The philosophy of life, and philosophy of language, in a course of lectures

Ludwig Wittgenstein
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He has also published papers on John Stuart Mill, Kant and other figures in the history of philosophy. Lately he has become interested in John Dewey and a pragmatic approach to philosophical issues. He sees pragmatism as providing a unifying and reconstructive approach to traditional philosophy issues.

He also recently published a book outlining a naturalistic approach to ethics, The Ethical Project Harvard University Press, Kitcher's three criteria for good science: Independent testability of auxiliary hypotheses; Unification; Fecundity.

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Rankings and Placement. Thursday, p. An examination of philosophical problems arising out of the scientific study of cognition.

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Possible topics include methodological issues in the cognitive sciences; the nature of theories of reasoning, perception, memory, and language; and the philosophical implications of such theories. This course deals with topics chosen from recursion theory, proof theory, and model theory. In recent years the course has most often given an introduction to recursion theory with applications to formal systems.

Two minute classes. Critical discussion of religious and antireligious interpretations of experience and the world, the grounds and nature of religious beliefs, and of a variety of theistic and atheistic arguments. Readings from contemporary analytical philosophy of religion, and from historical sources in the Western tradition. An examination of concepts involved in the interpretation and evaluation of works of art.

Emphasis will be placed on sensuous quality, structure, and expression as aesthetic categories. Illustrative material from music, painting, and literature. A discussion of philosophical problems raised by modern physics. Topics will be chosen from the philosophy of relativity theory or more often, quantum mechanics. Detailed study of important concerns shared by some modern pre-Kantian philosophers of different schools. Philosophers may include Descartes, Spinoza, Hobbes, Hume, or others.

Analysis of some representative 20th-century works drawn from the French and German traditions. The specific content of the course will vary from year to year, but in each case there will be some attempt to contrast differing philosophical approaches. Figures to be treated might include Sartre, Gadamer, Habermas, and Foucault. The development of moral philosophy in Greece. Intensive study of the moral theories of such philosophers as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, the early Stoics, and Sextus Empiricus. An examination of the alleged threat posed by relativism to the idea that our practices are legitimate.

Issues raised will include realism, objectivity, and the place of value in a world of facts. The forms of relativism considered may include relativism about value, scientific theorizing, color, and personal identity. An introduction to classics of philosophical analysis from the first half of the twentieth century.


Topics include early paradigms of Moore and Russell, logical atomism in Russell and early Wittgenstein, and logical positivism. Changes are traced both in metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical views and in analysis as a philosophical method. A study of philosophical analysis in the second half of the twentieth century.

Topics include the later Wittgenstein, the ordinary language school of philosophy, Quine's naturalism in semantics, Davidson's views on truth, and Kripke's reconceptualization of semantic and metaphysical categories. An introduction to modal and many-valued logics, with emphasis on philosophical motivation through a study of applications and paradoxes. The course will consider what types of explanations are possible of ordinary moral views. Students will look at philosophical, scientific, and historical explanations and consider how plausible they are, what sort of evidence might be relevant to them, and what their normative implications might be.

Skip to main content. Course Descriptions PHI Philosophy and the Modern Mind An introduction to modern philosophy, from the Renaissance to the present, with careful study of works by Descartes, Hume, Kant, and others.

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PHI Introductory Logic A study of reasoning and its role in science and everyday life, with special attention to the development of a system of symbolic logic, to probabilistic reasoning, and to problems in decision theory. Introduction to Moral Philosophy also CHV An introductory survey of ethical thought, covering such topics as the demands that morality makes, the justification of these demands, and our reasons for obeying them. Introduction to Metaphysics and Epistemology An introduction to some of the central questions of pure philosophy through their treatment by traditional and contemporary writers: questions concerning mind and matter; causation and free will; space and time; meaning, truth, and reality; knowledge, perception, belief, and thought.

