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Although the funds annual return dropped from a peak of near 7 percent, when a severe liquidity crunch hit the money markets, to about 5. The amounts executives are ultimately paid will depend on the stock price when they sell batches of restricted shares, which vest this year and in In the introductory material that accompanied the publication of her book, Fonte's uncle, Giovanni Doglioni, claimed that his niece was busy finishing her manuscript the night before her death in childbirth, as if a premonition of sorry events to come was spurring her on.
To argue, as Cox does, that the Worth was only a first draft cut abruptly by the author's death is certainly in the realm of possibilities. In the same vein, one could reason that in revisiting the text a few years later, her children and uncle corrected it. Today we do not have a manuscript copy to which to refer in studying erasures and additions imported by different handwritings, since master texts were routinely discarded after publication.
But we know from Doglioni, himself a writer, that the lengthy poem in ottava rima that concludes the treatise was not meant by Fonte to be put in this work. We can only surmise what other changes have been effected and what other arguments have been adapted and discarded during the process of preparing the manuscript for printing.
Be that as it may, the Merit's conservative ending does not detract from the import of what Fonte forcefully argues throughout. In her biographical sketch of Fonte, Cox argues that there must have been an enmity between the writer and her only brother because he was not mentioned in her first will. This siblings' rivalry, she adds, may have stemmed from money matters preceding Fonte's own marriage.
Cox's hypothesis may very well be grounded in reality - and in the Worth Fonte strongly chastises inept brothers - but in general the omission of a brother's name from the will of a married woman with children in the early modern period was the norm in Venetian society rather than the exception. But such an instance of perhaps over-reading is just a quibble in an otherwise intelligent, well organized, and superbly argued introduction.
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III della prima parte: "La stilistica della via breve: semitae della letteratura spirituale", Quest'ultimo prova avversione verso uno stile "lambiccato a goccia a goccia, allo stentatissimo lume d'una lucerna" 80 e considera il concettismo e il laconismo sostanzialmente non diversi. Il dibattito cfr.
I, "La controversia secentesca sul 'parlare a riciso'", sorto in Italia, dove lo stile neolaconico ha un rappresentante conosciuto e tradotto in tutta Europa, Virgilio Malvezzi, trova risonanze e riprese in tutte le principali letterature europee. Nel tardo Cinquecento l'innalzamento del modello senecano e tacitista fa seguito al declino del modello ciceroniano.
Gianbattista Manzini, tra i maggiori sostenitori del senechismo e del laconismo che nelle sue scritture si offrono come due suggestioni parallele , teorizza "una prosa dell'ingegno come sostituto della vacua efflorescenza decorativa che produce 'libracci migliaiosi' " Anche gli scritti di Tesauro, che adduce esempi normativi prelevandoli da scrittori fino a qualche tempo prima ritenuti irregolari, testimoniano una variazione del gusto stilistico. Sforza Pallavicino, , la maniera di Tacito deve essere assunta come modello e simbolo ideale dello stile laconico.
La compiuta codificazione dello stile laconico avviene, al principio del Seicento, con l'opera di Ericio Puteano cfr. II, "'Laconismi patrocinium': i fondamenti del fiammingo Ericio Puteano", , che soggiorna lungamente a Milano, stringendo rapporti con l'erudito Giovanni Ambrogio Biffi, traduttore di alcuni suoi scritti, e intrattiene rapporti epistolari con il Malvezzi. Il Puteano sostiene una corrente brachilogica che trova riscontro anche nello stile epistolare di quegli anni, teorizzato, tra gli altri, da Bernardino Pino da Cagli, segretario del cardinale Giulio della Rovere.
Tacito e Malvezzi sono i capisaldi dell'indagine del capitolo terzo "Tra 'veloci tragitti' e 'batter di palpebra': il processo mentale associativo nello stile acuto", Malvezzi tiene a modello la prosa di Tacito e la questione stilistica diviene per lui, come fa notare la Bisello, occasione di una disputa che vede scendere in campo lo Sforza Pallavicino, coerente con il Tesauro e ostile all'ornamento quando sia "uno straniero accidente, il quale o corregga o celi i difetti della sustanza" da una cit.
Sforza Pallavicino, Circa le argutezze, la Bisello si sofferma a illustrare le posizioni del Tesauro il quale, intendendo la natura come l'enciclopedia delle immagini e delle nozioni, sostiene "l'unica loda delle argutezze consistere nel saper ben mentire", e del Peregrini, nemico di quelle acutezze che si esauriscono nell'esteriore abbellimento del discorso, ma favorevole ad esse quando istituiscano un legame fra le "cose lontane" , in modo tale da generare ammirazione per la mente vivace e accorta che le abbia escogitate.
La storia letteraria dell'aforisma s'intreccia a questo punto con il culto per le sentenze tacitiane, per i massimari enciclopedici desunti da Tacito e per lo stile acuto dello storico imperiale, talvolta applicato come maschera su un latente machiavellismo. Baglioni, Filippo Cavriana, diplomatico e medico di Caterina de' Medici, suggerisce in un proprio commentario "la simmetria tra l'empiria medica e quella politica" , indicando come propri maestri, in originale associazione, Ippocrate e Cornelio Tacito.
La brevitas tacitiana, nel gioro di pochi anni, viene vista con scetticismo, riprovata, quindi lodata e talvolta esaltata. La storia e gli strumenti dell'indagine storica vengono assimilati alla medicina; la diagnosi sullo stato di salute della politica alle prescrizioni mediche rilasciate a un paziente. Botero, Princeton: UP, This volume was hailed as "the best book on Vico. One can understand the reason why Miller, who worked for her DPhil in Modern History under Berlin's supervision, considers the lectures on Vico that he delivered at the Italian Institute of London in as a watershed in the development of Vichian studies.
Obviously, she wants to profess her admiration for her master who was indeed an exceptional man. One can also interpret Miller's attitude as a proof of modesty, since she is the author of a book on Vico which is not without merit G. Costa, New Vico Studies, 13 : But Miller not only proclaims the superiority of Mazzotta's book on Vico over any other work published since , including the one by Leon Pompa, which Berlin regretted not to have been able to exploit since it appeared too late I.
