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In , Hawking became a member of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge. The next few years were a fruitful time for Hawking and his research. In , Hawking found himself back at Cambridge University, where he was named to one of teaching's most renowned posts, dating back to the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. In , Hawking's research turned him into a celebrity within the scientific world when he showed that black holes aren't the information vacuums that scientists had thought they were.
In simple terms, Hawking demonstrated that matter, in the form of radiation, can escape the gravitational force of a collapsed star. Another young cosmologist, Roger Penrose, had earlier discovered groundbreaking findings about the fate of stars and the creation of black holes, which tapped into Hawking's own fascination with how the universe began. Hawking was named a fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 32, and later earned the prestigious Albert Einstein Award, among other honors.
He also earned teaching stints at Caltech in Pasadena, California, where he served as visiting professor, and at Gonville and Caius College in Cambridge. In August , Hawking appeared at a conference in Sweden to discuss new theories about black holes and the vexing "information paradox. He suggested picturing this reality by thinking of imaginary time and real time as beginning at the Earth's South Pole, a point of space-time where the normal laws of physics hold; as there is nothing "south" of the South Pole, there was also nothing before the Big Bang.
In , at the age of 65, Hawking made an important step toward space travel. While visiting the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, he was given the opportunity to experience an environment without gravity.
Over the course of two hours over the Atlantic, Hawking, a passenger on a modified Boeing , was freed from his wheelchair to experience bursts of weightlessness. Pictures of the freely floating physicist splashed across newspapers around the globe. I could have gone on and on. Space, here I come! He said in a statement, "Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster, such as sudden global warming, nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus or other dangers.
I think the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space. I therefore want to encourage public interest in space. If there is such a thing as a rock-star scientist, Stephen Hawking embodied it. Other TV and movie appearances included:. In , Hawking showed off his humorous side on American television, making a guest appearance on The Big Bang Theory. Playing himself on this popular comedy about a group of young, geeky scientists, Hawking brings the theoretical physicist Sheldon Cooper Jim Parsons back to Earth after finding an error in his work.
Hawking earned kudos for this lighthearted effort. The Theory of Everything stars Eddie Redmayne as Hawking and encompasses his early life and school days, his courtship and marriage to Wilde, the progression of his crippling disease and his scientific triumphs. In May , Hawking hosted and narrated Genius , a six-part television series which enlists volunteers to tackle scientific questions that have been asked throughout history.
Being an optimist, I think they will. In , Hawkings had participated in a trial of a new headband-styled device called the iBrain. The device is designed to "read" the wearer's thoughts by picking up "waves of electrical brain signals," which are then interpreted by a special algorithm, according to an article in The New York Times. This device could be a revolutionary aid to people with ALS.
In , Hawking, among other top scientists, spoke out about the possible dangers of artificial intelligence, or AI, calling for more research to be done on all of possible ramifications of AI. Their comments were inspired by the Johnny Depp film Transcendence , which features a clash between humanity and technology. Hawking reiterated this stance while speaking at a technology conference in Lisbon, Portugal, in November In July , Hawking held a news conference in London to announce the launch of a project called Breakthrough Listen.
Funded by Russian entrepreneur Yuri Milner, Breakthrough Listen was created to devote more resources to the discovery of extraterrestrial life. An overwhelming demand for access promptly crashed the university server, though the document still fielded a staggering 60, views before the end of its first day online.
We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. English physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton, most famous for his law of gravitation, was instrumental in the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century. James C. Maxwell was a 19th century pioneer in chemistry and physics who articulated the idea of electromagnetism.
Stephen Breyer is an associate justice for the U. Supreme Court, who was nominated by President Bill Clinton. American lyricist and composer Stephen Sondheim is known for the remarkable range of musicals he's worked on, from 'West Side Story' to 'Sweeney Todd' to 'Into the Woods. Tony Hawk is a professional skateboarder and is considered a legend in the history of the sport. Scientist Stephen Hawking was known for his groundbreaking work with black holes and relativity, and was the author of several popular science books including 'A Brief History of Time.
Biography Newsletter. Isaac Newton. Albert Einstein. Eddie Redmayne. He learns that Jessie once belonged to a girl named Emily, who eventually outgrew and finally donated her.
Prospector explains to Woody that the same fate awaits him when Andy grows up, whereas he will last forever in the museum. Hearing this, Woody decides to go to Japan. Meanwhile, Buzz and the other toys reach Al's Toy Barn. While searching for Woody, Buzz is imprisoned by a Utility Belt Buzz , who believes that Buzz is a rogue space ranger; he joins the other toys, who mistake him for Andy's Buzz. After discovering Al's plan, they go to his apartment, while Andy's Buzz escapes and pursues them, inadvertently freeing a toy Emperor Zurg the arch nemesis of Buzz Lightyear , who follows him with the intent of destroying him.
