Les civilisations précolombiennes: « Que sais-je ? » n° 567 (French Edition)


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Mulier docta quaesivit de verbo, quod Apuleius novaverit, luminare nempe, quod legitur Met. Itaque luminatus est luminibus seu oculis praeditus, minime auteni illustratus. Erravit autem ubi luminare verbum ab Apuleio novatum esse voluit. Nam exstat in titulo quodam quem die 22 mensis mai anno p. Serviano HI cos. Bernand, Inscriptions du Colosse de Memnon, Parisiis , nr. Exemplum demonstrat quam periculosum sit, cum tot tantaque linguae Latinae monumenta perierint, vocabulorum fabricationem primo vel etiam unico testi tribuere.

Apuleius, ni fallimur, vocabula multo minus novavit quam quae ab aliis sordida cotidianaque habebantur scriptis suis intexuit. Aussi ne peut-on savoir,. Prix : 25 florins. Le Center for Applied Linguistics de Washington est aussi intervenu dans les frais de publication. Price 5. Dwight I. Segmental analysis has swept the field so triumphantly that for a number of years nothing else has seemed of much importance in language. All that matters, it appeared, could be formalized in statements of presence or non-presence, or of A versus B, and if anything of obvious significance did not really fit this scheme, the lack was in us as observers, not in it as a datum.

Joos, and another from an article by R. Jakobson, both of which lay stress on the discrete character of linguistic features. Bolinger then undertakes to show that some linguistic phenomena are, instead, continuous. The facts he adduces are noteworthy and his argument is, on the whole, convincing. It would seem, however, that Joos and Jakobson have anticipated if not all, at least some, of Bolinger 's objections. As a consequence, some of Bolinger 's remarks fail to strike home.

Nevertheless, Generality, Gradience and the All-or-None puts a number of facts in a new light and is, therefore, well worth reading — Yvan Lebrun. Souhaitons que P. Mme A. L'auteur signale enfin les recherches en cours pour l'analyse automatique des textes anciens. Sur un point seulement M. Vallet et F. Enfin A. Prix : fr. Paris, Maisonneuve, Meumeyer, Egyptian Painting, 15 pp. Traduction anglaise de Malerei Aegyptens, Vienne, Rosenbaum, Certaines sont floues, et les couleurs souvent inexactes pi.

Wallis Budge, XIV, pp. Les mythologies de l'Inde MM. Duval et G. Grappin, qui note la longue survivance du paganisme nordique, on trouve l'histoire d'un drame aux dimensions du monde. Le Japon E. Frank sur le bouddhisme japonais. Mondes et secteurs cosmiques correspondent aux directions spatiales. En Afrique R. Bastide , Madagascar, carrefour de peuples et d'influences, occupe une place originale.

Quels furent les grands centres culturels? Oxford, ; 1 vol. Prix: 18 sh. Collection : Oxford Paperbacks. Mondolfo, La Filosofia. IV a cura di R. Mondolfo, Firenze ; 1 vol. Il pensiero storico. Prix : 4. Les notes de Zeiler s'amplifient au point de devenir autant d'articles, couvrant parfois plusieurs pages. Florence, Nuova Italia, ; un vol. Biblioteca di Studi superiori, 4. La traduction de M. Magnino ne m'enthousiasme pas. V, Barcelone, Par contre, les notes sont excellentes et compensent largement ces faiblesses.

Paris, Pion, ; 1 vol. Je ne crois pas que M. Trouillard ; elles sont suivies d'une biographie et d'une bibliographie analytique fort judicieuse. Untersuchungen zum Klassizismus der vierten Jahrhunderts, Lund, C. Gleerup, ; un vol. Prix : 28 couronnes , sont plus une promesse qu'un programme. Fabricius en appelle p. Fabricius qui en fourniront les bases. London, Routledge et Kegan Paul, , 1 vol. L'article de W. Il y a plus de vigueur dans le travail de M.

En revanche, M. Je crois d'ailleurs que M. London, Methuen, pp. Qui si comincia da Tertulliano per arrivare ad Ambrogio, salvo a p. Messine, D'Anna, ; pp. Ces manuscrits sont excellents. Voici quelques exemples. Mais une comparaison avec une phrase de S. Dei, IV, 3. Mais deux manuscrits ont horrescit p. Mais uni P et T, cf. Mais si M. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, ; un vol. La Penna. Voici 4 notes de lecture.

Par contre, je pense qu'au v. Voici les w. Cette traduction ne tient pas assez compte, me semble-t-il, du mot quilibet. Je proposerais Cet os non mentiturus s'oppose aux ambages v. Les vv. Mappus, ; pp. Une introduction de 88 pages, des notes judicieuses, des appendices font de ce livre un bon instrument de travail. La reliure est robuste, le papier bon, la typographie fort lisible sauf pour le grec, d'ailleurs rare et presque sans faute : p.

Extraits analogues pp. On excuse M. Par exemple : Gratis amandus est Deus, Sermon 2, 4. Domini uidua ilia mulier cor praeparatum habebat ad oboediendum, S. Deus sic nos spectat pugnantes quomodo spectat populus uenatores. Rursus ne sperando augeamus, datus est dies mortis incertus, S. Que pensait, vers , l'auditoire d'Augustin? In Arnos 1, Collection Loeb. Londres, Heinemann, ; xxxvi pp. Or voici une Sentence de Publilius : iacet omnis uirtus, fama nisi late pat et I On peut trouver aussi que S.

Cependant je la citerai pour un passage, que voici : neque enim ideo non peccat homo, quia Deus ilium peccaturum esse praesciuit; immo ideo non dubitatur ipsum peccare cum peccat eqs. For man does not in fact fail to sin because God foresaw that he would sin. Nay, it is precisely because of foreknowledge that there is no doubt that man himself sins when he sins V 10, p. Or ceci est absurde. Or elle la contredit. Il est curieux de rapprocher de ceci un vers d'Ovide : expedit esse deos, et, ut expedit, esse putemus A.

Publilius, F 24 : fortuna uitrea est : turn cum splendet frangitur. VI, 1, p. VII, 12, p. Citons pour terminer une erreur d'impression, VII, 7, p. Halporn, M. Ostwald et Th. Cupaiolo vient de nous donner Un capitolo sull' esa- metro latino Collana di studi latini, V.

Que conclure de la concordance ou de la discordance des typologies? Cupaiolo: sa contribution est excellente. Lg, ; un vol. Ainsi on pourra tirer tout le parti possible de ces extraits. Huvelle, p. Puisque ceci est un recueil de textes, on me permettra une petite note de lecture. Renard, et, pour les disques, M. Lg, ; pp. Le catalogue des films fixes et diapositives est un simple travail de compilation. Delatte, permet de retrouver des vues sur n'importe quel sujet.

Un compte rendu critique accompagne la mention des disques que M. En conclusion P. C'est l'attitude que P. La Lex Villia Annalis de av. Tite-Live, VII, Van 't Dack. Stuttgart, K. Hoffmann, ; un vol.