She also assures us that Mazzotta "has a better sense and knowledge of Vico than almost any other writer," that "his work can be associated with that of Michelet on Vico" TLS, 10 Dec. Such wild claims require careful verification. Mazzotta's book is based on a wide and diligent reading of the vast literature dedicated to Vico.
In the preface, Mazzotta credits his predecessors, including this reviewer, for "having succeeded in putting Vico studies on a solid philosophical-historical footing" x. Since he has no original ideas or data to offer, Mazzotta tries to complement the conclusions reached by previous scholars by recasting previous interpretations.
The central idea of the book under review, namely "the unification of the arts and sciences" xi , is taken from Giorgio Tagliacozzo who stressed the importance of Vico's "tree of knowledge," the symbol of his pursuit of a philosophy able to close the gap between humanistic and scientific knowledge. In the introduction, Mazzotta acknowledges that the "question of the 'whole'" and "the encyclopedic genre in the New Science" have "already been pointed out by contemporary scholars" He intends to draft "Vico's periplus around the kingdom of the arts and sciences," and to show "how poetry, as it links them together, modifies the logical coherence of the whole" Mazzotta believes that poetry, the master key of the New Science, "is a unique mode of making and knowing, that the whole must be perceived in the perspective of metaphor's property to join together disparate worlds" Obviously, the poetry and the metaphor mentioned by Mazzotta are deeply rooted in studies on Vico's rhetoric by such scholars as Ernesto Grassi, Andrea Battistini, and Donald Phillip Verene.
That poetry or myth is essential to Vico's project we already knew from Benedetto Croce and his followers. What Croce chose to downplay is that Vico considered poetry exclusively in primitivistic terms, relegating it to the most remote phase of universal history. Unfortunately, the same fallacy is to be found in contemporary inquiries on Vico's rhetoric. Therefore, in Vichian terms, a poetic philosophy is either a weak philosophy or a travesty of something else. Croce identified it with his own, late romantic philosophy, founded on aesthetics. Mazzotta, following in the steps of other scholars Grassi, Battistini, and Verene views Vico's poetic philosophy as a travesty of rhetoric.
But you cannot adopt this view unless you cancel as Croce and Grassi did for different purposes the clear-cut separation between archaic and developed civilizations which Vico carefully draws in his New Science. In other words, you obtain a more coherent Vico only at the cost of ignoring the inner complexity of his thought, which is further complicated by Vico's strategy to elude the censorship always ready to neutralize any attempt to make early eighteenth-century Italian culture an active part of the contemporary European culture. Mazzotta's eclectic attitude is probably responsible for the exasperating fuzziness of his formulations.
He seems to consider the sublime as the basis of his interpretation of Vico's poetry. But Mazzotta, like Battistini and Massimo Lollini, considers sublime poetry as coextensive to human history, while it should be viewed as coextensive only to the early phase of it. Vico offered an original interpretation of the Longinian sublime, which was confined to archaic societies.
These, however, did not exist only in the past. Indeed, he considered contemporary England as a relatively primitive country. The fact that Vico at the same time praised English culture is not at odds with his idea that creativity is the main connotation of primitive civilizations. We should also keep in mind that the continent was under the spell of England, which after the Glorious Revolution was considered a rampart of Protestantism.
In this context, Vico's ideal eternal history, emphasizing the creativity of primitive people, appears to be the embodiment of his dissatisfaction with the Catholic countries of Europe. Mazzotta's reluctance to make use of textual evidence and concrete historical data accounts for his strong inclination for abstract, atemporal "discourse. Anyhow, we can hardly be satisfied with vague statements such as "Vico proposes an ancient and yet new esthetics whereby the imagination and the passions are no longer sundered from reason," or "Neoplatonic ideas of the imagination merge with neo-Aristotelian notions of art" 9.
The ambition to offer, in a normally sized book, a summa of Vichian studies severely mars the validity of the book under review. Mazzotta is obliged to compress in ten chapters the huge amount of published material, from which he freely draws, without taking into account manuscript sources. Here the reader will find many basic facts of Vico's life, but no allusion to his familiarity with Giuseppe Valletta's library which possessed many prohibited books. The author has forgotten to see the page volume of Valletta's philosophical works, edited by Michele Rak, who also made a list of Valletta's library.
Such a gap cannot be filled by Biagio De Giovanni's article on Valletta, which Mazzotta quotes in chapter 8 n. Even Paolo Mattia Doria goes unmentioned. He will appear only in the same chapter 8 as "Vico's own friend and imitator in Naples" , a characterization that is going to raise many eyebrows.
Chapter 2, "The Idea of a University" , deals not only with the University of Naples where Vico taught rhetoric, but also with the Neapolitan learned societies. Here Mazzotta, who closely follows such scholars as De Giovanni, Giuseppe Ricuperati, and Vincenzo Ferrone, offers a good synthesis, but forgets to mention Celestino Galiani, a patron of Vico and a key figure in the Neapolitan intellectual world, which he shielded from the strict requirements of the Holy Office. In Chapter 3, "The Historian of Modernity" , Mazzotta defines both Vico's concept of history and his idea of politics through an analysis of the Neapolitan Conspiracy and The Life of Antonio Carafa, while the rest of the book chapters is dedicated mainly to the New Science.
Ascoli and V. Since Machiavelli's figure looms large in the book under review, one would expect to find at least a passing reference to an astute essay by Enrico De Negri, which was considered important by Pietro Piovani: "Principi e popoli in Machiavelli e Vico" Tra filosofia e letteratura, Naples: Morano, , Chapter 10, "The Bible" , proves that Mazzotta is well informed about the literature concerning the controversies on the Holy Scripture and Vico's attitude toward them.
He quotes many significant scholars, such as Arnaldo Momigliano, Richard H. Popkin, Paolo Rossi, and Massimo Lollini. It is a pity that Mazzotta, who has never been at the forefront of Vichian research, did not suspect that the Holy Office prohibited the publication of the Venetian edition of Vico's masterpiece, because the New Science was deemed to be a dangerous attack against the Catholic interpretation of the Bible.
Hidalgo-Serna, J. Sevilla, J. This aspect of Vico's life radically changes our perception of his religious orientation, and jeopardizes the interpretation of Catholic scholars, including John Milbank whom Mazzotta praises for having placed Vico "within a Catholic theological historical context" n. We doubt that Milbank's Catholic Vico can be reconciled with Machiavelli through the anti-Machiavellian tradition, as suggested by Mazzotta.
