Thus people with no family were placed in one. If trouble arose, the church elders would intervene, removing children, apprentices, and servants.
Government officials were empowered to grant a divorce so that a contentious husband and wife might enter more-pleasing matrimonial covenants, although it rarely happened. A hierarchy existed within a family so that all would know their places, thus avoiding competition and arguments. The husband was at the head and represented the family unit in all public and church affairs; the wife deferred to him and supervised the private household affairs. The husband also was responsible for raising the children in a strict fashion that would suppress their naturally sinful instincts.
If any stepped out of their prescribed roles, it was believed that they would be vulnerable to the temptations of Satan. Similar hierarchies in the larger society were expected to promote the same harmony. The most important was the religious hierarchy, with the minister at the top and the church elders below him, followed by the church members; at the bottom were the non-church members. By law everyone had to pay taxes to support the minister, attend church regularly, and conform to Puritan practices and precepts. Church and State. Church membership was required of all adult men who wished to vote and hold political office.
Female saints were excluded because they had men to represent their families. Local governance was most important in the lives of the townsfolk and was almost indistinguishable from the town church. The state was formally separated from the church even though they shared the same mission. The colony government was to pass laws to insure that all would walk in the path of righteousness and to punish those who strayed.
If the government failed to maintain proper standards, God would punish the whole society. For instance, wage and price controls were established so that one individual could not profit at the expense of others. All of these regulations were based on biblical directives.
There was not even a written code of laws until because it was assumed that the Bible contained all the laws that were necessary. Government officials also directed the establishment of schools. Education was crucial for all Puritans because God revealed himself in the Scriptures, nature, and history, all of which they needed to learn. At the least everyone had to be able to read the Bible. Harvard College was founded in to educate aspiring ministers. Not everyone conformed to the New England orthodoxy.
Some could not justify infant baptism, believing that this sacrament should be a seal of the conversion of adults. These Baptists, as they later came to be called, also demanded a complete separation of church and state , and some even suggested that humans had the freedom of will to choose whether or not they would sin. In the interests of harmony, such deviants were counseled in love so that they might see the error of their disagreements, and if that failed they were banished from the colony.
Roger Williams left Massachusetts Bay in and founded Rhode Island , where he established the first Baptist church. His colony welcomed people of all religious beliefs and allowed them to follow their consciences without fear of government interference. Such an environment attracted other exiles, such as Anne Hutchinson , who was banished from Massachusetts Bay in for adhering to a more mystical interpretation of Calvinism. The Society of Friends Quakers , a more radical offshoot of puritanism, also settled on Rhode Island as a base from which they could fan out to proselytize through New England.
The Puritan establishment considered the Friends to be the greatest threat, for they challenged not only its theology but also its society and government. The challenges to Puritan control of New England increased after and exacerbated the internal threats to the cohesion of the society that accompanied a growth in population and economic prosperity. More people settled on isolated farms, away from churches and guardians of morality; merchants and wage workers put their individual needs above the community good; and non-Puritans arrived in greater force, seeking economic opportunity rather than religious cohesion.
Fewer people believed they had been saved, and so smaller numbers were joining the church, thus denying their children the chance to be baptized. In desperation, some churches adopted the Half-Way Covenant, in which children of any baptized person could be baptized regardless of whether their parents were church members or not; others adopted the presbyterian position that anyone who led a moral life could become a church member and seek conversion within its fold. Meanwhile, Puritan officials were fighting to retain control of their colonies in the face of English threats to place them all under royal control.
The Glorious Revolution ended this, but William and Mary did not restore their old charters. Instead Massachusetts Bay received a royal charter, which included Plymouth as well. Connecticut retained her self-government, but it too had to conform to the laws of England.
The Puritans had become New Englanders, and their churches became known as Congregational. Francis J. David D. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. July 8, Retrieved July 08, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Returning to England at the beginning of Elizabeth I's reign, they hoped to create an established church closer to continental models, but the queen insisted on a comprehensive settlement.
The conforming majority, both clerical and lay, shared many of their reservations but were willing, albeit reluctantly, to obey the orders of their royal governor. They were helped by the fact that in its theology, if not its practice, the established church was calvinist. This remained the case under James I, despite the failure of the Hampton Court conference , but the accession of Charles I in brought the high-church arminians to power.