Chronique — Kroniek

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Que sais- je? L'ouvrage de M. Kakridis cite en note p. Paris, P. Sur le plan moral, sur. Michel ; p. Bengtson ; p. Et il est bien dommage que l'auteur n'ait pas eu l'occasion de consulter H. Au cours du me s. Taurus, ; un vol. Tovar La decadencia de la polis griega, pp. Marias Aristoteles en el mundo helenistico, pp. Fernandez-Galiano La Atenas de Menandro, pp. Salmon, The Coloniae maritimae Athenaeum, 41, , fase.

Non possono essere adeguatamente riassunte le poche pagine, ricchissime di pensiero, nelle quali Ta. Ed il valore del potere, precisato. Si conclude, con l'accenno al problema del diritto naturale, questo saggio di filosofia politica, ehe nelle sue linee fondamental!

Nocera, Un' esperienza storicistica sul fondamento del potere, Riv. A biography Oxford, Clarendon Press, , xvm pp. L'ouvrage se termine par un important excursus contenant les Tabulae Laudatoriae. Institutes is insufficient. De voornaamste bedoeling van dit werk, dat de neerslag is van de colleges die F. Hoe boeiend de colleges van F. Zoals elke historicus van de wijsbegeerte historisch gebonden is, zo was ook F. Dit merkt men reeds in de indeling van onderhavig werk ; de Ionische natuurfilosofen en. Aristoteles bezetten meer dan de helft van het aantal bladzijden die gewijd zijn aan de eigenlijke geschiedenis, terwijl Sokrates, Plato en de hele na-Aristotelische wijsbegeerte samen, minder uitvoerig behandeld worden dan Aristoteles alleen.

Dat sehr, aan de post-Aristotelische periode te weinig aandacht besteedt, vindt zijn verklaring in het feit dat hij deze periode te negatief en als louter decadent beschouwt, wat overeenstemt met zijn indeling van de geschiedenis volgens de '4-Fasen-Gesetz'. De visie op het verleden van het Griekse denken is sinds F. Zijn werk is voorbijgestreefd, dank zij de eminente studies van de laatste halve eeuw, die F. Niettemin behoudt dit werk zijn historische waarde : met de andere uitgegeven werken van de sehr, helpt het ons een synthese te vormen van zijn filosofisch denken.

Zowel Franziska Mayer-Hillebrand als A. Francke verdienen bijzondere vermelding voor de keurige zorg waarmee dit posthuum werk werd uitgegeven : de typografie en de bladspiegel, de aanmerkingen, maar vooral het uitgebreide en gedetailleerde inhoudsoverzicht blz.

Prix : Lire , nous dit p. Ainsi les Indirizzi e metodi de M. Cependant, on ne nous apprend rien de nouveau sur ce point. Quacquarelli, M. Augustin cf. Marrou, St. Marrou, op. Marrou cf. Un chapitre V sur la gymnastique pp. Grimm, ; un vol. Il suppose deux groupes successifs. Lors de la restauration du temple par C. Sosius en 34 a. RBPH, 39, , p. Bellinger et M. Devant y insister dans un ouvrage depuis paru, A. Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir. Edited by Leslie Spier, A. Irving Hallowell, Stanley S.

C'est dire combien les remarquables contributions qu'il contient furent accueillies avec faveur. Normes culturelles et individu. Powell en Elle se fondait exclusivement sur des comparaisons de vocabulaire. Voegelin, North American Indian languages still spoken and their genetic relationships. Mary R. Haas, The classification of the Muskogean languages, M. Morris Swadesh, Observations of pattern impact on the phonetics of bilinguals. George Herzog, Culture change and language : shifts in the Pima vocabulary. Quant l'influence. Whorf, The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language.

Stanley S.

Newman, Behavior patterns in linguistic structure : a case study. George L. Trager, The theory of accentual systems. Emeneau, Language and social forms : a study of Toda kinship terms and dual descent. L'article de M. Nijhoff, ; un vol. Leidse Romanistische Reeks, t. Les essais Das Fenster et Die Muschel pp.

La critique contemporaine devant le pouvoir suggestif des sons Paris, Soc. Prix : 17,50 NF. Est-il certain que la musique ne puisse exprimer un sentiment? Erster Band, herausgegeben von Wolfgang Kayser. Sammlung Dalp,. Deux innovations en font un instrument de travail remarquable. Bergson en tous cas. Le choix fait par M. Le gros livre de M. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Graeca Upsaliensia 1. L'effort que M. Lavagnini publie dans les Quaderni dell' istituto di filologia greca della Universita di Palermo 2, Palerme, , 1 vol. Aldo S. En effet, en. Le livre de M. S'il existe des philosophes renaissants, il n'y a pas de philosophie de la Renaissance.

Leur esprit plus traditionnaliste fit progresser la philosophie sic. N'y a-t-il pas contradiction in-terminis dans les lignes suivantes? C'est justement ce qu'il faut souligner. I, A-C, , Lxvni pp. II, Ch-K, , pp. IV, Ri-Z, additions, rectifications, index, errata, , pp. Comme J. Faut-il en accabler l'auteur? A cette nouvelle moisson nous n'ajouterons pas ici notre modeste gerbe. Si l'article est court, la consultation est rapide.

Celui-ci doit manier l'ouvrage avec une sage patience et une attention soutenue. C'est malheureusement insuffisant. Garcia de Diego, son contemporain Madrid, Tome VIII Il convient de signaler le travail de Vincenzo Cocco, Flumen Bandage pp. Cunha Serra, Da hagionlmia e da hagiotoponlmia portuguesa pp.

Torcade ou Trocade. Tome IX Nogueira Batalha pp. Buescu, le num. Piel et J. XI Ses conclusions s'efforcent d'en tenir compte. Wagner pp. I-j-6 du milieu du xme s. Ainsi la recension de l'ouvrage de J. XI, pp. X, pp. Herculano de Carvalho t. VIII, pp. IX, pp. Cocco sur l'esp. Corominas t. Collection Les grandes biographies. Preis : 8,50 NF. Mit Freude am Anekdotischen und mit epischem Behagen diskutiert er die Legende vom danubisch-balkanischen Ursprung der Familie Ronsard. Berry legt Wert auf Zeitkolorit. Ob aber selbst so geschlossene Gedichte wie die Sonette auseinandergerissen, dem Leser einzelne Quartette oder Terzette vorgesetzt werden mussten, erscheint uns fraglich.

Bezeichnend ist etwa, wie Berry S. Dass Cassandre bald blond, bald dunkler erscheint, ist Berry keineswegs entgangen. Der Friseur ist an allem schuld, Phantasie und Stilisierung kommen offenbar nicht in Betracht. Man braucht aber nur einen Blick auf die beiden Gedichte Mignonne, allons voir und Quand vous serez bien vieille zu werfen S.

Vom Moment der Stilisierung, das auch in derartigen Selbstdarstellungen zu vermuten ist, wird nicht gesprochen. Man schliesst dieses Buch eines Ronsard-Enthusiasten — vgl. Y a-t-il lieu de revoir ce jugement? Russeo utrum Misopolis an Philopolis, parue en Admettons que M. Brumfitt et le Voltaire storico de Furio Diaz. En gros, M. Rihs parle fort bien p.