Extremely superficial is also the treatment of the crucial problem of the Malebranche-Vico relationship, which can no longer be understood on the basis of Augusto Del Noce's obsolete essay, quoted by Mazzotta n Given these shortcomings, it is hard to understand why such lavish praises were heaped on the book under review.
La vicenda letteraria e politica di Eleonora de Fonseca Pimentel. Just a few years after her birth, the family moved to Naples. It is to the tumultuous history of this city that her own story is indissolubly tied. At the Bourbon court in Naples, De Fonseca Pimentel's prestigious position as the queen's librarian assured her livelihood and granted her access to the world of philosophers and intellectuals. She corresponded with Metastasio and Voltaire, among others, and wrote both official poems for the court which supported her, and poems of personal inspiration.
Most striking, among the latter, are the five, very moving sonnets written after the death of her infant son, as well as the ode on her miscarriage, a thematically unique piece of poetry. During the first half of , de Fonseca Pimentel founded, directed, and edited the first periodical of the Neapolitan Republic, Il Monitore Napoletano.
This is the activity for which she is best known. But on August 20 of that same year, de Fonseca Pimentel was hung for her participation in the revolution of the Neapolitan people against the Bourbons. She was buried in a common grave. After a detailed biography of this fascinating figure, perhaps a bit idealized as a fighter and an intellectual, and as a precursor to women's emancipation, Elena Urgnani's book presents all of de Fonseca Pimentel's known literary texts: sonnets one of which written in Neapolitan dialect , an epithalamic poem, cantatas, an ode, and a religious oratorio, as well as essays, articles from Il Monitore Napoletano, and in a separate chapter, her letters.
As Urgnani mentions more than once, it is probable that some or even many of de Fonseca Pimentel's works have been destroyed or lost for example, none of her letters to Metastasio seems to have survived. Each of the texts included in these two middle chapters is preceded by a useful, highly informative introduction which places the piece in its often complicated historical and stylistic context. The reading of each work is also facilitated by linguistic, historical, and cultural notes. In the following chapter of the book, Urgnani provides a more extended interpretation and discussion of de Fonseca Pimentel's works presented in the preceding chapters.
Urgnani intends to redeem de Fonseca Pimentel as more than a minor poet, comparing her at first with Ugo Foscolo, as well as by noting the ways in which she distinguishes herself from the rest of Arcadia, and underlining the influence of Parini. For Urgnani, de Fonseca Pimentel is representative of the tensions and contradictions of the late Settecento, a period torn between Arcadia and pre-Romanticism.
This is an interesting and well-argued chapter, though I found it repetitive at times because its aims often coincide with those of the single introductions to the works found in the previous two chapters. Still, Urgnani's great admiration for de Fonseca Pimentel, if it could occasionally be seen as obtrusive, usually pleasantly seasons her arguments. I found especially fascinating Urgnani's interpretation of the poet's religious oratorio, La fuga in Egitto, a piece usually dismissed by critics as a step backwards on the part of an Illuminista author, if not as downright hypocritical.
These hopes were in fact squelched by the Bourbons in the same year that the oratorio was written, Urgnani's volume ends with an account of the historical and literary reception of de Fonseca Pimentel's work it is interesting to remember, for instance, that during the Fascist era de Fonseca Pimentel was hailed as a kind of "madre della patria" , and is completed by an extended bibliography of primary and secondary sources. La vicenda letteraria e politica di Eleonora de Fonseca Pimentel is a welcome and indeed an indispensable addition to the field of Italian Women's Studies and to Italian Studies more generally, above all because it provides for the first time all of de Fonseca Pimentel's literary texts within one volume.
Another great merit of this work is its persuasive recovery of de Fonseca Pimentel as an important literary figure, rather than one with an exclusively historical significance. Our literary history is enriched, our canon is fruitfully destabilized, by the addition of a poet like de Fonseca Pimentel who, although she was recognized as such in her own time, has been remembered solely for her political adventures.
This selective oblivion has been in great part due, according to Urgnani, to the harsh judgment of Benedetto Croce, who dismissed de Fonseca Pimentel's work as the minor poetry of a member of Arcadia and of Metastasio's circle, and who mistakenly, in Urgnani's opinion viewed it as possessing historical value alone.
On repeated occasions in this book, Urgnani points out aspects of the poet's work which effectively refute Croce's reductive interpretation, attributed at least in part to Croce's general dislike for Metastasio's period. Among the several happy surprises of Elena Urgnani's book is the brief preface by Luisa Muraro, one of Italy's most original feminist scholars. The enthusiasm of Muraro's preface is tamed by its criticism of Urgnani's occasional critical harshness asprezze , which Muraro hypothetically attributes to Urgnani's American academic experience ouch!
Urgnani, on the other hand, refers to Muraro's work very positively, especially in the remarkable, important last paragraph of her interpretive chapter, where she attributes her own fascination with de Fonseca Pimentel to this writer's status as female authority. Reading de Fonseca Pimentel's work, then, is for Urgnani, and perhaps could be for us as well, a recovery of what Muraro has famously termed "l'ordine simbolico della madre" in her book by the same title.
The literary, linguistic authority of de Fonseca Pimentel, excluded by critics, has been painfully repressed; nevertheless, we need to face her authoritative voice if we too want to speak, have a voice. Urgnani's personal reflection at this point is so well-placed as to seem inevitable, even necessary. Indeed, in this paragraph, Urgnani significantly and uncharacteristically refers to de Fonseca Pimentel as Eleonora.
Because for this critic, Eleonora de Fonseca Pimentel is both sameness she is a woman and otherness she is a southerner , both a real fellow writer and an idealized counterpart, both history and voice. Her loss is thus bound to become that "doloroso lutto culturale" against which this book, by its very existence, struggles. Il viaggo in testi inediti o rari.