By insisting that they alone constituted the true Church of England , and by calling all its low-church adherents puritans, the arminians drove the conforming majority into opposition. This opened the way to the destruction of the established church after the collapse of Charles's rule, but the victorious puritans were divided about how to replace it.
The presbyterians wanted a state church similar but not identical to that in Scotland , whereas the independents insisted on autonomy for individual congregations. Matters were complicated by the proliferation of sects demanding freedom to worship as they pleased. Continuing puritan divisions throughout the Interregnum created a backlash which found expression in the re-establishment of the Church of England after the restoration of the monarchy in The legislation known as the Clarendon code imposed severe penalties upon nonconformists, and sporadic persecution of puritans continued until the Glorious Revolution.
Only in did the Toleration Act permit protestant nonconformists to worship freely, but even so they remained officially barred from public life. Roger Lockyer. Those members of the late 16th-cent. These included people who had returned to England after exile under Queen Mary —8 , some of whom refused to be bishops , and who held strong views about worship, as well as others who pressed vigorously for the purification of the Church. In the early 17th cent. The appointment by Charles I of a number of bishops who were Arminian in much of their theology, together with the seeming alliance of court and church in promoting high church practices, alienated many: it raised questions about the episcopate , the liturgy , and the proper way of life for the elect cf.
Not so by , when these issues figured in the English Civil War , the so-called Puritan Revolution. After the restoration, some Puritans became Separatists, believing in a Congregational form of church government. Several of these Separatist leaders were executed, whilst others were compelled to leave the country e. Under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company , Puritans settled in all the new colonies, but especially in New England and Virginia.
Until the end of the 17th cent. Puritans British Protestants who were particularly influential during the 16th and 17th centuries. They originated in the reign of Elizabeth I as a faction within the Church of England ; their chief aim was to make it a truly Protestant Church, rather than an Anglo-Catholic one. However, they later demanded the establishment of Presbyterianism. Among them were the Pilgrims who emigrated to America.
The English Civil War —51 resulted from attempts by Puritan parliamentarians to block Charles I's policies on religious grounds. After the war, the Puritans' reached their in , when Oliver Cromwell established the Protectorate. In , the authority of the Church of England as an Anglican institution was re-established, although 30 years later Presbyterianism was accepted as the state-supported form of Christianity in Scotland. In England, the Puritans lived on as Dissenters.
See also Nonconformism Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Puritan a member of a group of English Protestants of the late 16th and 17th centuries who regarded the Reformation of the Church under Elizabeth as incomplete and sought to simplify and regulate forms of worship. The Civil War of the s led to the temporary pre-eminence of Puritanism.
Soon, however, the movement fragmented into sects, and the term Puritan began to be less used; after the Restoration such people tended to be called Dissenters or Nonconformists. The Puritans were members of a religious movement that began in England during the s and lasted into the first half of the s, when it spread to America. Influenced by the teachings of religious reformer John Calvin — , the Puritans were so named because they wanted to purify the Anglican Church also called the Church of England. They believed that too much power rested with the church hierarchy its priests, bishops, and cardinals , and that the people called the laity or lay members should have more involvement in church matters.
Ceremonies should, the Puritans believed, be simplified to stress Bible reading and individual prayer. They defied the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury , head of the Anglican Church, believing that each church congregation should control its own affairs through a council called a presbytery of lay members. The Puritans also had strong feelings about government. They maintained that people can only be governed by contract such as a constitution , which limits the power of a ruler. When King James I — ; ruled — ascended the throne of England in , he was the first ruler of the house royal family of Stuart.
The Stuart monarchs were Anglican or Catholic, but faced with the challenge of radical Puritanism, they tried to enforce national adherence to the Anglican Church, which stressed the ceremonial and traditional elements of worship. Further, the Stuart kings viewed the Puritan agitators as a threat to their authority. Persecuted by the throne, groups of Puritans fled England for the New World.
One group was granted a corporate charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company Unlike other such contracts, which provided the framework for establishing colonies in America, this one did not require the stockholders to hold their meetings in England. What is striking about the organization of the Puritan colony is the fact that their organization combined economic, political, and religious levels of meaning. Stockholders who made the voyage across the Atlantic would become voting citizens in their own settlements; the board of directors would form the legislative assembly; and the company president, Puritan leader John Winthrop — would become the governor.
