Blanchot's allegiances to the worklessness of literature may be seen first and foremost to place him in a critical relation to the proponents of "committed literature" in France after the war, and the conviction that writers and other artists are called upon to engage in political struggles of the present historical juncture.
We recall that Blanchot's "Literature and the Right to Death" appeared in print not long after the publication of Jean-Paul Sartre's entreaty on behalf of the committed writer in What is Literature? As Paul Davies has shown, however, the treatment Blanchot's "Literature" essay gives to this "highest" in literature may be seen to form the horizon, or itinerary, for much of his further research on worklessness, and, moreover, to contain, in nuce, his conception of many of its principal features.
An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Read preview. The Resistances of Literature What is the significance of Blanchot's approach to literature? Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts. In Germany, Henning Meyer and Wiebke Kolbe have also written about sites of wartime memory or battlefield tourism in regard to France Meyer and Kolbe Tourism, however, continued and in some ways intensified during the war, as I have argued elsewhere, embracing among other elements erotics and the imaginaries as can be seen in occupied France Gordon and Young German soldiers touring in organized groups and on their own in occupied France became conditioned to see tourism as a leisure activity, contributing to the expectations and imaginaries that underlay the tourism take off in Germany and elsewhere after the war Spode, Their actions and their imaginaries, revealing distinct imbalances in their power relationships with the local French population, nonetheless reflected perceptions of Paris and France formed by the tourist images of the late 19th and early 20th century that helped form their culture as they grew up.
Some of these prewar imaginaries evoked the erotic. In , for example, Paris was described as the modern Babylon, where vice won out over virtue and infamy and crime bred in a fertile ground Ponson du Terr. These imaginaries, of course, include the entire range of erotic fantasies and images tied to tourism and were clearly evident among the German occupation personnel who toured France during the Second World War.
Although many have studied the linkage of erotics and tourism, the relationships of both to war have received less attention. In an article on tourism and prostitution in the postwar Third World published in , Nelson N. Graburn suggested the connection to war and military occupation in stating:.
People focus on their conceptions of the beautiful or the interesting, framed, and at times manipulated as Theodor Adorno maintains, in their cultural contexts of time and place. As Adorno suggested, these must be understood in terms of power relationships Adorno, , Such power imbalances may be extreme in times of war, evidenced for example in the organized tours of occupied France provided to the victorious German soldiers by Nazi authorities after their victory of Jean Berthelot, a French official, in late June reported German soldiers in Paris taking photographs of sites recommended by Baedeker Berthelot, , Others since have also described the German soldiers behaving as "tourists" 2 Meinen, , To some extent, a similar case might be made regarding the Allied forces and erotic tourism in liberated France after the military campaign of as indicated in some of the literature to be addressed later in this essay.
Robert Hugues-Lambert, an actor, was arrested in Le Sans-Soucis, a gay bar, and ultimately died in a German concentration camp Riding, , Date Modified: Transcription and pronunciation of words and their translations You can listen to pronunciation of the searched word and all its translations, transcription is available for English;. In addition, the Dictionary is now supplemented with millions of real-life translation examples from external sources. Graburn suggested the connection to war and military occupation in stating:. University of Strasbourg.
There are many variations in sexual tourism, including voluntary liaisons as well as prostitution, and in the latter case visitors seeking out local sex workers and sex workers migrating to other areas to ply their trade Franklin, , Illustrating the complexities in tracking sexual activity and imaginaries, Karen H. Adler writes that some 5, Frenchwomen may have left their country — the documentation, she notes, is uncertain — to work as prostitutes for higher pay in Germany during the war Adler, , As the writers of the MIT team in Paris noted in , the inequalities involved in sex tourism, that Graburn also referenced, mirrored those in wealth and power between rich and poor countries around the world.
Colonization, they argued, had reinforced the pre-existing power imbalances.
Such imbalances helped create similar instances of sexual tourism in the wealthier cities of the West as well. The power imbalances mentioned by the MIT team also existed in wartime as the German experience tourism in occupied Paris suggests. While many in occupied France suffered deprivations, one group stood out as privileged, namely the German occupation personnel for whom France became a prized billet, a place for rest and relaxation, and, for many, where they might exercise the tourism imaginaries that had developed over the preceding generations in Germany as elsewhere.
This imbalance was not new.