Fernanda Roscetti. Roma: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Romani, E proprio i Travels, cui De Caprio ha dedicato una monografia, nel , per i tipi dell'Archivio Guido Izzi che comprende, tra l'altro, in appendice uno dei taccuini di appunti, intitolato Viaggio in Lapponia, da cui doveva prendere quindi forma l'opera definitiva pubblicata a Londra nel rappresentano il termine di confronto esplicito del diario romano, permettendo allo studioso di evidenziare il passaggio dell'Acerbi da una scrittura e da un atteggiamento propri del 'viaggiatore' a quelli tipici del 'turista'.
Pur riconoscendo, infatti, i limiti di tale distinzione "utile come strumento conoscitivo solo a patto che venga considerata come una distinzione non solo empirica ma anche non netta e non rigidamente definibile e a patto che, di conseguenza, non si considerino quella del viaggiatore e quella del turista come due categorie opposte" 28 , De Caprio sottolinea che in questo viaggio romano "come un turista, egli passa frettolosamente nei luoghi senza interagire sostanzialmente con essi [. Il che non possiamo invece dire del secondo saggio, Il viaggio politico.
Un intellettuale tra Impero e Restaurazione. Napoli: Liguori, L'autrice traccia, sulla base di materiale in gran parte inedito e conservato presso la Biblioteca Oliveriana di Pesaro e la Rubiconia Accademia dei Filopatridi di Savignano sul Rubicone, il percorso di formazione di Giulio, dall'infanzia trascorsa sotto l'attento sguardo paterno ai primi studi compiuti con precettori locali e, successivamente, nel collegio di San Carlo a Fano.
E sorprende allora di non trovare tra i nomi di coloro che ebbero contatti con il giovane Perticari quello di Aurelio de Giorgi Bertola, corrispondente e amico dell'Amaduzzi ed estimatore di quel Gessner di cui Perticari volgarizza l' "Idillio della notte" a soli 23 anni, anzi suo estimatore a tal punto da recarsi in Germania appositamente per farne la conoscenza e da scriverne un elogio dopo la morte, nel Dall'esame della ricca corrispondenza del Perticari, emerge quindi la figura di un uomo di lettere vissuto in un'epoca di contraddizioni, di bruschi trapassi di potere che non potevano non riflettersi su coloro i quali di quel potere si facevano spesso compiacenti cantori.
Rimanendo sempre un illustre esempio per Perticari, Monti fu a sua volta sensibilmente influenzato dalle teorie linguistiche del genero, come appare evidente soprattutto nella "Proposta" a cui il Perticari collabora con due scritti che costituiscono la summa dei suoi interessi linguistici e filologici: il primo un trattato sugli scrittori trecenteschi, il secondo un'analisi dell'influenza della poesia del Duecento e del modello dantesco sulla costituzione dell'italiano letterario.
Ricordi Torino, Svizzera, Parigi, Londra. Marco Montersino. Victor Cousin, che lo commemora nella Revue des deux mondes, celebra tanto il significato politico della sua azione quanto la sua ricchezza umana tenerezza e forza, dice, erano intimamente congiunte in lui. Di Santarosa sono rilevanti anche gli interessi culturali. Marco Montersino ha pubblicato questi Ricordi nella collana di letteratura italiana in Piemonte dell'editore Olschki, controllando il testo sui quaderni di Santarosa, correggendo le sviste di una precendente edizione curata da Nicomede Bianchi nel e preparando un apparato di note e di informazioni preliminari, con un'utile storia della fortuna critica di Santarosa.
Nell'introduzione a questo volume Narciso Nada sottolinea il carattere frammentario dei Ricordi, sorta di "contrappunto alle lettere [. Nell'una e nell'altra opera Santarosa si presenta come un gentiluomo colto, attento agli sviluppi della politica e della cultura europea, affezionato alla moglie e ai figli lontani, addolorato dall'esilio ma deciso a mantenersi coerente con i propri ideali, mai malevolo nei confronti dei paesi che lo ospitano.
A differenza di conterranei come Pellico, Santarosa ha un profondo rispetto per le religioni altrui. Poi tutti seduti a una lunga tavola ed un aspetto di letizia e pace dolcissimi" Ricordi E lo amano e riveriscono assai. Le onde dei laghi svizzeri "percuotono il lido, e biancheggiano tra i sassi. Le nuda mura de' templi de' seguaci di Calvino, e le immagini che ingombrano i templi cattolici non parlano al cuore come questo spazioso orizzonte" Ricordi Era difficile conciliare questo sentimento con la tradizione cattolica del primo Ottocento, e non si vede con chiarezza come Santarosa lo abbia fatto: in lui coesistono la contemplazione dell'infinito riflesso nella bellezza maestosa della natura e l'ossequio alla dottrina tradizionale Ricordi 21 , il dialogo diretto con il Dio e l'accettazione della funzione mediatrice della chiesa.
L'ultimo orizzonte. Torino: Trauben Edizioni, I tre saggi sono stati originariamente presentati durante una giornata di studio dedicata a Leopardi nel , nell'ambito del bicentenario della nascita del poeta. Un errore di stampa? Inutile, in ogni modo, parlare di quello che 'sarebbe potuto essere'.
Qui si identifica l'importanza per Leopardi della poesia lirica, del rapporto che implica anche contraddizione fra poesia e pensiero, e, soprattutto, della valenza conoscitiva che la parola poetica ha per il poeta di Recanati e la matrice sensistica della sua filosofia. L'esame delle suggestioni scientifiche e delle influenze filosofiche da cui, attraverso Pascal, Fontenelle, Algarotti e Rousseau, il "neoplatonismo esce disorientato", si accompagna ad una analisi di alcuni testi poetici accurata seppur ovviamente limitata all'essenziale dato che si tratta pur sempre di un saggio.
A questo punto si intrecciano considerazioni morali al pensiero sulla fisica e sull'astronomia, ancora insieme ad una lettura attenta dei testi poetici e di prosa, lettura che segue giustamente un logico sviluppo cronologico all'interno dell'opera dello scrittore del "pathos dell'infinito", fino al "Canto nottuno", definito "pura poesia cosmica" e a "La ginestra".
