The Immigration Act of was signed into law by President Coolidge. This was designed to reduce the number of immigrants from Southern Europe, Southeast Europe, Eastern Europe and Russia, exclude Asian immigrants altogether, and favour immigration from Great Britain , Ireland , Germany and Scandinavia , while also permitting immigration from Latin America. The spread of these ideas also affected popular culture. Scott Fitzgerald invokes Grant's ideas through a character in part of The Great Gatsby , and Hilaire Belloc jokingly rhapsodied the "Nordic man" in a poem and essay in which he satirised the stereotypes of Nordics, Alpines and Mediterraneans.
In Germany the influence of Nordicism remained powerful. There it was known under the term "Nordischer Gedanke" Nordic thought. It appeared in their work Human Heredity , which insisted on the innate superiority of the Nordic race. Adapting the arguments of Arthur Schopenhauer and others to Darwinian theory, they argued that the qualities of initiative and will-power identified by earlier writers had arisen from natural selection , because of the tough landscape in which Nordic peoples evolved.
This had ensured that weaker individuals had not survived. This argument was derived from earlier eugenicist and Social Darwinist ideas. According to the authors, the Nordic race arose in the ice age, from:. Philological, archaeological and anthropological researches combine to indicate that the primal home of the Indo-Germanic [i.
Aryan] languages must have been in Northern Europe. They went on to argue that "the original Indo-Germanic civilisation" was carried by Nordic migrants down to India, and that the physiognomy of upper caste Indians "disclose a Nordic origin". While Volkism was popular mainly among Germany's lower classes and was more a romanticised version of ethnic nationalism, Nordicism attracted German anthropologists and eugenicists.
The names of German food were purged from restaurant menus; sauerkraut became liberty cabbage, hamburger became liberty steak. The stages were of various sizes, acoustics often unpredictable and the audiences inattentive and raucous. The implication was that if you were a hyphenated American, you were not a true American. Many important political, religious and cultural changes were underway but the Anglo-Saxons did not stop being Anglo-Saxons. The conference illustrated how many angles and analytical levels can be brought to bear to the research on one of the central relationships of post-WWII Europe.
Hans F. His Short Ethnology of the German People was very widely circulated. Adolf Hitler read Human Heredity shortly before he wrote Mein Kampf , and called it scientific proof of the racial basis of civilisation. Nazi racial theories held the Atlanteans to be a race of Nordic supermen, and Alfred Rosenberg wrote of a "Nordic-Atlantean" master race whose civilisation was lost through inward corruption and betrayal.
Like Grant and others, he argued that the entrepreneurial energy of the Nordics had "degenerated" when they mixed with "inferior" peoples. With the rise of Hitler, Nordic theory became the norm within German culture. In some cases the "Nordic" concept became an almost abstract ideal rather than a mere racial category. For example, Hermann Gauch wrote in in a book which was banned in the Third Reich  that the fact that "birds can be taught to talk better than other animals is explained by the fact that their mouths are Nordic in structure.
Such views were extreme, but more mainstream Nordic theory was institutionalised. Robert Ley , the head of the German Labour Front and of the Nazi Party organisation, stated in concerning racial purity and the Nordic race:. Who of us is racially pure? Even if somebody's appearance is Nordic he might be a bastard inside. That somebody is blond and blue-eyed does not mean that he is racially pure. He might even be a degenerate coward.
Bastardization shows in different aspects. We have to be on our guard against racial arrogance. Racial arrogance would be as devastating as hatred among classes. Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz were also appointed to senior positions overseeing the policy of Racial Hygiene. Madison Grant's book was the first non-German book to be translated and published by the Nazi Reich press, and Grant proudly displayed to his friends a letter from Hitler claiming that the book was "his Bible.
The Nazi state used such ideas about the differences between European races as part of their various discriminatory and coercive policies which culminated in the Holocaust. Ironically, in Grant's first edition of his popular book, he classified the Germans as being primarily Nordic, but in his second edition, published after the USA had entered World War I, he had re-classified the now enemy power as being dominated by "inferior" Alpines.
Hitler himself was later to downplay the importance of Nordicism in public for this very reason. The standard tripartite model placed most of the population of Hitler's Germany in the Alpine category, especially after the Anschluss.
Nazi legislation identifying the ethnic and "racial" affinities of the Jews reflects the populationist concept of race. Discrimination was not restricted to Jews who belonged to the "Oriental-Armenoid" race, but was directed against all members of the Jewish ethnic population.
