In California Senator S. Hayakawa introduced a constitutional amendment to make English the country's official language. In Hayakawa founded U. English, Inc. English argues the following premises:. In California voters passed Proposition 63 that made English the state's official language. Other states did the same.
In Californians passed Proposition , a referendum that attempted to eliminate bilingual education by allowing only one year of structured English immersion, followed by mainstreaming. Similar initiatives have appeared on other state ballots. However, only 9 percent of the California children attained English proficiency in one year, and most remained in the immersion programs for a second year. Prior to the new law only 29 percent of California ELLs were in bilingual programs, in part because of a shortage of qualified teachers.
Since the law allowed parents to apply for waivers, 12 percent of the ELLs were allowed to remain in bilingual classes. In January of , as part of a lawsuit settlement, the California State Board of Education was forced to radically revise the implementation of their "Reading First" program. Language and learning difficulties occur with the same frequency in monolingual and bilingual children. However, as the number of bilingual children in the United States increases, it becomes increasingly important for parents and pediatricians to understand the normal patterns of bilingual language development in order to recognize abnormal language development in a bilingual child.
If a bilingual child has a speech or language problem, it should be apparent in both languages.
However detecting language delays or abnormalities in bilingual children can be difficult. Signs of possible language delay in bilingual children include the following:. ELLs in English-only programs often fall behind academically. Many ELLs who are assessed using traditional methods are referred for special education.
Such children often become school drop-outs. Parents in bilingual households can help their children by taking the following steps:. English as a second language ESL —English language instruction for English language learners ELLs that includes little or no use of a child's native language; a component of all bilingual education programs. Immersion —A language education approach in which English is the only language used. Metalinguistic skills —The ability to analyze language and control internal language processing; important for reading development in children.
Bush's major education initiative. Sequential bilingualism —Acquiring first one language and then a second language before the age of three. Sheltered English —Structured English immersion; English instruction for ELLs that focuses on content and skills rather than the language itself; uses simplified language, visual aids, physical activity, and the physical environment to teach academic subjects. Simultaneous bilingualism —Acquiring two languages simultaneously before the age of three. Structured English immersion —Sheltered English; English-only instruction for ELLs that uses simplified language, visual aids, physical activity, and the physical environment to teach academic subjects.
Transitional bilingual education TBE —Bilingual education that includes ESL and academic classes conducted in a child's primary language. Two-way bilingual education —Dual language programs in which English and a second language are both used in classes consisting of ELLs and native-English speakers. See also Language development. Bhatia, Tej K. Ritchie, eds. The Handbook of Bilingualism.
Malden, MA: Blackwell, Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen. New York: P. Lang, Calderon, Margarita, and Liliana Minaya-Rowe. Crawford, James. Genesee, Fred, et al. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes, Santa Ana, Otto, ed. San Miguel Jr. Dillon, Sam. Hamers, Josiane F. Hammer, Carol Scheffner, et al. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. National Association for Bilingual Education. National Association for Multicultural Education. National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. English Inc. Jehlen, Alain. Toggle navigation. Photo by: treenabeena. Definition Bilingualism is the ability to communicate in two different languages.
Bilingual language development Language acquisition is very similar for monolingual and bilingual children, although some experts view bilingualism as a specialized case of language development. Bilingualism has been reported to improve the following skills: verbal and linguistic abilities general reasoning concept formation divergent thinking metalinguistic skills, the ability to analyze and talk about language and control language processing These abilities are important for reading development in young children and may be a prerequisite for later learning to read and write in a new language.
Types of bilingual education Bilingual education is common throughout the world and involves hundreds of languages. Opposition to bilingual education In voters in Dade County, Florida, made English their official language. English argues the following premises: The unifying effect of the English language must be preserved in the United States. Bilingual education fails to adequately teach English.