L'interpretazione della Williams non riconosce la forza e il coraggio della ginestra, ma ne fa invece strumento e simbolo di consolazione. La poesia e il pensiero di Leopardi sono analizzati alla luce di poeti e filosofi di tempi e origini diverse, come Keats, Voltaire, Locke, Bentham, Tommaseo, Epitteto, Hobbes, ed alcune affermazioni sono chiaramente corrette. Il terzo saggio, di Roberto Bertoni, intitolato "Note sul dialogo di Calvino con Leopardi" sembrerebbe meno direttamente connesso con il resto della raccolta, ma, attraverso l'analisi dei rapporti testuali e di pensiero fra i due scrittori, anche questo studio si presenta come un'apertura alla presenza e valenza leopardiana nella letteratura contemporanea.
L'autore spazia con approfondita conoscenza attraverso tutta l'opera di Calvino e di Leopardi. In un involontario movimento circolare, qui la raccolta torna a rifarsi, come nel primo saggio, a Newton e Galileo , pur ovviamente in un contesto diverso. Calvino si confronta in maniera dinamica e articolata con la questione leopardiana del rapporto fra individuo e natura, rifuggendo sempre dall'idillio come "commozione e nostalgia" e alludendo "al contrasto leopardiano tra coscienza del presente e memoria del passato".
In particolare in Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore si scorge un Calvino vicino a Leopardi nella concezione della vita come 'deserto'. Nell'insieme, i tre saggi qui riportati si inseriscono in maniera stimolante nel discorso aperto dai numerosi studi e convegni del , che ci si augura non restino circoscritti a quel particolare anno, ma siano un invito a continuare e approfondire la ricerca leopardiana. La giovine del miracolo. Torino: Tirrenia, Sergio Calzone arriva a conclusioni originali studiando I promessi sposi da punti di vista insoliti.
In alcuni casi queste conclusioni sono convincenti e degne di seria riflessione. I capponi di Renzo, la mula di don Abbondio, i cavalli dei monatti, le capre del lazzeretto entrano direttamente nella trama de I promessi sposi. Raccolte le descrizioni di animali sparse nel libro, Calzone le rilegge in maniera unitaria vedendo in esse delle immagini negative che illustrano un destino di sofferenza e di morte.
I monatti sospingono i loro cavalli "a frustate, a punzioni, a bestemmie" cap. Rappresentano "una temporanea uscita dalla Storia, e una pausa interamente spirituale, di fiducioso abbandono [. I locali di quei palazzi si dilatano e si rischiarano quando l'Innominato matura la sua conversione, annunciata nella "sala grande" cap.
Le pagine di Calzone sul simbolismo che compare a tratti nel romanzo manzoniano stanno alla pari con quelle di Jean Pierre Barricelli su 'Structure and Symbol in Manzoni's I promessi sposi' PMLA 87 : , rifluite poi in Manzoni Boston: Twayne, , Sull'onomastica manzoniana hanno scritto pagine importanti Eurialo De Michelis "I nomi. Come scelti", in La vergine e il drago, Padova: Marsilio, , e Gianfranco Contini "Onomastica manzoniana", in Varianti e altra linguistica, Torino: Einaudi, , Calzone approfondisce l'argomento consultando un Dizionario dei nomi e dei santi e considerando il significato che la tradizione religiosa attribuisce ai nomi propri utilizzati da Manzoni.
Dominicana - Uruguay - Venezuela. An overview of prisons, prisoners and international human rights standards Anuario de Derechos Humanos , No. Estados Unidos tiene la mayor tasa de encarcelamiento del mundo con una amplia ventaja, con de cada Podemos encontrar contrastes similares en otras partes del mundo.
Many states are now presenting data that indicate declines in statewide recidivism rates for adults released from prison This brief highlights significant statewide recidivism reductions achieved in Kansas, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Vermont. This data is among the most current available for statewide three-year recidivism rates.
Some states saw particularly sharp reductions during this period, such as Kansas, which achieved a percent decline, and Michigan, which saw an percent drop. Grinage Alexander, M. The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. Instead, racism shifts, changes, and molds into often unrecognizable ways that fit seamlessly into the fabric of the American consciousness to render it utterly invisible to the majority of white Americans. Indigenous Australians are over-represented in Australian prisons. By comparison, 2. In —11, the imprisonment rate for Indigenous adults aged 18 years or over was In the past decade, between and , the number of sentenced prisoners under state and Federal jurisdiction increased 17 percent, while the number of older prisoners prisoners aged 55 or older increased 79 percent..
Louisiana imprisons more people than any nation in the world: Louisiana 1, people per , residents United State Russia Rwanda Iran China Afghanistan H istorically, one of main purposes of the American correctional system has been to rehabilitate offenders. Moreover, corrections professionals should focus on factors beyond the content of assessment and treatment programs to include consideration of the organizational context of the prison. Using the items contained in the CPAI as a blueprint, institutions can develop treatments that will produce optimal results in terms of rehabilitating offenders.
Education for prisoners is gaining currency in many countries. In South Africa, it is both a constitutional right and a foundation stone for rehabilitation. The objective of this paper was to investigate the value of prison education at two correctional service facilities in Pretoria The older prison population increased by 63 percent, while the total prison population grewby 0. Some older men andwomen in prison today enteredwhen they were young or middle-aged; others committed crimes when they were already along in years.
Those who have lengthy sentences, as many do, are notlikely to leave prison before they are aged and infirm. Some will die behind bars: between and , 8, prisoners age 55 or older died in prison. I estimate that eliminating parole for all prisoners would increase the prison population by ten percent while also increasing the crime rate through deleterious e ects on recidivism. The highest percentage levels are in Maldives However, of the adult population in prison, only around 25 per cent will be receiving education of some kind.
It is hoped that the implementation of new policy will provide greater incentives, opportunities, and a clearer vision of what prisoner learners can expect from the educational offer. State of Wisconsin - Department of Corrections Recidivism After Release from Prison Office of the Secretary - Research and Policy Unit - October The data shows that the recidivism rate has been steadily trending down since , when the three-year follow-up recidivism rate was Overall, between and the three-year rate decreased by Many prisoners had problematic backgrounds: Twenty-four per cent stated that they had been in care at some point during their childhood.
Those who had been in care were younger when they were first arrested, and were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release from custody than those who had never been in care. Those who reported experiencing abuse or observing violence as a child were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release than those who did not. Prisoners with a convicted family member were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release from custody than those without a convicted family member.