Al's Car (Short Story Book 6) - Kindle edition by Bill Bernico. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like. Re:als car short story book 6. How to Buy or Lease a Car Win Pro Guide to Buying a New or Used Car Car Leasing Car Buying - Car Buying Guide - Car Lease.
After the toys find Woody, Buzz rejoins them and proves that he is Andy's Buzz, but Woody intends to go to Tokyo rather than return home to Andy. Buzz reminds Woody that a toy's true purpose is to be played with, which he would never experience in a museum. After seeing a boy play with him on a Woody's Roundup episode, Woody changes his mind, and asks the Roundup gang to come home with him and the rest of the toys.
However, Prospector, who has never been loved or played with and wants to go to Japan, seals the vent plate, revealing that he was responsible for foiling Woody's escape attempt and framed Jessie for it. Al then returns, takes the gang in a suitcase, and leaves for the airport.
Andy's toys pursue Al, but are caught by Zurg, who battles the Utility Belt Buzz, and reveals himself as Buzz's father. Accompanied by three toy Aliens , Andy's toys steal a Pizza Planet delivery truck and follow Al to the airport, where they sneak into the baggage handling system and find Al's suitcase. Prospector rips Woody's arm during a struggle, but Andy's toys subdue him and place him inside a little girl's backpack.
They free Bullseye, but Jessie ends up on the plane bound for Japan.
Assisted by Buzz and Bullseye, Woody frees Jessie from the plane before it takes off, and the toys return to Andy's house. When Andy returns from camp, he accepts Jessie, Bullseye and the Aliens as his new toys, then repairs Woody's arm.
Al is upset in a new commercial after losing the Roundup Gang, while Wheezy's squeaker has also been fixed. Woody tells Buzz that he is no longer worried about Andy outgrowing him because, when he eventually does, they will still have each other for company "for infinity and beyond". Talk of a sequel to Toy Story began around a month after the film's opening, in December Lasseter described how the boy's excitement to show it to his father touched him deeply. Lasseter realized that his character no longer belonged to him only, but rather it belonged to others, as well.
The memory was a defining factor in the production of Toy Story 2 , with Lasseter moved to create a great film for that child and for everyone else who loved the characters. Roth was pleased and embraced the idea of a sequel. Initially, everything regarding the sequel was uncertain at first: whether stars Tom Hanks and Tim Allen would be available and affordable, what the story premise would be, and even whether the film would be computer-animated at Pixar or traditionally hand-drawn at Walt Disney Feature Animation.
The Blythes are a big, warm, rambunctious family who live on a small farm and sometimes foster children. Part of his life story was depicted in the film The Theory of Everything. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toy Story 2. List of modern conflicts in the Middle East. U feel so helpless, not a thing u can do to help the situation.
Instead, Lasseter turned to Ash Brannon , a young directing animator on Toy Story whose work he admired. Brannon, a CalArts graduate, joined the Toy Story team in Lasseter's intention with a sequel was to respect the original film and create that world again. The obsessive toy collector named Al McWhiggin , who had appeared in a draft of Toy Story but was later expunged, was inserted into the film.
To make the project ready for theaters, Lasseter would need to add 12 minutes or so of material and strengthen what was already there. The extra material would be a challenge, since it could not be mere padding—it would have to feel as if it had always been there, an organic part of the film. There, he hosted what he called a "story summit", a crash exercise that would yield a finished story in just two days.
Back at the office that Monday, Lasseter assembled the company in a screening room and pitched the revised version of Toy Story 2 from exposition to resolution. The original film's original opening sequence featured a Buzz Lightyear cartoon playing on television, which evolved into the Buzz Lightyear video game that would be shown in the opening Toy Story 2.
The idea of a squeak-toy penguin with a broken squeaker also resurfaced from an early version of Toy Story. As the story approached the production stage in early , it was unclear whether Pixar would produce the film, as the entire team of was busy working on A Bug's Life for a release. The Interactive Products Group, with a staff of 95, had its own animators, art department, and engineers. Steve Jobs made the decision to shut down the computer games operation and the staff became the initial core of the Toy Story 2 production team.
Before the switch from direct-to-video to feature film, the Toy Story 2 crew had been on its own, placed in a new building that was well-separated from the rest of the company by railroad tracks. The film reused digital elements from Toy Story but, true to the company's "prevailing culture of perfectionism, [ The team freely borrowed models from other productions, such as Geri from Pixar's short Geri's Game , who became the Cleaner in Toy Story 2.
While producing Toy Story , the crew was careful in creating new locations, working within available technology at that time. By the time of production on Toy Story 2 , technology had advanced farther to allow more complicated camera shots than were possible in the first film. After much experimentation, a tiny particle of dust was animated and the computer distributed that image throughout the entire shelf.
Over two million dust particles are in place on the shelf in the completed film. Disney became unhappy with the pace of the work on the film and demanded in June that Guggenheim be replaced as producer, and Pixar complied. As a result, Karen Jackson and Helene Plotkin, associate producers, moved up into the roles of co-producers.
