the fact that registering one protocol per year is symptomatic of how continuous his work was.
In fact, many notaries in the city of Valencia and its peri-urban surroundings included two years or more per volume due to their lack of clients. It therefore lacked a speciic area to receive clients and, furthermore, it was far away from the city centre, the Exchange building Llotja and its surroundings, where international com- mercial trafic was concentrated. Furthermore, his records do not contain the handwritings of other people who might have worked for him, which suggests that Ferrando had probably not taken on any apprentices. It should be pointed out that the volume for , located in the ARV Protocols, no.
Cruselles, In a more rural context, Guillem Peris the notary had three helpers. Both in these and the rest of the registers a consid- erable number of quires have been lost and, in fact, only the record books for and are complete. The register us made up of leaves grouped in twelve quires of sixteen leaves each. It would be logical to assume that this was the basic coniguration for his record books as nearly all surviving quires have the same number of leaves. During that year, Antoni only worked for days, recording a total of legal acts involving a total volume of capital of more than 55, s.
The vol- ume is also made up of leaves divided in 12 quires with 16 leaves each. Throughout that year, Antoni recorded acts that involved a total movement of capital of over , s. As it would seem that he did not have any clerks helping him, he probably met his clients personally to lean about the desires of the concerned parties and to take notes in his rebedor register. Furthermore, he also drafted the parchments and, perhaps, the notarial books.
He did not specialize in any single economic sector, nor did he work with speciic social groups. Therefore, documents related to the family life cycle afermaments — apprenticeships —, dowries, donation inter vivos, germanies — artisan guilds — testaments, codicils, post-mortem inventories and auctions are found in alternation with market transactions contracts of sale, obligations, orders and letters of payment and credit operations — loans backed up by real es- tate censals , pensions or rents violaris , transfers of claims, cancellations quitaments —.
The legal world was also present with arbitrations, sentences and conciliations. All these legal acts were common in notarial practice at the time Cortes, They concern a broad variety of businesses: payments for contracts of sale, bequests but especially for censal pensions. Powers of at- torney are the next most present document, at Guillem Peris, on the other hand, recorded an average of acts per year from to , and this igure rose to acts per year from to Lawyers made up a similar amount, with Out of the recorded acts, they only participated in six as grantors and in six as beneiciaries.
Llibrer, This was the case of the Dalmau family, which descended from Ramon Dalmau, the nota- ry from Gandia, and who descended, in turn, from another notary and a member of the local oligarchy, Miquel Dalmau. Members of the lesser nobility from the Gandia area resorted to him in different times for recording acts. The fact is that Antoni acted as a point of reference for his relatives and acquaintances moving to Valencia, either for speciic business transactions or to settle in the city, since there usually was a friend, colleague or distant relative, no matter how weak the link, to introduce or endorse newcomers Dutuor, Many chose to avoid these obligations through dual residence, that is, by being vicini in one town but actually living in another.
This situation was described by notaries, in their documents, with the adjective commorantes. Antoni counted with a right-hand man in the town, Ausias Antic, who was a member of a wealthy peasant family that was well-es- tablished in the richer sectors of Gandia. Antoni commissioned him to take care of the representation jobs he received Aparisi, 55 and Owed to him by Vicent Bellprat, a cloth maker from said town. In, in a parchment written by Antoni Ferrando, he appears as local treasurer of Gandia.
Thus, on August 5th, , he travelled to Palma for the formalization of an agreement between the irrigators of the Vernissa river to construct a waterwheel. The Matamala family is one of the more remarkable examples. Ausias must have been quite old at the time, as is indicated by the adjective venerable applied to him by Antoni Ferrando in his records: ARV, Procotols, no.
Lastly, credit was also an important economic activity, as these wealthy families often acted as moneylenders with their neighbours and peasants from the region Aparisi, Therefore, the synergies which had emerged between the Ferrandos and the Matamalas as members of the ruling elite in the Palma community decades ago found its continuity in Valencia.
Several members of the Matamala lineage who had settled in the capital and, in fact, in the same parish as Antoni, often made use of his services. The irst to visit the notary was Bernat Matamala, a cleric in the cathedral of Valencia, who often acted as a representative in the city on be- half of his family. Once again, Antoni acted as a reference for the recent arrivals. Via the notary, Pere acquired several plots of land and a farmhouse located behind the Royal Palace, on the op- posite shore of the Guadalaviar river.
This led to a considerable increase in the presence of the Matamalas as witnesses in legal acts recorded by Anto- ni Ferrando, a sign of their ongoing contacts. Indeed, taking the links that united both families into account, it is quite probable that Antoni Ferrando and Bernat Matamala had been childhood friends as they had a very sim- ilar age, and it seems obvious that they had strong personal bonds beyond merely professional matters. Thus, when Pere Matamala died prematurely in , Antoni was named the guardian for his children and goods, with the approval of the brother of the deceased, the cleric Bernat Matamala.
Indeed, by the fourteenth century, a career as a notary had be- come a means to become integrated in the urban world. Many notaries who ended up working in the city had an agrarian past. Nevertheless, the importance of these people with rural origins lies in their role as interfaces between the countryside and the city. It is true that, to his kin, Antoni Ferrando was a relative, and a very close one in some cases.
However, he was, above all, a professional with an ample knowledge of civil life. His daily contacts with his colleagues and the inhabitants of the city kept him informed on the most varied business opportunities, and his knowledge of the local market and the legislation of the kingdom allowed him to offer informed advice on a number of subjects.
Thus, Antoni became a reference point for newcomers from Gandia to Valencia, not only in the social sense, but also and especially in the economic sense. The role of the notary as an intermediary between the rural and the urban worlds, however, cannot be detected always.
A two-way relation between the city and the country- side was maintained in the case of the Ferrandos and, to a lesser extent, the Dalmaus, whereas others, such as the Cardonas, seem to have made efforts to hide their rural origins. Aparisi, F. II, pp. Documentos, 40, Sevilla. Sueca , Valencia. Bavel, B. Economy and Society in the Low Countries, , Oxford. Benito, P. Cammarosano, P. Carocci, S. Cruselles, E. Cruselles, J.
Activitat profesional i compor- tament social a la primera meitat del segle XV, Barcelona, pp. Dutour, T. Dyer, C. A economy and society in England in the later Middle Ages: The Ford lectures delivered in the university of Oxford in halry term , Oxford.
Rapa Nui. Beach in Nassau, Bahamas. Repici: Il De plantis pseudo-aristotelico nella tradizione antica e medievale — J. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Taylor: Royal protection in Aquitaine and Gascony by c.
The self-contained Village? The social history of rural communi- ties , pp, Trading and farming at the end of the Middle Ages, Oxford. Eiximenis, F.