Sabol - Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS Prisoners in Bulletin December Declining for the second consecutive year, state and federal prison populations totaled 1,, at yearend , a decrease of 0. State correctional authorities had jurisdiction over 21, fewer sentenced inmates in than in The number of state and federal prisoners sentenced to more than one year declined by 15, individuals, from 1,, in to 1,, in Between and , the imprisonment rate — the number of sentenced prisoners divided by the U.
The imprisonment rate has declined consistently since when there were persons imprisoned per , U. The rate in was comparable to the rate observed in per , David E. Although the jail systems in New York and Los Angeles have many more inmates—12, and 16, on June 30, , respectively—the jail systems in these two jurisdictions are in multiple sites across their respective jurisdictions. Probation and Parole in the United States, During , for the third consecutive year, the number of adults under community supervision declined.
At yearend , there were about 4,, adults under community supervision, down 1. The community supervision population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision see text box on page 2 for definitions of probation and parole. While the parole population increased 1. At yearend , 1 in 50 adults in the U. Prison has a poor record for reducing reoffending — For those serving sentences of less than 12 months this increases to Now, 83 of prisons in England and Wales are overcrowded.
Outcomes of excessive use of imprisonment are bleak. There are high levels of violence and self-harm. Very many are homeless and in debt on release. Kamm estimated And Mr. McNeill, S. Farrall, C. Lightowler, S. Maruna How and why people stop offending: discovering desistance University of Glasgow, One of the few near certainties in criminal justice is that for most people, offending behaviour peaks in their teenage years, and then starts to decline. Studies of desistance illuminate the processes of change associated with the age-crime curve Brazil ICPS. Prison population rate per , of national population based on an estimated national population of In maggioranza sono disoccupati da lungo tempo o non hanno mai avuto accesso al mercato del lavoro.
Alcuni hanno notevoli problemi comportamentali a livello sociale che rappresentano un immediato svantaggio sul mercato del lavoro. Minister of Correctional Services 31 may As at March , there were correctional facilities with an approved bed capacity of in the department. It should be noted that during the course of the year some of these were temporarily closed either as the centre or as a section, resulting in an available bed space for the financial year of DCS must manage this legacy to enable a set of minimum norms and standards to prevail across all centres and to ensure cost-effective and delivery efficient centres.
Based on first day of the month averages, for the March quarter there were 29, persons in full-time custody and 53, persons in community-based corrections. Statistiche penitenziarie Detenuti per durata pena residua, pena inflitta, tipologia di reato Joycelyn M. Pollock, Nancy L. Hogan, Eric G.
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 28 1 60—76 The current prison system overshadows education and public services as the major consumer of state revenue. Today about 1. Le slides. Il fenomeno mostra un trend decrescente dal In there were around , offenders in the cohort. Over 9 years this group committed approximately 3. For adults While for juveniles The prison population figures Table 9 include both adult and juvenile convicted prisoners and pre-trial detainees in all types of prison establishments but exclude non-criminal prisoners held for administrative purposes such as pending investigation into their immigration status.
In , there were over prisoners in the EU. This gives a rate of about prisoners per population in the EU Member States averaged over the period By comparison, the incarceration rate in the USA was much higher, at per population. South Asian Studies. Prison Statistics India. Data and Statistics Romulo A. Prisoners are further classified as follows: a insular or national prisoner who is sentenced to a prison term of three years and one day to death; b provincial prisoner or one who is sentenced to a prison term of six months and one day to three years; c city prisoner who is sentenced to a prison term of one day to three years; and d municipal prisoner or one who is sentenced to a prison term of one day to six months In , there were 59, inmates in BJMP jails, an increase of 2.
Of this total, 56, or In addition, 1, were in PNP jails on a temporary basis in , an increase of 5. Sistema penitenciario cubano. Respeto a la dignidad y al mejoramiento humano. Havana Times. This total places Cuba in a better position than the US, a country with more than prisoners per , inhabitants.
Sentencing Practices in a Global Context www. Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 17 October The number of self-inflicted deaths in prison rose from 54 0. In March , the prison population was 85,; by March , it had grown by 2, to 87, The operational capacity of prisons had grown over the same period by 3, to 90, Roma, 21 febbraio La stabilizzazione del regime scaturita dalle nuove disposizioni di legge ha inciso notevolmente sul numero complessivo dei detenuti ascritti asl regime speciale. Allo stato si registra un picco nella presenza di detenuti 41bis che risultano essere But even in a generous reading of much research on turning points, while this is theoretically stated or inferred, it is less often shown or illustrated in empirical cases.
I show how life course processes and the turning points that emerge within them are often interdependent on each other, emerging in very context-specific circumstances, and need to be studied and understood and such. Future research areas are suggested. Edward J. This paper reviews some evidence-based programs and methods proven effective in addressing various criminogenic needs of high-risk offenders. Results from three large-scale studies are reviewed to show that the more criminogenic needs targeted by a program, the greater the reduction in recidivism rates. On the other hand, programs that targeted an insufficient number of criminogenic needs showed only a slight decrease in failure rates.
Aebi - Natalia Del Grance. Approximately 2. Ex-felons in the eleven states that disenfranchise people after they have completed their sentences make up about 45 percent of the entire disenfranchised population, totaling over 2. The number of people disenfranchised due to a felony conviction has escalated dramatically in recent decades as the population under criminal justice supervision has increased. There were an estimated 1. Editorial Disenfranchised Felons www. Almost 7. Michelle Tolbert U. Department of Education - Office of Vocational and Adult Education How can we solve the reentry challenge and ensure that incarcerated individuals and those under community supervision become productive members of society?
Although there is no one answer, a growing body of evidence shows that providing offenders with education and training increases their employment opportunities, addresses their cognitive deficits, and helps reduce their likelihood of recidivating Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, therefore, supported the development of a correctional education reentry model illustrating an education continuum to bridge the gap between prison and community-based education and training programs.
Allen J. Bureau of Justice Statistics study confirms national crisis of sexual abuse in U. An estimated 3. An additional 1. An estimated 1. An estimated 4. Jill Filipovic Is the US the only country where more men are raped than women? The figures on rape may be uncertain, but we could lower the sexual assault rate in American jails — if we had the political will The Guardian, guardian. Vera Institute of Justice. Christian Henrichson - Ruth Delaney. The Price of Prisons. What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers January Decades of increasing incarceration and soaring corrections costs have been well documented and are a familiar story to policy makers and the public.