Learning English quickly in English-only classrooms is best for ELLs, both academically and socially. Any special language instruction should be short-term and transitional. Language delay Language and learning difficulties occur with the same frequency in monolingual and bilingual children. English-only education ELLs in English-only programs often fall behind academically. Parental concerns Parents in bilingual households can help their children by taking the following steps: speaking the language in which they are most comfortable being consistent regarding how and with whom they use each language using each language's grammar in a manner that is appropriate for the child's developmental stage keeping children interested and motivated in language acquisition KEY TERMS Elementary and Secondary Education Act ESEA —The federal law that is reauthorized and amended every five years.
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Biliary Atresia Bilirubin Test. In the United States, methods to measure student achievement have not drastically changed in the past twenty years. With the accountability movement of the '70s, standardized tests see Appendix A became mandatory at last count, 46 states had mandatory state-regulated testing and are often given great weight by the public. Some feel this measurement-driven approach has merit in that it focuses teachers' attention on objectives; provides scores that yield uncomplicated comparisons between students, schools, districts, states, or nations; is easily administered and scored, leaving more time for instruction; and because of its long period of use, has scientific reliability and validity.
Still others feel there is a need for better assessments. Within this controversy there is wide agreement that standardized tests should not be discarded completely; they do have a place in education in that the tests provide the general data for comparison on the large scale—educators are able to see the big picture. There is further agreement, however, that there is a need for more comprehensive,alternative means of evaluation; assessment tasks that will more closely parallel real-learning tasks.
It is the combination of the two approaches that many educators are looking at today. Educators do not want to create tests that just look different but are different from the old methods. Since the United States' educational testing policy is at a crossroads, and if we look to history for clues, the future of assessment will depend in large part on basic equity, fairness, and the improvement of opportunities for minorities, limited-English speaking, and the disadvantaged. Baker , p. If LEP students are assessed in English on subject matters such as mathematics, their performance will be handicapped to varying degrees by their English skills.
Special procedures will need to be developed to take language and culture into consideration for appropriate assessment. All students must be provided opportunity to learn. Simply stated, alternative assessment means anything but multiple choice and problem true-false and generally connotes extended and multi-step production tasks.
Valdez, Pierce, and O'Malley , pp. In Figure 3, McTighe demonstrates how traditional testing can move toward authentic assessment. Figure 3. Source: McTighe, J. For a complete discussion on this topic, including rating charts and checklists: Performance and Portfolio Assessment for Language Minority Students by L. Valdez Pierce and J. Spring National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, 22nd St. Schools find that the way they are organized—the way they conduct their business—is not producing the student outcomes we need to be a productive nation in the 21st century.
Like a butterfly casting off a useless cocoon, the shape of education in schools across the country is being transformed in countless ways as practices and purposes are questioned and found unproductive. Guadarrama , p. The inservice activities need to be coupled with innovative ways of persuading teachers to participate, such as granting teachers new roles and responsibilities to facilitate their own professional development.
More understanding on the part of administrators of the special challenges facing bilingual students. Bilingual education students must be perceived as full-fledged members of the school community. The unique linguistic and cultural characteristics of this population need to be taken into consideration when planning instruction, administering assessments, and conceptualizing the restructured school.
More emphasis on native-language instruction. Since an important goal of bilingual education is to promote literacy and content-area knowledge in the native language, there is a need for more teachers who are themselves bilingual. More emphasis on implementing curriculum. Administrators need to insure that the curriculum is not only appropriate for bilingual students, but is also implemented uniformly in all classrooms. More successful means of decision making in terms of student promotion based on language proficiency and academic progress.
Better teacher retention, a major determinant of effective decision making regarding student progress. More parental involvement in decision-making. All restructured schools need to embrace the notion of parents as partners. Children need a great deal of emotional support in order to learn, and as Comer points out this support is optimally created when families and schools work together. The major challenge of adjusting to substantially altered roles and responsibilities places a burden not only on directors, but on all program personnel McKeon and Malarz Appendix C provides a summary of key actions that may be initiated to ease the burdens which may be caused when a school restructures.
