By this time, the city had come to expand to the west bank of the Garonne, where the Lardenne Plateau lies between this river and the Touch. At a place called Ancely, a religious complex was developed, which included a temple, public baths, seasonal housing, commercial zones, numerous wells, and a swimming pool. Since it was close to the confluence of the Touch and Garonne rivers, the site may have been dedicated to the worship of water, which was, again, a common practice in Roman Gaul.
The amphitheater at nearby Purpan, which is about half a kilometer to the south of the Ancely sanctuary, was probably erected as an annex to the water sanctuary. The outer walls of the amphitheater were made of brick, a product for which Toulouse was famous. Among the Tolosan producers of bricks was a man named Sabinus.
The city appears to have been important as a cultural center as well.
The Roman author Suetonius mentions one L. Statius Ursulus of Tolosa, who was "teaching rhetoric in Gaul with great reputation". These words, from his treatise On rhetoricians , are preserved in the the Chronicon of Jerome, who dates this to the years The emperor Domitian r. Whether Lucius is crossing swords with barbarian warriors or Roman magistrates, the pace is never less than frantic, and ancient Rome has never been more fun Loosely based on real events, the story shows the author's complete mastery of the period and the gripping tale is pervaded with Matyszak's trademark sense of humour.
Though fiction, The Gold of Tolosa is historically accurate and explains how enough loot to recapitalize a third-world economy was taken in a theft that really did happen. The Delphian connection, however, was already contested in Antiquity. The brigands or pirates will only be interested in money, but if one of the PCs is prosperous-looking, they may try to hold him for a ransom. Pages and cover are clean and intact. Plutarch explains that the name was given to one of Cicero's ancestors who had a cleft in the tip of his nose resembling a chickpea.
A must read for all fans of Ancient Rome. There's a lot to tell about the ancient world - so why not stick to the facts?
Why write a novel? There were two separate factors which led to my writing this book.
The first was a discussion with colleagues as to how and why the greatest gold theft in history might have been perpetrated. The second was when I had the chance to get involved with the publishing side of the writing business.
Now proconsul and unwilling to cooperate with his superior,  the novus homo consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus , Caepio, eager for glory, provoked a battle with the Cimbri. While Caepio survived the debacle, his career did not. He was quickly stripped of his proconsular imperium and his seat in the Roman Senate. He was soon brought up on charges by the tribune of the plebs Gaius Norbanus.
The Gold of Tolosa (also the aurum Tolosanum) is the appellation used to refer to a semi-legendary treasure hoard seized by the ancient Roman proconsul. The Gold of Tolosa (also the aurum Tolosanum) existed as a hoard of treasures plundered from Greece in BC by Gallic invaders of the Volcae (often.
Charged over the loss of his army, Caepio was stripped of his Roman citizenship , fined 15, talents, had his property confiscated, and forbidden fire and water within eight hundred miles of Rome. He died in exile in Smyrna. The gold of Tolosa was never found, but was suspected to have remained in the custody of the Servilli Caepiones , who despite the total impoverishment of their patriarch, became immensely wealthy. During the Social War , Caepio's son, Quintus Servilius Caepio the Younger was tricked by the Marsic general Quintus Poppaedius Silo and ambushed, which resulted in the destruction of his army and his own death.
Perhaps as a consequence of these generational misfortunes, the sources make frequent allusions to the gold being cursed. The earliest, Strabo, says that due to " having laid hands on [the gold of Tolosa] Caepio ended his life in misfortunes ",  while his near-contemporary Pompeius Trogus even suggested that the defeat at Arausio was punishment for the theft of the treasure.
As is common, the ancient sources frequently contradict each other.
Cicero is the earliest author whose extant writings mention the Gold of Tolosa, referencing the inquiry into its disappearance in De Natura Deorum , which was written in the two years before his death in 43 BC. A fragment from Cassius Dio, written between and AD,  asserts the hoard's origin as that of treasure looted from Delphi.
Strabo, writing as late as 17 AD,  also mentions the account of the treasure's origin as the plunder of Delphi, but prefers Poseidonius' account, now lost. Quoting Poseidonius, Strabo asserted that "the temple at Delphi was in those times already empty of such treasure, because it had been robbed at the time of the sacred war by the Phocians. Instead, Poseidonius believed the origin of the hoard to be Gaul itself, " since the country was rich in gold, and also belonged to people who were god-fearing and not extravagant in their ways of living, it came to have treasures Justinus, excerpting the first century BC works of Pompeius Trogus, and Pausanias, writing in the second century AD, are the only extant sources to mention the Gallic attack on Delphi.
Pausanias insisted that the Gauls did not sack the temple sanctuary and even went so far as to claim none of the Gauls survived the retreat,  while Justinus' summary only states that the attack was a disaster and resulted in the fragmentation of the Gallic force, with some settling in Anatolia, others in Thrace, and a third contingent that returned to Tolosa.