Over the past 40 years, the United States has seen a dramatic increase in the use of prisons to combat crime. Today, more than 1 in adults are in prison or jail nationwide. In the last two decades the prison population has almost doubled from around 44, in the early s to over 88, today. Inflation in sentencing and massive overuse of custody leaves us with a society where seven per cent of school children experience their father's imprisonment.
Estimates reveal that more children are affected by parental imprisonment than by divorce in the family. Reform is essential to overhauling an overcrowded, expensive and, in many ways, counter-productive prison system. Por sexo, son varones Tracy L. Between January 1 and December 19, , 13 states executed 43 inmates, which was 3 fewer than the number executed as of the same date in At yearend , 36 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons held 3, inmates under sentence of death,15 fewer inmates than at yearend This represents the tenth consecutive year that the number of inmates under sentence of death has decreased.
Four States California, Florida, Texas, and Pennsylvania held more than half of all inmates on death row as of December 31, The Federal Bureau of Prisons held 58 inmates on death row. The race and gender of those under sentence of death has remained relatively unchanged since Paul Guerino, Paige M. Harrison, and William J. Most offenders enter prison in one of two ways. About two-thirds are admitted as new court commitments.
New court commitments include admissions into prison of offenders convicted and sentenced by a court, usually to a term of more than 1 year, including probation violators and persons with a split sentence to incarceration followed by court- ordered probation or parole. About a third of new court commitments were admitted because they violated a condition of supervised release. Parole violators include all conditional release violators returned to prison for either violation of conditions of release or for new crimes.
Both types of admissions declined in Prison Statistics - Department of Prisons in Sri Lanka Using multiple measures of visitation any visit, total number of visits, visits per month, timing of visits, and number of individual visitors and recidivism new offense conviction and technical violation revocation , the study found that visitation significantly decreased the risk of recidivism, a result that was robust across all of the Cox regression models that were estimated.
Alexia Cooper, Erica L. Smith U. Annual Rates for and www. Bryn A. Final Report: Revised www. Eric Ciotti Rapport. Leonidas K. Against the background of an immense growth in the use of imprisonment in Greece over the last three decades or so, it is shown that prison establishments are greatly overcrowded and material conditions of detention are deplorable. Healthcare provision is minimal, and the prevalence of serious transmittable diseases and mental disorders amongst prisoner populations is high, as are the rates of deliberate self-harm, suicide, and death more generally.
Indeed, the officially recorded incidence of prisoner deaths has risen at a faster pace than imprisonment itself. Greece ICPS. Tribunali di Sorveglianza e giurisprudenza in materia di concessione di misure alternative VIII rapporto Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione in Italia, Nello specifico, l'analisi ha riguardato i dati statistici raccolti dai singoli tribunali in relazione ai provvedimenti emessi a seguito di istanza volta alla concessione di misure alternative. In particolare, l'analisi qui proposta riguarda quattro fra le principali misure alternative: l'affidamento in prova ai servizi sociali, l'affidamento ex art.
Overcrowding exacerbates poor prison conditions. European Commission Green Paper. Strengthening mutual trust in the European judicial area — A Green Paper on the application of EU criminal justice legislation in the field of detention. Brussels, Probation measures and alternatives to imprisonment would be available in all legal systems across the Union. These measures may then have to be promoted at Union level for a proper and efficient application of the rules by Member States Pre-trial detention in the context of this Green Paper covers the period until the sentence is final Pre-trial detention is a measure of an exceptional nature in all Member States' judicial systems These organizations and individuals represent the leading voices in criminal justice policy.
Coalition members focus their efforts on such diverse and varied areas as combating unnecessary expansions of criminal law, advocating for improvements to investigatory and forensic science standards, ensuring that persons accused of crimes have an opportunity to receive a fair trial, helping persons who have served their sentences successfully reenter their communities, and protecting the rights and dignity of victims of crime. Our dedication to exploring all options means that Smart on Crime focuses on providing non-ideological, cost-effective, and evidence-based solutions to address the worst problems in our system Jennifer l.
Truman National Crime Victimization Survey. However, deprivation of freedom is the most widespread type of punishment nowadays. Women form rather a small part of the total amount of prisoners in the world.
The number of inmates in Indonesia's prisons almost doubled between and In , the correctional system was able to discharge 24, inmates after streamlining parole procedures so that inmates could exercise their legal right to early release. However, that same year, the prison population still increased by 5, inmates — to a total of , people — due to an increase in number of people arrested and prosecuted. Prison Statistics Indonesia. Prison Statistics Iran. Pre and post release employment support for up to 12 months. Ministry of Justice Reporting of deaths in custody.
Ministry of Justice Technical note: discussion of measurement of trends in deaths in custody — standardised mortality rates methodology www. If work to reduce women's offending were better integrated across governmant and more strategic, it could pay dividends - not only by getting vulnerable women out of trouble but also by tackling costly inter-generational crime. Es decir, es seis veces mayor It was led in each case by one prison and one upper secondary school. It aimed to use validation of prior learning VPL to provide inmates with an education that is adapted to their backgrounds and needs.
Education and training is considered in Norway to be a key element in prison rehabilitation efforts. As prison education should be on par with education and training in the rest of society, it is thought that it should also keep pace with recent developments, such as VPL. Review of Offender Learning www. Whilst our investment in giving offenders the skills they need to help them get and keep jobs is significant, it is a fraction of the prize on offer to all of us if we can prevent the creation of future victims of crime, with the associated economic and social costs, by cutting their reoffending.
The theme also assumes that prison education and training have a significant role to play in the daily life of the prisoner as well as significant consequences for resettlement on release. Around half of all crime is committed by people who have already been convicted of a criminal offence. Improving the skills of offenders, focussed on the requirements of real jobs, is critical to reducing re-offending, alongside addressing other factors that drive crime such as substance misuse, mental health issues, poor accommodation, family issues and poverty.
Crime Control Lessons from New York www. Some are funded by the state.