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L'admiration de Voltaire n'a rien d'une boutade p. Giarrizzo dans son ouvrage magistral sur Gibbon e la cultura europea Naples, Marsak sur Fontenelle et celui de M. Parfois, ce sont des formules contestables qui frappent le lecteur. Rihs aurait pu renvoyer aux travaux de Lichtenberger et de Gonnard. On notera que M. Montesquieu n'a pas eu tort, quoi qu'en pense M. Rihs p. Ailleurs encore, M. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, , cxxxvi et p. Elles correspondent page par page, sauf un addendum pp. Bref, l'appendice final nous laisse entrevoir ce qu'il faudrait faire Elle rendrait des services.

Ce n'est pas la faute de Mme E. Le livre de Mme E. Thomas est de et je m'excuse d'en rendre compte si tardivement. Sand et riches en documents originaux. La nature de G. Pour ces fameuses liaisons, Sandeau, Musset, Chopin etc.. Romans en grande partie autobiographiques, mais c'est dans l'autobiographie, et Mme E. Thomas y insiste justement, que G. Thomas, il n'y a que trouvailles dans les subtiles analyses de M. Jean Pommier : Autour du drame de Venise, G. Sand et Alfred de Musset. Paris, Nizet, ; un vol. Sand et de Musset. Pommier que pour M. Mais M. In Germany, with its strong federal tradition, he valued the museography of local museums and living strength of the Heimat by which local heritage and history was promoted and embellished by the local population.

In the same way, the museography and collective enthusiasm that transformed museums in the Soviet Union as instruments of popular education confirmed his practice of using museological display as a tool for change. This exhibition was widely perceived in its time as a state-of-the-art presentation of the various practices that, in different part of the world, were implementing some of the recommendations given in various international forums and journals.

It is presented as a response to the international museographical concerns described in chapter 4 and 5, and the assumptions of the Durkheimian School of Sociology as analysed in chapter 6. A growing cultural malaise and important socio-political changes led to a strong criticism of the nature of thirty years of museum modernization. It gathers the arguments presented by commentators and museum professionals in journals and reviews, and in the long list of enquiries, workshops and reports that preceded the reorganization and dismantling of his most celebrated projects.

His near-legendary life spread over such a wide range of fields and activities that the sources for any biography are fragmented across a multitude of anecdotes, spread through personal letters, interviews, recollections, memoirs, and in many obituaries and other homages scattered through periodicals, journals, reviews and archives. Those who knew him all described him in terms similar to those of Pascal Ory as a 'person with great intelligence and charm, a man of highly refined aesthetic sensibility, a catalogue of contradictions, an entrepreneur of genius and the most fascinating witness of his time.

His personality led him, through chance and circumstances, to bring to the museum world the interests, aspirations and sensibilities widely shared by ethnologists, dealers, collectors, art critics and museum curators. He was above all the embodiment of the 20th century French cultural militant, and as such is today recognized as a significant figure in the intellectual and cultural history of France, far beyond his professional work in museums and museology.

Le Chat Noir has often being considered 'part of the history of the art movements of our times' Mauclair, , p. It was for some decades the centre of Bohemian Paris and a haunt of leading chansonniers, writers and others, including for example the poets and writers Georges Auriol and Paul Dival, and the composer Claude Debussy. Its novelty and extraordinary popularity, the mystique with which it was invested, and the legend that grew up about it, launched a fashion which before long extended to the whole of Europe, Segel, If his religious vocation was temporary, his musical disposition lasted all his life.

The cries and voices of street vendors, mendicants and tradesman he heard as a child in rue Lepic, and on the slopes of Montmartre, became one of his permanent memories. Koechlin taught the equality of all kinds of music, reconciling classical music, with its ancient, medieval and renaissance traditions and techniques, with the new modernist and postmodernist musical languages of modality, tonality, polytonality and atonality. Leroux-Dhuys, , p.

However, these were not published under his name and are largely untraceable. Ory, Archer-Straw, , Martin, ; Gonzalez-Llovera, As we we shall see, he used his understanding of American Jazz as a metaphor to understand the formation of popular culture. Clement Doucet registered it in his name during the war. In a pleasant and comfortable theatre, all those of us who despise European film directors and the avant-garde little chapels will be able to see and listen to excellent talkies, for the greatest pleasure of my expatriate friends as well as for my own.

Black music and dance associated with African cultures became, for a whole generation, a shared cultural fantasy that reversed the usual racist polarites. The American diet is more wholesome. Between and he participated in large scale ethnographical missions, including the Dakar-Djibouti Mission which started his lifelong association with the Dogon.

Griaule pioneered the use of aerial photography and put in practice the teamwork recording of ethnographical collection Griaule, ; His study on Dogon masks remains one of the fundamental works on the topic. The evolution from a purely descriptive study of the Dogon masks to an increasingly complex symbolic interpretation has been treated by Doquet, His interpretation of a Dogon Cosmology has being severely criticized by Anglo-Saxon anthropology Lettens, ; Van Beek, ; Clifford, b, c. Leroux-Dhuys, As a child I exhibited small examples in the shelves of my room.

Gee, Without losing their commercial sense, dealers such as Kahnweiller, Rosenberg, Paul Guillaume, Charles Ratton, Vignier, David-Weil and Wilderstein all considered themselves part of the painting movements they contributed to discovering. Malcom Gee, in his study of art market in the Paris of this period, has given us a good description of the background and attitudes to business of the activist involved in modern art. At one extreme were men who came directly from the financial and commercial background, and who tended to apply its principles as directly as possible to painting.

Mouradian and Van Leer, who came from the cotton trade and opened a gallery in Rue de la Seine in , are representative of this category. Gee, , p. These publications are today being seen as essential for a critical re-evaluation of the creation, promotion and dissemination of avant-garde ideas and attitudes of the period.

In its effort to break the hierarchy between high art and crafts and everyday objects, the 'Cahiers d'Art' regularly published the most recent archaeological discoveries in sculpture, architecture, terracotta, ceramic and jewellery from the Far East, Asia Minor, Middle East, Pre-Colombian America, Africa and Oceania. These archaelogical expressions of art were presented alongside recent work of Arp, Bauchant, Braque, Dali, Giacometti, Klee, Masson, Miro, Picasso, Roux, etc, and the latest ethnographical and folklore research and acquisition from Africa, America, Europe and Oceania.

All were incorporated and displayed according to what it was believed they all had in common: living expressions or witness of a primordial activity, an activity often disguised but always existent from the very beginnings of humanity. This primordial creativity was the common denominator that put on the same footing 'superior' and 'inferior' cultural forms and knowledge, breaking the distinctions between popular and higher cultures. This enjoyed the support of a great man: Marcel Mauss. Leiris, ; Lecoq, The originality of Documents was first pointed out by James Clifford in his groundbreaking On ethnological surrealism , published for the French public as Ethnologie, polyphonie, collage Clifford, In it, Clifford explored the relation between ethnography, literature and art in 20th century France, and put Documents at the centre of post-modern anthropological analysis.

The exhibition and catalogue was such a success that in Gradhiva reprinted in two fascimiles the complete set of Documents issued between Jamin, Nephew of the famous physicist Albert Einstein, he committed suicide in to avoid Nazi persecution. Carl Einstein belongs to the tradition of Austro-Hungarian art theoreticians of the end of the 19th century, solidly formed in the Berlin reflexion about art unknown in the Paris circles. Babelon et al, If you want to make an exhibition of Pre-Colombian art you must at least know something about the matter.