References Anderson, T. Bilingual Schooling in the United States. Austin, Tex. Ashworth, M. Cummins, and J. Unpublished manuscript. Au, K. Au, G. Guthrie, and H. Rowley, Mass. Austin American Statesman. January 29, Baker, E. Washington, D. Blanco, G. Bilingual Education: Current Perspectives. Arlington, Va. Bloomfield, L. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Cohen, A. A Sociolinguistic Approach to Bilingual Education. Collier, V. New York: McGraw Hill. Comer, J. Congress of the United States. Office of Technology Assessment. February Government Printing Office.
Crandell, J. Dale, N. Rhodes, and G. Cummins, J. Los Angeles, Calif. London: Longman. Dawe, L. August Adelaide, Australia. Diaz, R. Norwood, N. Diebold, R. Yale University. Dulay, H. Burt, and S. Language Two. New York: Oxford Press. Early, M. Thew, and P. Victoria, B. Edelsky, C. Enright, D. Reading, Mass. Erickson, J. The Bilingual Exceptional Child. San Diego, Calif. Guadarrama, I. Fall Hakuta, K. Mirror of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism. New York: Basic Books. Haugen, E. Bilingualism in the Americas; a Bibliography and Research Guide.
Montgomery, Ala. Heath, S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hornby, P. Bilingualism: Psychological, Social, and Educational Implications. New York: Academic Press. Hudelson, S.
During the story reading step 2 , continue to review vocabulary as well as stop to ask questions for understanding. Article Purchase - Online Checkout. Culture is dynamic. Executive summary. Still others feel there is a need for better assessments. Often children find it easier to express a specific idea in one language rather than the other.
Allen and P. Jordan, C. Macias, R. McKeon, D. Malarz Summer McTighe, J. Mohan, B.
Language and Content. Morris, C. Chicago, Ill. National Center on Effective Secondary Schools. O'Malley, J. Valdez Pierce. Reich, K. September 26, Rhodes, N. Short, D. Thorndike, E. Wong-Fillmore, L. Clarke and J. The process of adjusting to and becoming comfortable with the ways of thinking, beliefs, values, and emotions of a culture different from one's own. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. Mastery of listening and speaking skills in a second language which usually takes about two years to accomplish.
The ability of a person to feel comfortable with the beliefs, values, and ways of thinking of two different cultures. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. Academic language skills, such as processing information, reading, knowledge of sophisticated content-area vocabulary, and writing.
Acquisition of CALP may require five to seven years. Culturally and linguistically different exceptional child. This child has special needs or handicaps which may require special education. He also has needs specific to his or her cultural and linguistic background. Often this child is also limited in English proficiency. An informal strategy for teaching and assessing understanding and use of language.
This procedure may be oral or written, but involves leaving out a word systematically from a reading or oral passage. This term describes how people prefer to process information, the way they organize and control the demands of complex situations and tasks. Provides information which is useful in classroom instruction. Criterion-referenced measures are used to ascertain an individual's status against some criteria or performance standard.
People who are field-independent tend to prefer individual and independent types of activities. They use a reflective, abstract, analytic style in processing information. Those who use a field-dependent style tend to place more emphasis on people and their environment, learn best from demonstration and concrete and active participation. They process information globally, seeing how parts fit into a whole. Contrasted with a disorder or handicap , the assumption is made that many behaviors are the result of background and experience.
Gathering information about the child's functioning in all environments home, school, etc. The assumption that a bilingual person is more proficient in one of his languages than the other. Competence in a language. This may be oral, written, reading, or listening competence and in L1 or L2. A sample of the speech or writing or a person which is collected and systematically analyzed to determine the proficiency of the individual. Limited English Proficient. A person may be limited in all language skill areas listening, speaking, reading, and writing or in only one of these.
A construct from the study of social learning theory often viewed as a dimension of personality. Students with an external locus of control perceive outside forces of chance, luck, and fate as powerful controlling forces in their lives. People with an internal locus of control see themselves as in control of what happens to them in life. A team of educators and specialists with a wide variety of skills from their different backgrounds.
