Despite the acknowledged limitations of this descriptive analysis, these results should help to encourage the continuing research on gender issues in the region. FD arranged data collection and takes responsibility for the accuracy of the data. MM completed data analysis and in conjunction with RG participated in interpretation of results. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Phrases remembered by victims if they refused rape. A selection of free text phrases that the victims recall the perpetrator s saying to them during the act of aggression. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Jun 15; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Additional file 1 Phrases remembered by victims if they refused rape.
DOC 37K. Abstract Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community.
Background For over a decade the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo DRC has been subject to an unrelenting humanitarian crisis; a local manifestation of a complex regional conflict that began in and continues to involve a collection of countries and multiple groups of armed combatants [ 1 ].
Methods Here, we describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of DRC through the retrospective analysis of 2, patients who received medical care in the MSF sexual violence clinic in capital of Ituri, Bunia, between September and December Open in a separate window.
Figure 1. Table 1 Demographics of patients presenting after sexually violent attack, according to age and sex. Table 2 Identity of perpetrator according to victim age group and sex. Characteristics of sexual violence events A total of Table 3 Place of occurrence of sexual violence according to type of perpetrator for patients. Table 4 Associated violence: First recalled response from patients. Social Consequences The social consequences of being a victim of sexual violence varied considerably among patients but included rejection by the family in 2.
Discussion Historically, discussions surrounding the phenomena of sexual violence in DRC have focused on the use of rape as part of a strategic warfare plan and an effective weapon for terrorising enemy communities and to destroy completely the social, family fabric of society [ 13 ].
Conclusions Acts of sexual violence, predominately rape, continue in DRC with civilians as the reported perpetrators of more than 1 in 5 of the aggressions in our cohort. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contributions FD arranged data collection and takes responsibility for the accuracy of the data. Supplementary Material Additional file 1: Phrases remembered by victims if they refused rape. Click here for file 37K, DOC.
References Human Rights Watch. New York; Forbes Martin S, Tirman J, editor. Washington DC: Springer; Sexual Violence during War and Forced Migration; pp.
Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: An ongoing crisis. Melbourne, New York; Geneva; High mortality in an internally displaced population in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, Results of a rapid assessment under difficult conditions. Global Public Health.
Wakabi W. Sexual violence increasing in Democratic Republic of Congo. Soldiers who rape, commanders who condone. Women's Studies International Forum. American Anthropologist. Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: report from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in Conflict and Health. Civilians still the first victims: Permanence of sexual violence and impact of military operations.
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Oxfam; The crushing burden of rape - sexual violence in Darfur. Baaz ME, Stern M.
Why Do Soldiers Rape? L'arme du viol au Kivu, interview de Malika Saim.
Montrer cette discussion Good post Johnnyyen. That his reputation for this quality is so widely diffused, is of itself a sufficient proof that it is undeserved. But Mill read history, reflected on history, principally the history of Europe. Since we did not manipulate any features of the film excerpts, in order to guarantee high ecological validity, we cannot quantify the share that music had in eliciting the states of being moved, compared to the displays of prosocial behavior. America has country or blues for example which have become more modern in time just like chanson has modernised or has merged with with other styles.
Live feed Show. Facebook Twitter. The main structure of Notre Dame, as well as its two towers, has been saved, according to the Paris fire brigade chief. The blaze has been brought under control, firefighters confirmed in the early hours of Tuesday morning. He praised the courage and professionalism of firefighters. Macron asked the country to commit to rebuilding Notre Dame together, announcing an international fundraising campaign to raise money for the repairs. A site taking online donations has been launched. One firefighter was injured in the efforts to save the building.
Expressions of support and commiseration have poured in from leaders around the world. April 15, And some cathedrals are tweeting in solidarity. April 15, The blaze, which began on Monday afternoon, destroyed the roof of the year-old UNESCO world heritage landmark, whose spectacular Gothic spire collapsed before the eyes of horrified onlookers. Newest Newer.
Our tears, according to striking new research, may be sending chemical signals that influence the behavior of other people. The research, published on Thursday in the journal Science , could begin to explain something that has baffled scientists for generations: Why do humans, unlike seemingly any other species, cry emotional tears? Noam Sobel, a professor of neurobiology at the Weizmann Institute in Israel. Boehner , remain an open question. But Dr. Several experts said the findings — besides potentially adding subtext to crying songs through the ages, from Roy Orbison to the Rolling Stones — could be a first step toward a breakthrough on a mysterious subject.
McClintock , a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago who is known for her work on pheromones and behavior. Robert R.
Many questions remain, including whether the results can be replicated by other researchers, what substance could comprise the chemical signal and whether it is perceived through the nose or another way. The studies did not measure the effect on aggression, although future research might, Dr. Sobel said. Another thought, he said, is that the effect of tears evolved in part to coincide with menstrual cycles.
McClintock, who reported 40 years ago that women who lived together tended to synchronize their menstruation, objected. View all New York Times newsletters.
They had assumed chemical signals from tears would trigger sadness or empathy in others. Deciding to investigate more rigorously, the researchers posted fliers on several Israeli college campuses seeking easy criers.