By Hitler had abandoned Nordicist rhetoric in favour of the idea that the German people as a whole were united by distinct "spiritual" qualities. Nevertheless, Nazi eugenics policies continued to favour Nordics over Alpines and other racial groups, particularly during the war when decisions were being made about the incorporation of conquered peoples into the Reich. I shall have no peace of mind until I have planted a seed of Nordic blood wherever the population stand in need of regeneration.
If at the time of the migrations , while the great racial currents were exercising their influence, our people received so varied a share of attributes, these latter blossomed to their full value only because of the presence of the Nordic racial nucleus. In his "table talk" , Hitler described how the presence of German and English soldiers in the combat areas he served in during World War I had, in his view, improved the quality of the young people he saw there in , in a "Nordicizing process, the results of which are today [according to Hitler] incontestable.
The ultimate aim for those 11 years during which I have been the Reichsfuehrer SS has been invariably the same: to create an order of good blood which is able to serve Germany; which unfailingly and without sparing itself can be made use of because the greatest losses can do no harm to the vitality of this order, the vitality of these men, because they will always be replaced; to create an order which will spread the idea of Nordic blood so far that we will attract all Nordic blood in the world, take away the blood from our adversaries, absorb it so that never again, looking at it from the viewpoint of grand policy, Nordic blood, in great quantities and to an extent worth mentioning, will fight against us.
In Italy, the influence of Nordicism had a divisive effect in which the influence resulted in Northern Italians who regarded themselves to have Nordic racial heritage considered themselves a civilised people while negatively regarding Southern Italians as non-Nordic and therefore biologically inferior. The distinction between a superior northern Italy and a degenerate and an inferior southern Italy was promoted by the Neapolitan Carlo Formichi , the Vice-President of the Italian Academy, who in said that Italy needed "a great revolution The Lombrosian doctrine is currently considered pseudoscientific.
Italian Fascism 's stance towards Nordicism changed from being initially hostile to being favourable. Italian Fascism strongly rejected the common Nordicist conception of the Aryan race that idealised "pure" Aryans as having certain physical traits that were defined as Nordic such as fair skin, blond hair and light eyes. This theory has since become a widely accepted view in anthropology. Coon in his work The races of Europe subscribed to depigmentation theory that claimed that Nordic race's light-coloured skin was the result of depigmentation from their ancestors of the Mediterranean race.
In the early s, with the rise to power of the Nazi Party in Germany with Hitler's emphasis on a Nordicist conception of the Aryan race, strong tensions arose between the Fascists and the Nazis over racial issues. In , in the aftermath of Austrian Nazis killing Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss , an ally of Italy, Mussolini became enraged and responded by angrily denouncing Nazism.
Mussolini rebuked Nazism's Nordicism, claiming that the Nazis' emphasizing of a common Nordic "Germanic race" was absurd, saying "a Germanic race does not exist. We repeat. Does not exist. Scientists say so.
Hitler says so. By , the tensions between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany reduced and relations became more amicable. In , Mussolini decided to launch a racial programme in Italy, and was interested in the racial studies being conducted by Giulio Cogni. His opinion was that they were generally responsible for what is the best in European civilization. In Mussolini was concerned that if Italian Fascism did not recognise Nordic heritage within Italians, that the Mediterranean inferiority complex would return to Italian society. By the s, criticism of the Nordicist model was growing in Britain and America.
The British historian Arnold J. Toynbee in A Study of History argued that the most dynamic civilisations have arisen from racially mixed cultures. This required the abandonment of Grant's gradations of "white" in favour of the " One-drop theory "—which was embraced by white supremacists and black leaders alike.
Among the latter were Marcus Garvey , and, in part, W. Du Bois , at least in his later thought. With the rise of Nazism many critics pointed to the flaws in the theory, repeating the arguments made by Sergi and others that the evidence of ancient Nordic achievement is thin when set against the civilizations of the Mediterranean and elsewhere. The equation of Nordic and Aryan identity was also widely criticized. In M. Fodor , writing in The Nation , claimed that racialized Germanic nationalism arose from an inferiority complex :.
No race has suffered so much from an inferiority complex as has the German. Some Lombard nationalists took it up in Italy, but even after the establishment of Benito Mussolini 's fascist government racial theories were not prominent. After World War II , the categorisation of peoples into "superior" and "inferior" groups fell even further out of political and scientific favour, eventually leading to the characterisation of such theories as scientific racism.