Also called mother tongue or home language, this is generally thought of as the first language learned. A systematic procedure whereby the evaluator examines tests and testing situations for possible linguistic or cultural bias which may distort the assessment results. The process of learning a second language after the basics have been learned in a first language. A set of consistent procedures for constructing, administering, and scoring an assessment. The goal of standardization is to ensure that all students are assessed under uniform conditions so that interpretation of their performance is comparable and not influenced by differing conditions.
The following checklist focuses on the key issues that should be considered to ensure a quality bilingual program. This checklist can be used as a planning tool for developing and implementing new bilingual programs as well as reexamining existing ones. Provisions of a Bilingual Program.
Regarding the district's documents, does the bilingual program provide the following. Description of the approach to classroom language development appropriate for ages of students in the program. Discussion of how student's background experiences, values, motivation, and learning styles as well as communicative abilities are to be accommodated by the program.
Informal measures and other indicators used along with formal tests in describing student progres. Description of match between outcomes expected, instruction provided, and assessment employed. Statement of time allotments for primary language and English instruction in each year of the program.
Source : California State Department of Education. Sacramento, Calif. Effectiveness of Bilingual Program How effective is your bilingual program in providing students opportunities to Continue the study of the primary language in reading, writing, speaking, and listening after reclassification. Explore the responsibilities of the citizen in sustaining a democracy in history-social science. Recognize the mathematical relationship in a complex situation and use that insight to come up with a solution in mathematics. Use films, video tapes, computer software, laser discs, and other technology-related materials to build subject-area concepts and language mastery.
Opportunities for Teachers How effective is your bilingual program in giving teachers the opportunity to Opportunities for Parents How effective is your bilingual program in giving parents the opportunity to I understand what is meant by restructuring in my school district terms have been operationalized. I have had input into my new role and job description. This new role and job description has been shared with principals with whom I will be expected to coordinate, and with staff whom I will supervise.
I understand the process of change and how it may affect the reorganization of the district; I understand how the process of change may affect my program within the structure of the district. Parents and community members have had formal opportunity to provide input on these changes. Parents and community members have received training on the nature and operation of school site councils. A system for soliciting regular feedback from parents has been developed and implemented. Mainstream personnel have been trained on the characteristics and needs of LEP learners; practices which enhance the academic achievement of LEP students have been incorporated into the instructional and administrative repertoires of mainstream personnel.
Source: D. McKeon, and L. Summer Structure and Brief Description. Expressing ideas and opinions, creating stories. Equal participation, getting acquainted with teammates. Each student moves to a corner of the room representing a teacher-determined alternative. Students discuss within corners, then listen to and paraphrase ideas from other corners.
Seeing alternative hypothesis, values, problem-solving approaches. Knowing and representing different points of view, meeting classmates. Paraphrase Passport. Students correctly paraphrase the ideas of the person who has just spoken and then contribute their own ideas. The team tallies the results to determine its decision.
Group Processing. Students evaluate their ability to work together as a group and each member's participation, with an aim to improving how the group works together. Numbered Heads Together. The teacher asks a question; students consult to make sure everyone knows the answer. Each student writes a review problem on a flash card and asks teammates to answer or solve it. Review questions are passed to another group. Three-Step Interview. Students interview each other in pairs, first one way, then the other.
Students share with the group information they learned in the interview. Sharing personal information such as hypotheses, reactions to a poem, conclusions from a unit. Participation, listening. Students encourage each other to generate ideas regarding a particular topic or problem and build upon each other's ideas. Group Discussion. The teacher asks a low consensus question. Students talk it over in groups and share their ideas. Round table. Students pass a paper and pencil around the group.
The paper may contain several choices for ways of doing something. Teams then agree on which strategies to use. Assessing prior knowledge, practicing skills, recalling information, creating cooperative art. Team building, participation for all. Students work in pairs to create or master content.
They consult with partners from other teams. They then share their products or understanding with the other partner pair in their team. Mastery and presentation of new material, concept development. Presentation and communication skills. Co-op Co-op. Students work in groups to produce a particular group product to share with the whole class; each student makes a particular contribution to the group. Learning and sharing complex material, often with multiple sources. Evaluation, application, analysis, synthesis.