This imbalance affected gender relations far beyond those of prostitution. The German valuation of the Mark at 20 francs, in contrast to 12 prior to the war, made French goods and French prostitutes relatively inexpensive for German personnel there, adding to the imbalance in the relationships of power in France Buisson, , Generally speaking, Germans admired French culture, yet criticized what they saw as French decadence.
Editions were republished in both German and French during the Occupation, although Sieburg was later described by a French observer as a "petty bourgeois" with only a "conventional" knowledge of France and a latecomer to Nazism Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD, Deutsche Wegleiter August , p. As Robert Gildea writes, "Many [German soldiers] came to France as sexual and gastronomic tourists as much as soldiers.
Historian Henri Amouroux noted that Germans enjoyed Paris during. A German officer wounded and decorated during World War I, he had become famous because of his memoir, In Stahlgewittern [Storm of Steel], first published in He wrote: " Paris offers meetings like that with one barely having to seek them; one realizes that the city was founded on the altar of Venus. He later recalled that most of the German soldiers were the sons of farmers and had never left their villages prior to the war.
They had learned about France in school but had never visited there. One infantryman, from Hamburg, who entered Paris by bicycle, wrote that he had never seen so beautiful a city. Others climbed the Eiffel Tower and carved the names of their wives into its beams, perhaps another variation of erotics linked to tourism. The Hamburg soldier wrote "we were shown a series of things that we knew only in our wildest imaginations.
The intersection of tourism and erotics in wartime Paris embraced many facets ranging from the images of the city as a sensual capital of physical pleasure that included gastronomy and sex, the many sexual liaisons between Germans and Frenchwomen, invariably unequal in their status, that produced tens of thousands of offspring with estimates ranging from 50, to , during the war, and the extensive regulation of prostitution by the Germans.
Strict orders within weeks of their arrival in Paris warned all military personnel to be on their best behavior Boegner, , Little more than a month after the Wehrmacht entered Paris, its commander issued a stern warning about appropriate behavior. When the German military conducted roundups in the streets in their attempts to control prostitution, the French prostitutes were invariably punished, but their German male clientele never were Meinen, , 47 and This asymmetrical linkage of power, tourism, and erotics was also evident in the subsequent behavior of the Allied soldiers after the August Liberation.
désoeuvrement, Le (French Edition) eBook: M. Théodore Leclercq: lirodisa.tk uk: Kindle Store. Buy Désoeuvré (Éprouvette t. 1) (French Edition): Read Kindle Store Reviews - lirodisa.tk
Deutsche Wegleiter, 1 August p. Deutsche Wegleiter, March Following years of economic depression and mobilization for war, it was hard for the nightclub owners in Paris to turn away the new German visitors who constituted a suddenly prosperous clientele Cointet, , As Alan Riding points out, the sight of half-naked women dancing in the reopened nightclubs during the summer of and thereafter for many soldiers "was the best reason for going out at night. Officers used separate brothels in contrast to the lower ranking German soldiers Adler, , These brothels attracted a mixed crowd of German officers, French collaborators, clandestine resistance agents, black market operators, and artists of all kinds, including women.
Selected brothels in larger cities and under medical supervision were made available to German military personnel with access to them forbidden to French civilians, other than the prostitutes themselves. Germans were forbidden to frequent brothels apart from than those especially designated for them.
The prostitutes were to be checked by local doctors under the supervision of German hygiene officials and signs were to be posted outside brothels indicating that they were either restricted to German soldiers or forbidden to them. Jewish and other "alien race" prostitutes were not allowed to serve German personnel.
Prostitutes were to be examined twice weekly by medical personnel and those deemed healthy were issued numbered inspection cards which they were to present to their clients. Control of nightclubs also became politicized during the Occupation.
Not surprisingly, resentments grew among the local population. And yet, for Blanchot, the activity of writing is paradoxically borne out of such an experience of sheer passivity, powerlessness, and exclusion. Orpheus, more speciically, wants to transgress the prohibition against looking at his deceased lover, Eurydice, in the underworld—the prohibition that would otherwise enable him to complete the work and to ascribe a meaning to his creative activity, but only on the condition that he turns away from its source of concealment. However, when Orpheus puts everything at stake by looking back and breaking the interdiction, he sees nothing.
Related Papers. By Michael Krimper. By Patrick Lyons. Colloquy Blanchot issue. By Mijeong Kim.