The latter thought the idea was bound to be a failure.

He was ready to help me but I needed a financial guarantee. I then went to see my friend David David-Weil, to whom I had been for a certain time the superintendent of his state and collections. How much money do you need? With the promise of a cheque I went back to Metman, who agreed to lend the Pavilion Marsan as a venue for the exhibition. He was an influential teacher, a tireless field researcher, a productive writer, an efficient administrator, and an imaginative planner of social projects.

At UNESCO he was responsible for the participation of anthropologists in many research projects around the world, aiming at translating anthropological theory and knowledge into action. Babelon et al, The exhibition was a tremendous success amongst artists, art lovers, collectors and art dealers.

Where did you do your thesis? I am an Americanist but I have not read your thesis. There is no thesis, sir, I am a simple bachelier. I want a quick answer, I give you 48 hours. He proposed a theory according to which South America was populated by settlers from Australia and Melanesia. A position that traditionally would have been offered to a young, highly qualified specialist and researcher in a relevant academic discipline was given instead to a part-time pianist, part-time antiquarian and mostly unpaid editor, admittedly one with entrepreneurial flair.

Objects brought to light by palaeontology, archaeology and ethnology were to be gradually collected, interpreted and reconstructed as historical documents and intended to act as an 'inspiration for the future instauration of a lost social totality' Tiryakian, I contributed in the conception, organization, implementation and dissemination of the great ethnological missions… responsible for the laboratory associated to the CNRS [the French national council for scientific research].

He used motivational themes such as the promotion of folklore, leisure, tourism, or national interest and pride to recruit new sponsors and supporters. First he was constantly lobbing the various political groups and the different levels of public administration that might have had any influence on the approval or funding of the various phases of his projects. He also used liberally a network of friends and acquaintances to find and reinforce support in high places.

They were all intended to be an extensive research, aiming at collecting objects of interest destined to the MET.

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On the night of the fight Marcel Griaule introduced world bantamweight champion and civil activist against racial discrimination Al Brown, flanked by four museum guards in uniform. If Josephine Baker had been fully black she would have never being accepted. She was just black enough' Haggerty, , p. The process of the discovery of the other was thus perceived as a gnoseological process that fills the gap existing between the unknown and the inhospitable. The first expression of this was the awakening of interest for exotic arts, first African arts, then of pre-Colombian America.

I must say that this attitude was due to both naivety and prejudice. Thus a diversity of groups with similar concerns appeared. Richman, The state-sponsored traditional salon and its early 20th century 'progressive' rival salons gave way to the dealers exhibiting and promoting their own newly discovered artists on their own premises — the galerie. They all shared the taste for discovery and innovation, and for direct patronage. The salon of the extravagant Marie Laure, described by her biographer as the result of cross-breeding a dynasty of German bankers and French aristocracy, was to become, between and , the centre of the Parisian artistic community, especially Surrealist.

In his study of the art market in the s, Paris Gee explores the possible reasons why these turned towards the avant-garde, in contrast with most other members of their social group who, despite their considerable fortunes, were not known for innovation, artistic or otherwise. With some exceptions the majority of these patrons of the avant-garde were all rebelling against their family background. In the case of Beaumont and the Noailles, their homosexuality was also an important link to others within the avant-garde artistic world of the day.

On the other hand, their attitude towards painting derived from their aristocratic outlook. Nina Gorgous talks of his intellectual confusion salade intellectuelle in assessing the differences between National-Socialism and Communist Parties. In his first visit to Berlin he was invited equally to communist meetings and to Nazi rallies and celebrations, and both were apparently praised by him with equal enthusiasm. In this sense and with hindsight there is no wonder he provoked very contradictory impressions on people with committed political party affiliations.

From his position of director of the Directorate of Arts et Traditions Populaires, he managed to maintain the so-called chantier intellectuel intellectual work based at the Museum by implementing during the war ethnographical missions on rural architecture and material culture. In practice, the chantiers also became a cover for intellectuals, young graduates and members of the Resistance, and as a means to prevent them from being arrested or sent to Germany to contribute to the war effort.

After the war in these and all the other heroes of the Resistance were honoured and remembered at the Palais Chaillot itself, where the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man. It is recorded that it was she who first introduced the typewriter to the Museum, put in place the accession and registration forms and procedures for new collections and photographic material, diligently cleaned and restored every object in the museum and assisted her brother in the organization of temporary exbibitions.

Though the mission aimed at a better knowledge of local popular beliefs and technology for the purpose of improving colonial administration, the object-based twist given by Mauss to ethnology meant there was also a focus on the acquisition of objects as well. Varagnac soon left the museum to head an archaeological project of his own.

The inhabitants in the mountains were very loyal to her, and whenever they visited Paris came to see her brother to enquire about her. In the political upheavals of the s she might be seen in the street carrying a gun and a brandishing a sword, and even succeeded to be sent to the Spanish Civil War in After periods of emotional exaltation came moments of depression.

The day her mother died, her behaviour became volatile and she directed her anger at her brother. One day she persecuted him with a pair of scissors. By object-based ethnological research was regarded by Malraux and others as discredited and new approaches to anthropological research had become established as part of university curricula. The approval of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research to build substantial accommodation above the new museum for the ethnological and anthropological research programmes and staff, or move the association of the CNRS National Council of Scientific Research seems to have been viewed by Malraux as an abuse of national resources.

If you want to make a successful museum you must do what you used to do: have all your Duchess friends sweeping your rooms. Sharing the literary ambitions of many members of his generation, Malraux soon joined the Parisian artistic and literary avant-gardes. In he was appointed Minister of Cultural Affairs by General De Gaulle, and he re-launched the idea of Maisons de la culture as part of the policy of cultural decentralization of the Vth Republic.

They would contribute to promoting and implementing a global museum modernization along the lines suggested by Professional Associations of Museums and the guidelines set by the International Museum Office in the revue Mouseion in the years The tasks of inventorying museum objects, the creation of national museums directory, and the encouragement of loans and international exchanges became a priority, as well as issues of conservation and restoration of cultural property ICCROM and its protection in case of armed conflicts. Considerations on the nature of the public and advances in audio-visual technologies transformed the nature and practice of museums.

This Committee soon became an international think tank that, through the years, brought together, in annual meetings, conferences, workshops, exhibitions, publications and resolutions, many of the pro- active actors of the museum world. They attempted to articulate some theoretical bases on the nature, purpose and place in society of the new science of museology, with the further aim of contributing to defining the profile, training and background of museum professionals ICTOP.

As we shall see, in spite of the admiration his displays still produced in professional museum circles, the Art and Popular Traditions of France never totally recovered from its association to the Regime of Vichy. It would be the prestige achieved in his international career that would bring him back to the attention of the French public in the later s. As we shall see, though acclaimed by many, this view was not shared by many of his collaborators, particularly Hugues de Varine. His organizational plans lay down with an almost obsessional precision, revealed an increasingly morbid fixation on details to the point of making any normal functioning impossible.