Introduction to the Philosophy of Science An inquiry into the form and function of concepts, laws, and theories, and into the character of explanation and prediction, in the natural and the social sciences; and an examination of some philosophical problems concerning scientific method and scientific knowledge. He gave lectures on transcendental philosophy at the University of Jena from October to March , although these were apparently not well-received. Among those in the audience for some of those lectures was probably Hegel, newly arrived in Jena, but there is considerable dispute about what Hegel—a bitter rival of Schlegel's for the remainder of his life—may or may not have gained from hearing them.

Novalis had died in March, and Schlegel had become somewhat distanced from his brother and Caroline. After a time in both Berlin and Dresden, Schlegel moved to Paris in June , where he founded another new journal, Europa , and turned significant attention to the figurative arts. Schlegel and Dorothea moved to Cologne in , where Schlegel studied German Gothic architecture, gave lectures on the development of philosophy Die Entwicklung der Philosophie and turned, with some hopes of finally establishing himself in an academic position, to a new intellectual interest: the study of Sanskrit and Hindu religious writings.

The study of Hindu thought marked an important shift in the development of Schlegel's religious thought, as did a second and important event of the Cologne period: his conversion, together with Dorothea, to Catholicism, in April The shift in Schlegel's religious stance corresponded with an apparently new political one as well.

In March of he was appointed to a position in the Austrian civil service and moved to Vienna, where he was to live for the rest of his life.

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During these Austrian years, Schlegel was, among other things, the editor of an anti-Napoleonic newspaper, founder of two other prominent journal projects the Deutsches Museum and Concordia and an apparently popular public lecturer on a wide range of topics. Metternich asked him in to draw up proposals for a future German constitution, and Schlegel served until he was recalled as first secretary of the Austrian legation to the Diet of Frankfurt.

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The philosophy of life, and philosophy of language, in a course of lectures. Book Cover. Download; Bibrec. Bibliographic Record. The Philosophy of Life and Philosophy of Language; In a Course of Lectures [ Friedrich Von Schlegel] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

He died in Vienna in January Schlegel apparently arrived at his distinction independently, although when he did encounter Schiller's essay, it prompted him to reconsider his approach to more contemporary literature: see Eichner , chapter 2, and Schlegel's later preface to the Studium essay. In the years following the Studium essay, Schlegel moved not only to a distinction between the classical and the romantic, as opposed to that between the ancient and modern, but moreover began distinctly to privilege the romantic.

The shift between Schlegel's classicist and romantic phases presents an interpretive challenge that is frequently discussed in the literature.

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On the one hand, scholars have stressed that what Schlegel now commends in romantic poetry are the very same facets he had previously condemned for example, Eichner , 49, who lists here the tendency toward the purely imaginative; the mixing of genres; the trend toward didacticism, irony and parody; the fusion of poetry and philosophy. On the other hand, many have noticed that there are seeds in the Studium essay of the later view—Schlegel's praise of poets like Dante, Goethe and Shakespeare often seems at odds with the essay's valorization of ancient poetry.

A History of Philosophy - 80 Philosophy of Language

Schlegel does seem to acknowledge at times that his claims for the romantic border on the overly expansive or, some would prefer, on the inherently incomplete or uncompletable. Schlegel's bold envisioning of the romantic and the Roman are, however, part of a larger project in poetics and aesthetics concerned with finding a standard of judgment appropriate to the individuality of artistic and literary works. Given the importance Schlegel attaches within his romantic poetics to the novel and to the novel which gives itself its own criterion, critics have often examined Schlegel's own novelistic efforts in light of his theoretical stance.

The notion of the individual work as giving itself its own criterion—a notion that appears later in the hermeneutic tradition and in Benjamin's famous essay on the concept of criticism—is one of a number of distinctive new facets of romantic poetics and aesthetics. Stylistically, Schlegel and the Romantics also made much of the notions of the literary fragment, the concept of irony, and of wit and allegory, as well as a revised notion of the literary genres. The fragment is among the most characteristic figures of the Romantic movement. Although it has predecessors in writers like Chamfort and earlier in the aphoristic styles of moralists like Pascal and La Rochefoucauld , the fragment as employed by Schlegel and the Romantics is distinctive in both its form as a collection of pieces by several different authors and its purpose.