Conflict resolution, presentation skills. Planning, group decision making. Group investigation. Students identify a topic and organize into research groups to plan learning tasks or sub-topics for investigation. Individual students gather and evaluate data and synthesize findings in a group report. Resources can be found in federal, state, and local levels. This list is not comprehensive, but should serve as a starting point for schools and families.
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Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online. Language Minorities With our changing society has come a clearly defined increase in the number of language minorities Omark and Erickson What Are the Goals of Bilingual Education? Principles The student is an active party in acquiring language. No matter what we do it is the learner who determines whether or not the language is gained. Students construct their own rules in language acquisition. Language proceeds from the general to the specific. There is individual variability: The process of language acquisition is similar for all individuals; however, the rate varies.
Language is best learned in a non-anxious environment. A student has intuitive knowledge of language.
Ability to use language often occurs before being able to verbalize it. There should be no attempt to sequence language learning. The student abstracts rules from data around him. The rooting of language is in the student's cognitive growth. Language occurs when the environment is responsive to the student. Environment should focus on meaning rather than on form. Language occurs when there is both linguistic and non-linguistic diversity. Language learning occurs when there is interaction with the environment. Language development is continuous.
The environment should be compatible with the student's own way of learning. Language is language, not a collection of skills that can be separated and taught individually. It is acquired through active, meaning-oriented use. Language Learnin. Stage 1. The new culture is almost inaccessible. Frustration is constant. Stage 2. The new culture is functionally understood. The new language is beginning to make communicative sense. Stage 3. Adaptation and blending is underway with subtle changes taking place.
With literacy in one's own language, literacy develops in second language. Stage 4. Aspects of one's life are becoming bicultural. Native proficiency is almost achieved. The second language is both equally dominant and proficient. What is the Ideal Environment for Language Acquisition? Language Proficiency and Content Areas To be able to effectively participate in school, a non-English-speaking student must achieve a significant level of proficiency in English.
Carlos earns six times as much as I do. What do I earn. Mia is as old as Jack. Jack is three years older than Frank. Frank is How old is Mia. Examples : The number a is 5 less than the number b. For addition: add, plus, combine, sum, more than, and increased b. For subtraction: subtract, minus, differences, less than, and decreased b. Five times a number is two more than two times the numbe. One number is ten times another number. If the first number is 7, find the second numbe.
Example: There are five times as many apples as pears in the fruit bowl. That month. In a year. What is being asked for. The three fundamental steps to increase reading comprehension skills are shown in Figure 1. Potential Problems You Might Encounter Facilitating between language and content-area teachers may be difficult.
Figure 2 presents a unit on the topic of birds. What is Meant by a Sheltered English Program? Equality in Assessment In the United States, methods to measure student achievement have not drastically changed in the past twenty years. Performance Assessment: is a type of alternative assessment. Portfolio Assessment: is the use of records of a student's work over time and in a variety of modes to show the depth, breadth, and development of the student's abilities.
Thoughtful Applicatio. Basic Skill. Significant Outcome. Teacher Structure. Student Structure. Appendix A. L1: The first language learned, the native language of a person. L2: The second language learned by a person. SEMANTICS: the study of how linguistic signs behave in relation to the objects or concepts they refer to their denotations or their senses their connotations , e. Appendix B. Checklist for an Effective Bilingual Program The following checklist focuses on the key issues that should be considered to ensure a quality bilingual program.
Program's Philosophy 1. Clearly articulated philosophy. Overall goal of education. Objectives of the program. Description of the program's views. The child as learner. Role of the administrator.
The nature of the curriculum. The subject-matter content. Instruction and assessment. Teaching method. Evaluation procedure. Guidelines for classroom control. Language Policy 1. Coherent description of the program's philosophy regarding anticipated language outcomes. Delineation of strategies for language development to be used by teachers. Place for Subject-Matter Content 1.
Statement of commitment to subject-matter instruction.