The tripartite subdivision of "Caucasians" into Nordic, Alpine and Mediterranean groups persisted among some scientists into the s, notably in Carleton Coon's book The Origin of Races Already race academics such as A. James Gregor were heavily criticising Nordicism.
In Gregor called it a "philosophy of despair", on the grounds that its obsession with purity doomed it to ultimate pessimism and isolationism. The original German term used by Ripley, " Theodiscus ", which is translated into English as Teutonic , has fallen out of favour amongst German-speaking scholars, and is restricted to a somewhat ironical usage similar to the archaic teutsch , if used at all.
While the term is still present in English, which has retained it in some contexts as a translation of the traditional Latin Teutonicus most notably the aforementioned Teutonic Order , it should not be translated into German as " Teutonisch " except when referring to the historical Teutones. Nordicism was subject to substantial criticism.
Carleton Steven Coon in his work The Races of Europe subscribed to depigmentation theory that claimed that Nordic race's light-coloured skin was the result of depigmentation from their ancestors of the Mediterranean race. Correspondingly, researchers in the field have suggested that migrations from prehistoric Iberia can be viewed as the primary source for their genetic material, having demonstrated marked similarities with modern representatives of the aforementioned time period in that of the Basque people.
However, the majority of Irish males fall under the R1b sub-clade L, which is quite rare for Basques. In his work The Races and Peoples of Europe the Swedish anthropologist Bertil Lundman introduced the term "Nordid" to describe the Nordic race, described as follows:. The Nordid race is light-eyed, mostly rather light-haired, low-skulled and long-skulled dolichocephalic , tall and slender, with more or less narrow face and narrow nose, and low frequency of blood type gene q.
The Nordid race has several subraces. The most divergent is the Faelish subrace in western Germany and also in the interior of southwestern Norway.
The Faelish subrace is broader of face and form. So is the North-Atlantid subrace the North-Occidental race of Deniker , which is like the primary type, but has much darker hair. An unprecedented number of British intellectuals visited Germany after the war; some purely for pleasure, some in search of career opportunities or in professional capacities as correspondents or in order to research for books and articles, others wanted to observe the exciting and turbulent situation in the new Germany for themselves, seeing their trips as educational and, in some cases, acts of self-discovery and rebelliousness.
Chapter two presents a skilful analysis of the manifold ways in which the First World War and the peace settlement which followed it affected British views of Germany. Not only the experience of war but also a lack thereof affected the outlook of intellectuals who had not seen military service, while floods of war literature after , including the popular reception of German war writings, fictional and non-fictional, reflected British post-war attitudes towards the former enemy.
Storer demonstrates how the subsequent peace settlement aroused great curiosity amongst Britons towards the Weimar Republic. Critics included intellectuals who had been present in Paris but felt let down by the conduct and outcome of the conference, such as Harold Nicholson, W. Dawson and J.
Keynes, all of whom feature prominently in this highly instructive chapter. Many early accounts were attempts to make sense of the post-war world, while others sought to raise awareness of conditions in Germany, highlighting disease and food-shortages under the Allied blockade — particularly amongst women and children — and economic turmoil. Fears of revolution and accounts of long-lasting physical and psychological burdens of the blockade and Treaty, which conveyed a sense of foreboding for the future, brought about shifts in British opinions towards Germany throughout the s.
Additionally, some accounts compared the British occupation with the French occupation, often highlighting French deployment of colonial troops and playing on racial prejudices to reflect more positively on the British occupiers, while other accounts ignored the French aspect. Overall, the diversity of British experiences and perceptions of the situation in the Rhineland stands out in this chapter which greatly deepens our understanding of British intellectual attitudes to post-war Germany. Storer demonstrates that this was not a contemporary perspective, and that opinions on Nazism ranged from out-and-out opposition, to ambivalence, to outright admiration and apology, all for varied reasons.
What is the correct way to shoot a penalty in football? A wide left; B wide right; C over the top. When are English women at their most beautiful? A after 12 beers; B after a day in the sun; C in complete darkness. If you chose all the answers, the solution to the quiz reads, you are the "perfect Englishman. So who wins? Clearly the Brits. Bild seems to have forgotten that if half of those sun-burned, fish-and-chips eating violence-prone drunkards from Britain carry a German gene, perhaps it doesn't reflect terribly well on their own readers.
But at least the two papers can agree on one thing: Whatever function that traveling German gene might have, it clearly isn't responsible for success at taking penalties.