Although impressed with the Socratic notion of irony playful and serious, frank and deeply hidden, it is the freest of all licenses, since through it one rises above one's own self, Schlegel says in Lyceumfragment , Schlegel nonetheless employs it in a way perhaps more reminiscent of the oscillations of Fichtean selfhood.

Irony is at once, as he says in Lyceumfragment 37, self-creation, self-limitation, and self-destruction. A literary work can do this, much as Schlegel's Lucinde had, by presenting within its scope a range of possible alternate plots or by mimicking the parabasis in which the comic playwright interposed himself within the drama itself or the role of the Italian buffo or clown Lyceumfragment 42 who disrupts the spectator's narrative illusion. Along with his somewhat idiosyncratic appropriation of literary modes, Schlegel offers a theory of the literary genres which undergoes considerable revision as he attempts to take account both of the historical development of forms and particularly of the rise of the modern novel.

Novalis and Schlegel had a famous conversation about idealism in the summer of , and both attempted to articulate an opposition to the reliance on a single first principle which they thought characterized the philosophical efforts of Reinhold and Fichte to set Kantian philosophy on a systematic basis. This Romantic contribution to the anti-foundationalist Grundsatzkritik of the 's has long been a neglected aspect of research on the development of German Idealism, as has the work of those philosophers—such as Immanuel Niethammer, Carl Immanuel Diez, Johann Benjamin Erhard and Friedrich Karl Forberg—who pursued a similar line of thought against Reinhold and Fichte.

Schlegel's critique of first-principle philosophy is rooted like Novalis' in a sense of the ungraspability of the absolute or unconditioned.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Philosophy on Schlegel's view must thus begin with skepticism and tend toward the absolute; the idealists have found no way to the latter that avoids the difficulties of the former. The Schlegelian philosophy that results from this engagement with idealism is non-foundationalist, holistic and historical see Beiser , — In the case of every concept, as in the case of every proof, one can in turn ask for a concept and a proof of the same.

For this reason, philosophy, like an epic poem, must start in the middle, and it is impossible to pursue philosophy piece by piece starting from a first piece which is grounded and explained completely in and through itself.

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How many of you have had a philosophy class before? He wrote both technical and popular works and often spoke to current social issues. One prior philosophy course is strongly recommended. We will trace its effects as well as the reactions against in the post-Kantian German Philosophy, in particular of Fichte, Hegel and Marx. Retrieved 13 May The course will begin with the investigation of Kant's famous Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals that articulates the project to grounding all ethical obligations in the idea of freedom or autonomy.

For the young Schlegel, consideration of ethical and political matters was never far removed from consideration of the aesthetic. Like Schleiermacher and the young Hegel, Schlegel puts a strong emphasis in his early ethical writings on the notion of love. Part of Schlegel's larger political animus lay always in early as well as late phases of his career in a refashioning of the relationship between the sexes. In his early phase, Schlegel shared with other Romantics a sense of the political and social importance of the revolutionary period.

Schlegel's political radicalism in this period comes much closer to Fichte than Kant and, in fact, rivals the claims for universal extension of suffrage advocated by Herder and Georg Forster. It is all the more striking, of course, that the politics of the later Schlegel, as he takes up a position in the Austrian court, turn decisively more conservative. In the final twenty years of his life in Vienna, Schlegel followed on the success of his brother's famous Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature , given in that city in ,with several lecture series of his own.

He lectured on modern European history , ancient and modern literature , the philosophy of life , the philosophy of history and the philosophy of language —, a lecture series that was never completed because of Schlegel's death.

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Given Schlegel's conversion and the more conservative tendency of his later political thought, commentators have often raised questions about the continuity between the earlier romantic phase and Schlegel's later work. Blanchot puts this line of questioning most sharply:. There is, to be sure, a rather different style and tone evident in many of Schlegel's later writings and lectures. In some of the lecture series, there is a good deal of repetition and argumentative flaccidity of a sort the young Schlegel would no doubt have sharply criticized.

But it is far from clear that Vienna represented simply a phase of ossification in Schlegel's intellectual life or even a turn away from the most important philosophical and literary concerns of the young romantic.