His personality had a direct incidence on his museology, and is particularly relevant in his conception of popular culture. The following points are explored: Mechanism of formation and transmission of popular culture as elaborated by the artistic avant-garde. Traditional way of life and the nature of folklore as perceived in conservative literature. Folkore as promotion of commercial tourism: two confronted perceptions of National Identity. Traditionally, folklore was understood as the compound of popular beliefs and practices belonging to a pre-Enlightenment ordering of the world, and dismissed as part of the 'errors and confusions' that characterized the superstitious understanding of reality.

Despite this widely held view, each nation in Europe tended to adopt radically different attitudes towards the importance and function of folklore within culture and the wider society. The Romantic tradition of Germanic and Scandinavian countries placed folklore at the centre of national identity, whereas the French Jacobin tradition saw old popular wisdom and local languages as a serious threat to national unity and its ideals of an enlightened national citizenship Deloche and Leniaud, There was folklore in Europe, in China and India, where advanced knowledge and popular belief coexisted.

Authors such as Paul Saintyves , Paul Sebillot , Arnold van Gennep and Paul Delarue had all made their life mission to record different aspects of the old folklore of France. This old wisdom, according to Varagnac, was inevitably bound to disappear with the appearance of industrialization and the expansion of scientific knowledge. According to this view, folklore was not the cultural life of pre-industrial and pre-enlightened rural population, but the human way of apprehending the world, a culture shaped by the merging of the rational and irrational beliefs, and the conscious and unconscious expectation existing in any way of life.

The perception of the world of the rural peasant, the factory worker, or the most educated sectors of the population is, he argued, always shaped to different degrees by rational activities, unproven belief, and not yet realized expectations. Every world view and practice, whether held by individuals, communities or institutions, is but a blend of old and new, outdated and innovative elements. It was time, according to Bataille, to substitute the game of transposition and metaphor into an epistemology of the formless.

Against the Socratic tradition, Bataille vindicated the Presocratic tradition of Heraclitus, which saw the relations with the world in terms of a contextual perception and understanding. Elaborating on this distinction between a symbolic world created by reference to a constructed theoretical thinking and a world managed according to contextual thinking, Foucault talked of the space of utopias and the space of heterotopias Foucault, These spaces tend to have simplified modes of management and a reductive and homogeneous vision of society. This new science would produce modes of management that would take into account the real concerns and realities existing in a heterogeneous society.

The logic works like a kaleidoscope, an instrument that also contains bits and pieces by means of which structural patterns are realized. Dance, music and improvisation became a true expression of primordial activity and a framework to interpret artefacts devoid of their former function. Any musical expression has in its very nature the ability to free itself from its original meaning… what touches us from the music of composers such as Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Poulenc, Auric or Mozart is that they recycle by emptying of their original significance the tunes that had their suggestive power in another context….

Like the Cubists, he borrowed and inserted pieces of ready-made reality in his plastic imagination, or took that reality as a starting point for something different. The overall discourse of texts and images was intended to be a destructive experience that would tear the individual out of himself and induce a creative process of reconstruction. It was not like that in former times It uses and revolutionizes instruments as varied as the archaic maraca, the classical trumpet and violin, and as recent as the piano and the saxophone. It recruits its best composer among white composers, often Jews from central Europe such as Gershwin, and its best performers amongst blacks.

An outcome both of the most evolved capitalism and of primitivism, it is promoted by the former through publications, theatre, sound recording, radio and the cinema and it feeds on the latter by using the forces of the unconscions.

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Jazz is both loyal to tradition and subject to fashion. It is the same with music. Jazz is a movement that stems at the same time from traditional Europe, archaic Africa and Indian- American. The whites contributed with their melodic system, their harmony and rhythm, from their side the blacks and Indians brought the extraordinary vitality of their percussion and their superior sense of rhythm.

It is likewise that in New Orleans in the heart of Louisiana, this music was introduced in the night clubs. Commercialization, development of the disc, the radio and television has given to the phenomenon giant dimensions. What is important is that this art survives, that it is associated to dance, that it induces anyone who hear it to move and sing. This music has conquered the youth of the world.

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It was this fascination for and preoccupation with objects that characterized the early years of the French school of anthropology. In them he comes in close contact with objects: a spirit of humility is inculcated in him by all the small tasks unpacking, cleaning, maintenance etc he has to perform. He develops a keen sense of the concrete through the classification, identification and analysis of the objects in the various collections. Through objects he establishes indirect contact with the native environment: texture, form and, in many cases, smells contribute to make him familiar with distant forms of life and activities.

Under the direction of Christian Zervos and E. Teriades, Hans Muhlestein was asked to contribute with a series of articles that gave cosmogonical dimension to the creative impulse. Where were its sources to be found beyond its historical manifestations? See Cahiers d'Arts, , nos 2,3,5,6. Man does not descend from monkey, it is the monkeys that are a degenerated descent of the form of man! However there are as many birth places of jazz as existing countries; it appears whenever a minority group becomes creative under an hegemonic culture. These cultures are evolutive in time and variable in space.

They are the defensive and offensive weapons of social identity. They are the eternal survivors, the product of untraceable and uncountable love encounters, the Darwinist of the musical world, cruel devourers of close cousins and distant relatives. Everywhere, jazz is the outcome of the mixing of the genes of the traveller with the genes of the resident. These casual marriages, made of love, leave behind beautiful and strong children that will, in their turn, mix and multiply and create new species.

Jazz is a music asking for participation of action and thinking, springing from the deepest layer of our being, they are the artery and the blood of the physical and cultural body…the music of life. If freely performed it offers anyone who understands it a taste of creativity. In spite of being continuously broadcasted by a increasingly sophisticated media it never loses its soul.

Either as syncope, rag, new Orleans, bebop, cool, free jazz or anything past or yet to come The ideology of primitivism as interpreted by the artistic avant-gardes believed that this so-called cultural atavism was still active today, not as a dark force but as a refreshing primordial activity in the achievements of contemporary artist and scientist.

The most solid elements are at the base, the less significant and most transitory appear in the surface. At the top is the day-to-day historical life, history subjected to contingency of events. Under that surface, according to Roupnell, evolves quieter forces, forces that unite men, forces that shape the framework of societies, shape their structures and regulate their functions. It is however at a deeper level, based on the oldest human remembrances and memories, that the deep currents by which the past has unfolded are to be found and that might help to realize the present and the future Roupnell, They awake a crowd of desires, new ambitions, inspire regrets in some and unachievable dreams in others.

But that confusion must not make us forget the essence of things. Rural work was implemented according to the cycle of the days and the seasons. The calendar of the year went from seasons of intense activities May to Saint-John to the winter quieter season. Evenings either in the stable, the kitchen or the communal room became the elementary place of rural sociability. It was the time to listen to the memories of war by old soldiers, stories of ghosts and fiction stories intended for the education of children. Exceptionally there were the communal reading of a newspaper, games, songs, dances and the tasting of chestnuts.

Farcy, While memory in animals is based in instinct, with the appearance of language and graphism new patterns of behaviour are inserted in human memory. Leroi- Gourhan, With this assumption in mind, Leroi Gourhan constructed a history of collective memory from traditional societies to modern societies as a process of liberation from oral memory into writing memory. In traditional or ethnic societies, knowledge is inherited and is part and parcel of the community way of life. In these communities, memories are still formed within the narrow channels pre-specialized by genes, natural environment and transmitted body of knowledge.