In the group settled in what is today Boston and Salem, Massachusetts, establishing a Puritan Commonwealth. By , more than 20, Puritans had arrived in Massachusetts, in what is called the Great Migration. Puritans also settled Rhode Island , Connecticut, and Virginia during this period. Puritans founded the Congregational Church. They also established grammar schools and colleges including Harvard, Yale, and Dartmouth in New England.
Economic History. Puritan Protestant who aimed at further purification of Reformed doctrine and practice. Hence puritanic , puritanical XVII. Followers of a religious movement whose definition and date of origin cannot be given with precision.
The movement embodied a wide range of different sects and communities that quarreled over liturgy, dogma, political theory, and social reform both within and without the Church of England. The effective period of Puritan activity covered the span from the Elizabethan Settlement to the Restoration , by which time the term ceased to be meaningful in its original sense. Early Development. Puritanism aggravated the English religious controversy between the advocates of a simpler, fundamentalist church rooted in apostolic Christian times and a more formal, ritualistic, authoritarian church developed since that time.
More specifically, Puritanism was an attitude toward religion that arose in opposition to the alleged unscriptural, Catholic forms embodied in the Act of uniformity and the thirty-nine articles The Puritans generally sought to purify the Church of England of these forms, substituting Calvinistic models of ecclesiastical polity and liturgy see nonconformists.
Even before the break with Rome , Cambridge scholars lectured and wrote on Continental Reformation ideas, which forced many to take refuge at Geneva and elsewhere upon the accession of mary tudor in They returned when elizabeth i assumed the throne, hoping that she would make sweeping reforms after the Genevan system, but were frustrated at the Crown's moderate Protestant posture and its unwillingness to tolerate dissent or entertain change.
Thomas cartwright assumed the earliest leadership of one faction, mostly academicians at first, who promoted presbyterianism in place of the existing Episcopalian system of church government and who had already found common ground for opposition to Elizabeth's insistence on conformity in the Vestiarian Controversy This dispute, at first limited to Saint John 's and Trinity College, Cambridge, but later involving Puritan-minded clergy in London and elsewhere, arose when Archbishop Matthew parker, acting on Elizabeth's order, laid down strict rules governing services and clerical dress.
Coercive measures by the Anglican hierarchy followed; Puritan. An illustration of this opposition to religious uniformity may be seen in the publication of the Marprelate Tracts — The invention of several Midland authors who used the pseudonym Martin Marprelate, the tracts railed against the episcopacy. They appeared despite, and perhaps because of, Archbishop John whitgift's order in that all publications be censored.
Several suspected authors were arrested, one of them was executed, and most of their books were burned. Source of Faith. The Puritans disagreed over dogma, but virtually all of them stressed the Bible as the only true source of faith and conduct. Puritan divines as well as individual members of their congregations read it avidly, interpreted it as they chose, and thereupon quarreled over the form of church government it enjoined. From this Calvinistic conviction of the validity of private interpretation of the Bible grew English Protestant sectarianism.
Variant Systems of Government. By far the largest majority of Puritans went along with the episcopal system, provided the laity could share in the policymaking process and "popish" forms in the liturgy were expunged. This group of moderates retained general control of Puritanism until the Civil War.
Other Puritans, led by Thomas Cartwright, advocated a Presbyterian ecclesiastical polity; they were originally few and largely discredited in Elizabeth's reign. With the outbreak of war in and the parliamentary alliance with the Scots that followed, the Presbyterian Puritans gained temporary ascendancy, controlling, for instance, the Westminster Assembly — 49 , convened to reform the church.
The Separatists known also as Brownists originally, and as Independents later on constituted the third broad category of Puritans. As early as the s groups of persons met in separate congregations conventicles to conduct services apart from the Established Church. Robert browne, one of the early Separatist leaders, wrote several pamphlets that advocated the independence of each parish congregation from either a parental, hierarchical, or secular political control. Such Puritans professed the autonomy of each congregation under the sole supremacy of Christ and formed self-governing parishes that supposedly operated on a principle of democracy, but often became subject to the dictates of their elected ministers.