Once available, he took over directing duties and added Lee Unkrich as co-director. Unkrich, also fresh from supervising editor duties on A Bug's Life , would focus on layout and cinematography , while Brannon would be credited as co-director. In November , Disney executives Roth and Peter Schneider viewed the film's story reels, with some finished animation, in a screening room at Pixar. They were impressed with the quality of work and became interested in releasing Toy Story 2 in theaters.
The economics of a direct-to-video Pixar release were not working as well as hoped thanks to the higher salaries of the crew. After negotiations, Jobs and Roth agreed that the split of costs and profits for Toy Story 2 would follow the model of a newly created five-film deal—but Toy Story 2 would not count as one of the five films.
Disney had bargained in the contract for five original features, not sequels, thus assuring five sets of new characters for its theme parks and merchandise. Jobs gathered the crew and announced the change in plans for the film on February 5, The work done on the film to date was nearly lost in when one of the animators, while routinely clearing some files, accidentally started a deletion of the root folder of the Toy Story 2 assets on Pixar's internal servers.
Associate technical director Oren Jacob was one of the first to notice as character models disappeared from their works in progress. The film was saved when technical director Galyn Susman, who had been working from home to take care of her newborn child, revealed she had backups of the assets on her home computer. The Pixar team was able to recover nearly all of the lost assets save for a few recent days of work, allowing the film to proceed.
However, many of the creative staff at Pixar were not happy with how the sequel was turning out. Upon returning from the European promotion of A Bug's Life , Lasseter watched the development reels and agreed that it was not working. Pixar met with Disney, telling them that the film would have to be redone. Disney disagreed, and noted that Pixar did not have enough time to remake the film before its established release date.
Pixar decided that they simply could not allow the film to be released in its existing state, and asked Lasseter to take over the production. Lasseter agreed, and recruited the first film's creative team to redevelop the story. To meet Disney's deadline, Pixar had to complete the entire film in nine months.
Jobs explained that there was no choice, presumably in reference to the film's licensees and marketing partners, who were getting toys and promotions ready. Brannon focused on development, story and animation, Lasseter was in charge of art, modeling and lighting, and Unkrich oversaw editorial and layout. Since they met daily to discuss their progress with each other they wanted to ensure they were all progressing in the same direction , the boundaries of their responsibilities overlapped.
Still, Toy Story 2 , with its highly compressed production schedule, was especially trying. The overwork spun out into carpal tunnel syndrome for some animators,  and repetitive strain injuries for others. Employees' self-imposed compulsions to excel often trumped any other constraints, and were especially common to younger employees. Although out of print in the U. Randy Newman wrote two new songs for Toy Story 2 as well as the complete original score:. Pixar showed the completed film at CalArts on November 12, , in recognition of the school's ties with Lasseter and more than 40 other alumni who worked on the film.
The students were captivated. This is why we have a hopping lamp in our logo". In , both Toy Story and Toy Story 2 were converted to 3-D for a two-week limited theatrical re-release,   which was extended due to its success. With Toy Story 3 shaping up to be another great adventure for Buzz, Woody and the gang from Andy's room, we thought it would be great to let audiences experience the first two films all over again and in a brand new way". Translating the films into 3-D involved revisiting the original computer data and virtually placing a second camera into each scene, creating left-eye and right-eye views needed to achieve the perception of depth.
Unique to computer animation, Lasseter referred to this process as "digital archaeology". The lead stereographer Bob Whitehill oversaw this process and sought to achieve an effect that impacted the film's emotional storytelling. It took four months to resurrect the old data and get it in working order. Then, adding 3-D to each of the films took six months per film. Toy Story 2 was released January 22, in the U.
A brief controversy involving the Ultimate Toy Box edition took place in which around 1, copies of the box set that were shipped to Costco stores had a pressing error which caused a scene from Disney's R-rated film High Fidelity to play in the middle of the film. The scene in question, which featured the use of the word " fuck " multiple times, prompted a number of complaints from consumers, causing Costco to eventually recall the defective units from shelves and later go on to replace them. Box set- copies of Toy Story 2 which were included with the two-pack were not affected by the manufacturing error.
The film was available for the first time on Blu-ray Disc in a Special Edition Combo Pack released on March 23, , along with the first film. Reviewers judged the film as a sequel that equalled or even surpassed the original in terms of quality. The site's critical consensus reads, "The rare sequel that arguably improves on its predecessor, Toy Story 2 uses inventive storytelling, gorgeous animation, and a talented cast to deliver another rich moviegoing experience for all ages.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four and said in his print review "I forgot something about toys a long time ago, and Toy Story 2 reminded me". Upon seeing the film, animator Chuck Jones wrote a letter to Lasseter, calling the film "wonderful" and "beautifully animated", and telling Lasseter he was "advancing the cause of classic animation in a new and effective way.
The film was as successful as its predecessor commercially. Toy Story 2 received several recognitions, including seven Annie Awards , but none of them were previous nominations.