Knowhow, practices and memories are orally shared or celebrated in the calendar year and in moral episodes of daily life. Leroi Gourhan described the development of writing as a process by which more and more human activities were recorded. First they were only accounts: records of debts, series of dynasties, oracles.

As the systems of notation became more efficient, the keeping of records spread to deeper strata of knowledge. Agriculture cropped up in poems whose main subjects were the seasons, and cosmic space was identified with palaces and temples. Mathematics and music, emerging at the same time as medicine, were the first scientific subjects to be recorded.

Gourhan, His concept of externalization and liberation of memory have had a guiding influence on the desconstructivist analysis of French philosopher Jacques Derrida and a supportive theory that justifies the biological foundations of post-modernist analysis The growing interest in the work of George Bataille has brought about a new perspective on the importance of the revue Documents: Doctrines, Archeologie, Beaux-Arts, Ethnographie The originality of Documents was first pointed out by James Clifford in his groundbreaking On Ethnological Surrealism , published for the French public as Ethnologie, Polyphonie, Collage Clifford, In it, Clifford explored the relation between ethnography, literature and art in 20th century France and put Documents at the centre of post-modern anthropological analysis.

Both views were given a theoretical framework by Leroi-Gourhan. His theory of culture has had a significant influence on the subsequent generation of post-structuralist philosophers. The traditional life he depicted in his museum displays reflected, by and large, a traditional conception of folkore and an essentialist understanding of culture.

Analysis of the Scandinavian tradition of Open-Air Museums. Analysis of the Museum and heritage German federal tradition. Analysis of the museological changes in the Soviet Union. These visits were strongly recommended by national and international museum organizations as a mean of sharing and disseminating ongoing museological experiences. His correspondence and later comments are evidence of his concerns for what was lacking in the museum culture in France, including the absence of modern art collections in French museums, the exemplary museography of the growing number of open-air museums in Scandinavian countries, the experience of local social history museums in Germany, the popularization of culture for the masses in the Soviet Union, and the heritage preservation and interpretation of the natural environment in the National Parks in the United States.

According to this latter view, America i. This literature was part of the ongoing international debate amongst professionals on the function of modern museums in the 20th century, and on the nature of its modernization. The American experience underlined a number of concerns which were totally alien to European tradition. These museums epitomized the work and the spirit of the pioneers of the 19th century museum movement in America. While in France the initial cultural initiative approved by the Constitutive Assembly in the Revolutionary years of the end of the 18th century gradually succumbed into long periods of lethargy, the American museum movement after the Civil War — had already developed the two contradictory approaches still important today in museum criticism: the priority of the collection versus the priority of the public Orosz, The first-hand acquaintance with the work and spirit of the pioneers of the museum movement in America, with its many years of museum criticism, must have given him an enriching perspective on the practice of his newly-acquired profession.

The trip to the States must have also have made him aware of the growing importance that cultural heritage and tourism was going to have in the 20th century. Increasingly, American museums were not limited to masterpieces and objects of art, but extended their collections to all areas of human activity. The typological tradition started to be displaced by its contextualization in the natural and social environment. Though these practices were far from being universally applied, they represented a welcome innovative approach in a growing number of these institutions.

At the time of their marriage in , Nina Spalding Stevens was the widow of George Stevens, who had recently died in The Museum of Art of Toledo was founded in by a group of artists including George Stevens, and quickly became a centre of life and activity under the leadership of the Stevenses. The museum started without a permanent collection as a venue for temporary exhibitions and daily talks and hands-on sessions on drawing and photography. The biography written by Nina of her husband George Stevens is the best introduction to their understanding of the social mission of art museums, a vision that was only to become a reality in the rest of the Western world in the late s.

The Stevenses were also keen on the wonders of nature in the spectacularity of the American National Parks, as revealed by Nina Spalding in her story of a journey to the Grand Canyon of Arizona Spalding Stevens, In America the system of patrons and trustees is the basis of museum management, though powerful museum associations control their influence. In his courses of museology he liked to highlight the founding dates of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art and the American Museum of Natural History , which he considered two major events in the history of the institution of museums.

Coleman highlighted the importance of the complex system of motivations and the multiplicity of actors converging in American museums. At the top is the Board of Trustees, responsible for drawing up and enforcing the museum mission statement, and made up of volunteers chosen by their peers, for their knowledge, expertise and social standing. The Board delegates to paid professional staff the daily matters and the implementation of the mission statement. In Arnos 1, Collection Loeb. Londres, Heinemann, ; xxxvi pp.

Or voici une Sentence de Publilius : iacet omnis uirtus, fama nisi late pat et I On peut trouver aussi que S. Cependant je la citerai pour un passage, que voici : neque enim ideo non peccat homo, quia Deus ilium peccaturum esse praesciuit; immo ideo non dubitatur ipsum peccare cum peccat eqs. For man does not in fact fail to sin because God foresaw that he would sin. Nay, it is precisely because of foreknowledge that there is no doubt that man himself sins when he sins V 10, p. Or ceci est absurde. Or elle la contredit. Il est curieux de rapprocher de ceci un vers d'Ovide : expedit esse deos, et, ut expedit, esse putemus A.

Publilius, F 24 : fortuna uitrea est : turn cum splendet frangitur. VI, 1, p. VII, 12, p. Citons pour terminer une erreur d'impression, VII, 7, p. Halporn, M. Ostwald et Th. Cupaiolo vient de nous donner Un capitolo sull' esa- metro latino Collana di studi latini, V.

Que conclure de la concordance ou de la discordance des typologies? Cupaiolo: sa contribution est excellente. Lg, ; un vol. Ainsi on pourra tirer tout le parti possible de ces extraits. Huvelle, p. Puisque ceci est un recueil de textes, on me permettra une petite note de lecture. Renard, et, pour les disques, M. Lg, ; pp. Le catalogue des films fixes et diapositives est un simple travail de compilation. Delatte, permet de retrouver des vues sur n'importe quel sujet. Un compte rendu critique accompagne la mention des disques que M.

En conclusion P. C'est l'attitude que P. La Lex Villia Annalis de av. Tite-Live, VII, Van 't Dack. Stuttgart, K. Hoffmann, ; un vol. Que sais- je? L'ouvrage de M. Kakridis cite en note p. Paris, P. Sur le plan moral, sur. Michel ; p. Bengtson ; p. Et il est bien dommage que l'auteur n'ait pas eu l'occasion de consulter H. Au cours du me s.

Taurus, ; un vol. Tovar La decadencia de la polis griega, pp. Marias Aristoteles en el mundo helenistico, pp. Fernandez-Galiano La Atenas de Menandro, pp. Salmon, The Coloniae maritimae Athenaeum, 41, , fase. Non possono essere adeguatamente riassunte le poche pagine, ricchissime di pensiero, nelle quali Ta. Ed il valore del potere, precisato.

Si conclude, con l'accenno al problema del diritto naturale, questo saggio di filosofia politica, ehe nelle sue linee fondamental! Nocera, Un' esperienza storicistica sul fondamento del potere, Riv. A biography Oxford, Clarendon Press, , xvm pp. L'ouvrage se termine par un important excursus contenant les Tabulae Laudatoriae. Institutes is insufficient. De voornaamste bedoeling van dit werk, dat de neerslag is van de colleges die F. Hoe boeiend de colleges van F. Zoals elke historicus van de wijsbegeerte historisch gebonden is, zo was ook F. Dit merkt men reeds in de indeling van onderhavig werk ; de Ionische natuurfilosofen en.