From this form of. Puritanism evolved Congregationalism, some of whose adherents migrated to Holland and America to escape persecution. But others stayed to reap the rewards of Independency during Oliver cromwell's administration. Doctrine and Behavior. Puritans generally shared a belief in predestination and agreed that the Bible was the sole rule of faith and morals to be interpreted individually.
They maintained that one's life should in every way manifest a deep sense of devotion to Christ and to duty, and they severely criticized what they termed idolatrous forms, including vestments, statuary, the sign of the cross, the use of holy water and other sacramentals, and the position of the altar communion table. Puritans also minimized the intermediary role of ministers and encouraged preaching.
Caroline Puritans more than their Elizabethan predecessors emphasized simplicity of dress and hair styles, unostentatious ceremony, and music.
They also regarded the Sabbath as a day without work, travel, or recreation that might interfere with worship see sabbatarianism. Aside from these broad maxims of Puritan belief, they agreed upon little else. Minor Sects. The Independents warrant particular attention if for no other reason than that they illustrate the heterogeneity of Puritanism.
The Levellers, led by John Lilburne , were among the most important of the Independents. They exerted strong influence in the parliamentary army between and to effect a republican system of government that recognized the equality of all men, universal suffrage, and general religious toleration. By , the Dutch were thrown out of New Amsterdam and the defeated city was renamed New York, part of a larger British colony named for the Duke of York.
Boston was right to have an attitude. Even as New York and Boston became competing ports in the British era, the Massachusetts city always had the edge. America has benefited from Boston pride. The opening salvos of American independence were born from clashes between Boston citizens and British soldiers, rebellion in the form of bloody clashes the Boston Massacre and economic unrest the Boston Tea Party.
As colonists rose up against British oppression during the Revolutionary War, they could look to the Boston battle at Bunker Hill as an example of victory and perseverance. Both cities struggled for economic footing after the war. Both had sophisticated ports and bustling harbors ready to send and receive shipping vessels, manufacturing plants rivaling anything overseas, and a growing class of wealthy old-family elites.
In Boston, they were the Brahmins and went to Harvard. Columbia was not quite in their league yet. But only one city had access to a river inland, a point made explicit with the opening of the Erie Canal in Suddenly, New York became a gateway into the expanding American west.
In the mid 17th century the local authorities frowned on sports for many reasons including that it gave people pleasure and reduced work efficiency. Delivery time estimates are provided by our postal carriers and are used as a guide only. The item you've selected was not added to your cart. In Boston, they were the Brahmins and went to Harvard. Early life Dummer was born in Bishopstoke, Hampshire, the son of Thomas and Joane Dummer; as the parish registers have been lost, there is no record of his birth or b. The intercollegiate rowing race between Harvard and Yale marked the formal beginning of sports competitions among educational institutions in this country; football, golf, baseball, yachting and gymnastics as part of the school curriculum all got their start in Boston. How the Codfish Started the American Revolution.
Bostonians were not pleased. Within a few years, train tracks stretched down the old Boston Post Road almost, but not quite, to New York in an effort to connect Boston to the waters of the Hudson River. The dynamics of both cities changed with the immigration boom that began in the late s. Soon, one fifth of the populations of both cities would be Irish.
The Boston Book of Sports -- From Puritans to Professionals. Boston is a sports town. It has been at the forefront of sports development and innovation from the earliest days. Neither the opposition of the clergy nor the.
The culture of Boston was greatly affected, perhaps more that any American city, by these new Irish arrivals, but it was New York that felt the most weight. By , with New York as the biggest city in America, even the city of Brooklyn had a greater population than Boston. Despite its grime and squalor, despite its sinful and corrupt reputation or perhaps because of it , New York had bested Boston to become the biggest, richest, most powerful city in America by the time of the Civil War. And so it was that, in the late 19th century, an apparatus arose for which the undercurrent of rivalry between the cities could take a more explicit, more robust form — sports.
Universities already organized sports teams — with accompanying rivalries of their own — and now, in the post-war era, professional teams began sprouting up in a wide variety of games. The first sports leagues formed in the Northeast, thus it was natural that teams from Northern and Rust Belt cities would often clash.
The first organized baseball league principally concerned New York and Brooklyn teams.