Aristoteles bezetten meer dan de helft van het aantal bladzijden die gewijd zijn aan de eigenlijke geschiedenis, terwijl Sokrates, Plato en de hele na-Aristotelische wijsbegeerte samen, minder uitvoerig behandeld worden dan Aristoteles alleen. Dat sehr, aan de post-Aristotelische periode te weinig aandacht besteedt, vindt zijn verklaring in het feit dat hij deze periode te negatief en als louter decadent beschouwt, wat overeenstemt met zijn indeling van de geschiedenis volgens de '4-Fasen-Gesetz'.

De visie op het verleden van het Griekse denken is sinds F. Zijn werk is voorbijgestreefd, dank zij de eminente studies van de laatste halve eeuw, die F. Niettemin behoudt dit werk zijn historische waarde : met de andere uitgegeven werken van de sehr, helpt het ons een synthese te vormen van zijn filosofisch denken. Zowel Franziska Mayer-Hillebrand als A. Francke verdienen bijzondere vermelding voor de keurige zorg waarmee dit posthuum werk werd uitgegeven : de typografie en de bladspiegel, de aanmerkingen, maar vooral het uitgebreide en gedetailleerde inhoudsoverzicht blz.

Prix : Lire , nous dit p. Ainsi les Indirizzi e metodi de M. Cependant, on ne nous apprend rien de nouveau sur ce point. Quacquarelli, M. Augustin cf. Marrou, St. Marrou, op. Marrou cf. Un chapitre V sur la gymnastique pp. Grimm, ; un vol. Il suppose deux groupes successifs. Lors de la restauration du temple par C. Sosius en 34 a. RBPH, 39, , p. Bellinger et M. Devant y insister dans un ouvrage depuis paru, A.

Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir. Edited by Leslie Spier, A. Irving Hallowell, Stanley S. C'est dire combien les remarquables contributions qu'il contient furent accueillies avec faveur. Normes culturelles et individu. Powell en Elle se fondait exclusivement sur des comparaisons de vocabulaire. Voegelin, North American Indian languages still spoken and their genetic relationships. Mary R.

Haas, The classification of the Muskogean languages, M. Morris Swadesh, Observations of pattern impact on the phonetics of bilinguals. George Herzog, Culture change and language : shifts in the Pima vocabulary. Quant l'influence. Whorf, The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language. Stanley S. Newman, Behavior patterns in linguistic structure : a case study. George L. Trager, The theory of accentual systems.

Emeneau, Language and social forms : a study of Toda kinship terms and dual descent. L'article de M. Nijhoff, ; un vol. Leidse Romanistische Reeks, t. Les essais Das Fenster et Die Muschel pp. La critique contemporaine devant le pouvoir suggestif des sons Paris, Soc. Prix : 17,50 NF. Est-il certain que la musique ne puisse exprimer un sentiment? Erster Band, herausgegeben von Wolfgang Kayser. Sammlung Dalp,. Deux innovations en font un instrument de travail remarquable. Bergson en tous cas. Le choix fait par M. Le gros livre de M. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

Studia Graeca Upsaliensia 1. L'effort que M. Lavagnini publie dans les Quaderni dell' istituto di filologia greca della Universita di Palermo 2, Palerme, , 1 vol. Aldo S. En effet, en. Le livre de M. S'il existe des philosophes renaissants, il n'y a pas de philosophie de la Renaissance. Leur esprit plus traditionnaliste fit progresser la philosophie sic. N'y a-t-il pas contradiction in-terminis dans les lignes suivantes? C'est justement ce qu'il faut souligner.

I, A-C, , Lxvni pp. II, Ch-K, , pp. IV, Ri-Z, additions, rectifications, index, errata, , pp. Comme J. Faut-il en accabler l'auteur? A cette nouvelle moisson nous n'ajouterons pas ici notre modeste gerbe. Si l'article est court, la consultation est rapide. Celui-ci doit manier l'ouvrage avec une sage patience et une attention soutenue. C'est malheureusement insuffisant. Garcia de Diego, son contemporain Madrid, Tome VIII Il convient de signaler le travail de Vincenzo Cocco, Flumen Bandage pp. Cunha Serra, Da hagionlmia e da hagiotoponlmia portuguesa pp. Torcade ou Trocade. Tome IX Nogueira Batalha pp.

Buescu, le num. Piel et J. XI Ses conclusions s'efforcent d'en tenir compte. Wagner pp. I-j-6 du milieu du xme s. Ainsi la recension de l'ouvrage de J. XI, pp. X, pp. Herculano de Carvalho t. VIII, pp. IX, pp. Cocco sur l'esp. Corominas t. Collection Les grandes biographies. Preis : 8,50 NF. Mit Freude am Anekdotischen und mit epischem Behagen diskutiert er die Legende vom danubisch-balkanischen Ursprung der Familie Ronsard. Berry legt Wert auf Zeitkolorit. Ob aber selbst so geschlossene Gedichte wie die Sonette auseinandergerissen, dem Leser einzelne Quartette oder Terzette vorgesetzt werden mussten, erscheint uns fraglich.

Bezeichnend ist etwa, wie Berry S. Dass Cassandre bald blond, bald dunkler erscheint, ist Berry keineswegs entgangen. Der Friseur ist an allem schuld, Phantasie und Stilisierung kommen offenbar nicht in Betracht. Man braucht aber nur einen Blick auf die beiden Gedichte Mignonne, allons voir und Quand vous serez bien vieille zu werfen S.

Vom Moment der Stilisierung, das auch in derartigen Selbstdarstellungen zu vermuten ist, wird nicht gesprochen. Man schliesst dieses Buch eines Ronsard-Enthusiasten — vgl. Y a-t-il lieu de revoir ce jugement? Russeo utrum Misopolis an Philopolis, parue en Admettons que M. Brumfitt et le Voltaire storico de Furio Diaz. En gros, M. Rihs parle fort bien p. L'admiration de Voltaire n'a rien d'une boutade p. Giarrizzo dans son ouvrage magistral sur Gibbon e la cultura europea Naples, Marsak sur Fontenelle et celui de M. Parfois, ce sont des formules contestables qui frappent le lecteur.

Rihs aurait pu renvoyer aux travaux de Lichtenberger et de Gonnard. On notera que M. Montesquieu n'a pas eu tort, quoi qu'en pense M. Rihs p. Ailleurs encore, M. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, , cxxxvi et p. Elles correspondent page par page, sauf un addendum pp. Bref, l'appendice final nous laisse entrevoir ce qu'il faudrait faire Elle rendrait des services. Ce n'est pas la faute de Mme E. Le livre de Mme E. Thomas est de et je m'excuse d'en rendre compte si tardivement. Sand et riches en documents originaux. La nature de G. Pour ces fameuses liaisons, Sandeau, Musset, Chopin etc..

Romans en grande partie autobiographiques, mais c'est dans l'autobiographie, et Mme E. Thomas y insiste justement, que G. Thomas, il n'y a que trouvailles dans les subtiles analyses de M. Jean Pommier : Autour du drame de Venise, G. Sand et Alfred de Musset. Paris, Nizet, ; un vol. Sand et de Musset. Pommier que pour M. Mais M.

Donc, concluait M. Restait cette date irritante du 2 qui me faisait pencher pour la solution Lubin quand M. Et ces vers ont leur date. C'est M. Pommier qui souligne. N'en doutons pas. Et d'ailleurs G. Deux jours, ni plus ni moins. Nous voici donc au 30 juillet au matin cf. Pommier, p. En Italie disait la critique. Aussi j'imagine la jubilation de M. Du Buvard de G. Sait-on assez l'importance qu'y ajoutait G. Pommier n'aime pas beaucoup G.

Voulez-vous savoir comment il se venge? Une suite d'astucieux raisonnements met dans les mains de M. La recherche de l'absolu. Prix : 6. Ce me semble le signe d'un commentaire conduit avec intelligence et connaissance. On sait que le P. Prix : 24 N. Roos est doublement instructive, en ce qu'elle marque aussi les points de divergence : en tant que rationaliste, Rolland ne peut suivre l'auteur de Que devons-nous faire? Prix : 13 NF. Car H. Breunig, S. Bates et J. Pour S. Prix: 9 NF. Barrier se propose comme M. Nizet, ; un vol. Les trois parties du livre de M. Mais, signale M.

Par voie d'analogie, M. Je suis mal M. Il semble ici que M. La consistence du personnage de Meursault, M. Quel est le message moral que M. Quoi que M. Prix: DM Exemples :. Jeb : You know, some folks like sunup, but me, I like my sundown best. Sheriff : Never could figure out why some folks like one better'n t'other. Joe : I can't figure you out. I really can't. Petey : What do you mean? Joe : I don't understand you. Snyder, The Departing.

Robins, Lady Chatterley's Daughter. Exemple : It was their method to stand each man down after a few months' service so that he could return to support his family. Benenson, Persecution En outre, il conviendrait d'ajouter les locutions et termes suivants, qui sont d'usage courant :. Exemple : Josie complained she wasn't too great this morning at breakfast time, so I made her stay at home. Osborne et A. Creighton, Epitaph for George Dillon. Exemple : Kelly got nasty and begun sic to pan me for quitting and for the way I played.

Lardner, You Know Me Al. Exemple :. Elliot : He's very cultured. Elliot : He's not a clerk any longer. There was a little upset at his office. Creighton, op. He never answered any of my letters. He'd just walked out on me and the kid. Prix : 30 shillings net. Bien que M. Gad, ; one vol. Price: 20 danish crowns , is a sequel to Dr. Sarensen's Word-Classes in Modern English, published in , and indexed here pp.

The author is on this occasion chiefly concerned to criticize various theories or statements about the nature of proper names in contrast to common nouns or appellative terms, and to offer a formula for the definition of proper names, but he touches in passing on a number of other interesting and important linguistic topics. He adopts a strictly synchronie view of his material, and on the critical side endeavours to apply what he aptly terms 'the Principle of Intellectual Hygiene', that is, that in attempting to answer philosophical questions we should begin by trying to discover what the question means, and whether it expresses a genuine problem, or is only an apparent difficulty arising from verbal confusion or mental muddle.

In his first chapter Sarensen introduces the reader to some of his terms, defending his adoption of the Saussurean biplane conception of the linguistic sign as consisting of designator and designatum, distinguishing between designata i. Since meanings are to be distinguished from denotata, definition cannot proceed by pointing out the referent, but must be in the form of a synonymous sign the definiens of greater complexity than the definiendum, and so proceed by definitions of definitions until we reach the semantic primitives of the language.

The author then discusses a number of views of the status of proper names ch. Sorensen challenges the attribution of this view to J. Mill, and argues that it is both mistaken, and that even if it were true it would also be true of appellatives and all other signs, and so not a distinguishing quality of proper names.

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It examines how women successfully worked with the grain of change in the political system; but it also considers the nature of the long-term decline of the organised movement. Frontiers in Marine Science , , 4, art. Dwelshauvers, Georges. Foucault, Michel. Cunha Serra, Da hagionlmia e da hagiotoponlmia portuguesa pp.

Similarly with the label theory : a proper name cannot function as a label without first being a meaningful sign and this is also true of appellatives. If it is not a sign it merely introduces a new designator to the hearer. To the argument that proper names are arbitrary in contrast to other linguistic signs, Sorensen responds ch. There is no sense of ' arbitrary' which enables us to distinguish proper names as a class. In ch. If, however, we agree with Serensen that ' the meaning of a sign S is the necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by an extra-linguistic entity A in order that A may correctly be said to be denoted by S', then we shall see that this is true both of common and proper names.

The opposite view, that proper names have more meaning than other signs, is dealt with in ch. This notion of the individual name is accepted with reservations by Sorensen in ch. Here a definiens formula for proper names is proposed, consisting of a definite appellative stem with, in a relative clause or prepositional phrase, absolute expressions of time and place. A contrast may then be drawn between proper names and personal pronouns of third person in that the latter can be defined only by relative expressions of time and place, such as 'here' or 'yesterday'.

Proper names are individual names in Speech and in Language because of the fixed terms in their definiens formula, whereas definite appellatives and personal pronouns, though individual names in any given act of Speech, are not individual names in Language, but may have different referents on each occasion they are used.

The book concludes with a list of works referred to and an index. Sorensen has perhaps been unfortunate in his choice of a short title for this study, for the one he has selected most readily suggests a treatment of etymological meaning ; the supplementary formula 'with a definiens formula for proper names in Modern English', at present essential to give any idea of the scope of the book, could have been dispensed with, had he preferred to call it by some such name as ' The Linguistic Status of Proper Names in English. Er bestond tot nog toe over deze merkwaardige schrijfster geen overzichtelijke studie, alhoewel ze reeds sedert overleden is.

Jacobs heeft een zware opdracht op zich genomen om het leven en het literair werk van Carry van Bruggen tot onderwerp van haar studie te kiezen. Immers, documenten, waaruit men gegevens zou kunnen. Pit nog bezitten kon is tijdens de bombardementen van Nijmegen in hopeloos verloren gegaan.

Jacobs moet zich heel wat moeite getroost hebben om familieleden, vrienden en bekenden van de auteur op te sporen en zich aldus een zo volledig beeld te kunnen samenstellen van haar zeer bewogen leven, dat dan ook tragisch eindigde. In het tweede deel van deze studie over het leven en het werk van Carry van Bruggen behandelt Dr. Dit deel vormt een sterk verantwoorde ontleding en een grondige bespreking van de volledige literaire arbeid van Carry van Bruggen. Dit boek over deze Noordnederlandse auteur is met een grote liefde geschreven, maar toch een liefde, die niet blind wilde zijn voor tekortkomingen bij de vrouw, zowel als bij de kunstenares.

De warmte van die liefde straalt op uit elke bladzijde en maakt de lektuur van deze studie boeiend en aangenaam tevens. So far only the first part of her enterprise has been completed and she has published this as Part One : The Verb. In this preliminary volume the writer has certainly carried out her intentions as stated in the Preface : to present ' forms and meanings in a clear way revealing at first glance any detail deserving a closer examination.