And some rely on federal funding or private donations. The field is constantly evolving as new problems emerge and new gaps in services are identified. A particular area of focus at the moment is using risk and needs assessments to allocate scarce resources where they are most needed. The latest research suggests that there needs to be a continuum of non-incarcerative interventions for offenders, with the most intensive options reserved for populations that are both high-risk and high-need During this difficult economic time, the U.
However, to date, alternatives to our current policies and practices which are contributing to these rates have not been implemented on a large scale. Pew Center on the States State of Recidivism. When excluding California, whose size skews the national picture, recidivism rates between and have consistently remained around 40 percent. The research done in the state of Washington demonstrates how sending nonviolent drug-offenders to prison actually costs more than the financial gains of the crimes averted.
Furthermore, incarceration actually increases the reoffense rate for some offenders. The financial impact of our growing inmate population is obvious when you consider the growth in corrections budgets is exceeded only by the growth in the Medicaid budgets. Offenders are then matched to the Police National Computer and their criminal history is collated and criminal behaviour is tracked over the following one year.
Any offence committed in this one-year period which is proven by a court conviction either in the one-year period, or in a further six months counts as a re-conviction. This enables us to calculate the frequency rate, the number of most serious offences and the re-conviction rate. Downsizing Prisons. Charles M. Blow High Cost of Crime www. Shadd Maruna, Thomas P. Raynor, P. Cullompton, UK: Willan We begin by outlining what we see as the key features of this paradigm and contrast it to the traditional correctional paradigm.
Carrasco, O. Franklin E. Among the long list of unanswered questions about the determinants of rates of imprisonment is whether the dramatic rise in prison population over the past decades is a new norm for the scale of imprisonment or a precursor to significant declines in the rates of imprisonment in the early decades of a new century.
But in most urban areas the downward trend ended around the year Ryan McNamara, Linda Bynoe Education in American Prisons: A Review of the Literature California State University Monterey Bay , May 20, The purpose of this study is to understand how education programs in prison can benefit both prisoners and society in an America with a perennially rising prison population comprised of less educated individuals and budget cuts on education programs within prisons The findings indicate a correlation with participation in educational programs in prison with reduced recidivism rates, an improvement in the environment of the prisons themselves, and an increased likelihood of the children of prisoners becoming educated along with other positive outcomes.
Shippen, David E. Houchins, Steven A. Crites, Nicholas C. Derzis, Dashaunda Patterson An Examination of the Basic Reading Skills of Incarcerated Males Adult Learning, Sum-Fall The more that is known about the literacy abilities of prisoners that greater the chances are that effective and efficient educational programming can be developed for this population of adults.
Increased literacy skills have the potential to improve the overall quality of life of these men and enhance society by reducing recidivism rates and the costs associated with incarceration. Prison Count Survey data compiled by the Public Safety Performance Project of the Pew Center on the States, in partnership with the Association of State Correctional Administrators, indicate that as of January 1, , there were 1,, persons under the jurisdiction of state prison authorities, 4, 0. This marks the first year-to-year drop in the state prison population since The federal count rose by 6, prisoners, or 3.
The findings in this report should give policy makers reason to reflect. The price of prisons in state and federal budgets represents just a fraction of the overall cost of incarcerating such a large segment of our society. The collateral consequences are tremendous and far-reaching, and as this report illuminates with fresh data and analysis, they include substantial and lifelong damage to the ability of former inmates, their families and their children to earn a living wage, move up the income ladder and pursue the American Dream.
From to incarceration rates ranged between about and per , From around , however, the prison and jail population began to grow much more rapidly than the overall population, climbing from about per , in , to in , to in , and finally to by Figure 6 breaks down total corrections costs across the three levels of government and illustrates that by far the largest share of the costs of corrections are borne by state and local governments. State governments house about 60 percent of inmates and account for about the same share of total correction expenditures.
Local governments hold about one third of all inmates and make not quite one third of total corrections spending. The federal government, which holds less than 10 percent of the inmate population, spends just under 10 percent of total national corrections expenditures. Several collections practices also raised serious constitutional concerns. The Bureau of Justice Statistics report, "Recidivism of Prisoners Released in " shows overall recidivism rates for releases from 15 different states.
That report shows a Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan March www. The study presented in this book is a direct response to the needs for defining and registering criminal and judicial data on the European level. Based upon work done by the European Sourcebook experts group in creating the European Source-book of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics ESB , the project intended to improve and complement the standards developed so far for definitions and statistical registration in four fields, in order to contribute to the picture of criminal justice in Europe.
It utilized questionnaires filled by an established European network To a lesser extent reimprisonment was also associated with being male. Of all the jurisdictions, the Northern Territory had a particularly high rate of reimprisonment. Kathryn E. McCollister, Michael T. Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing.
A review of the crimecosting literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts.
Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-ofillness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime.
Paul Heaton Hidden in Plain Sight. In the case of police hiring in Los Angeles, this conclusion persists across a wide range of alternative modeling assumptions, which shows that the results are robust Erwin James Most offenders have low skills and prison is the place to put that right The Guardian, Wednesday 3 February A report out today says education and training programmes should be an integral part of time served in prison and should be included in the sentencing process.
A brave strategy on modernisation should ensure that the prison service is able to utilise the new tools and thinking we have at our disposal to best effect. Most notably, we argue that there are huge gains to be had in developing a technology strategy that better balances risk and benefits. Giovanni Torrente Indulto. Imprisonment impacts on women differently than on men. Janet I. Warren, Shelly L.
Department of Justice - December Our data concerning sexual contact that was perceived by the recipient as coercive was higher than that found in a national survey conducted by the BJS. Assummarized in 5. The female inmates reported comparable levels with 6. These data suggest that females experience and report significantly more victimization by other inmates through comments, looks and innuendoes than men.
European Forum for Urban Safety Innovative strategies for the prevention of re-offending. Practices and recommendations for local players www. The overall rise in prison populations is constant. Studies reveal that a limited number of persons commit three-fourths of offences in certain categories. Given that Indigenous over-representation is a perennial problem in the justice system Entre et , il y avait en moyenne personnes en prison dans l'espace UE Au sein de l'Europe communautaire,quels sont les pays qui emprisonnent le plus ou le moins?
La composition de ce groupe appelle quelques observations.
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Elizabeth K. Drake, Steve Aos, Marna G. Serious crime is costly to victims and taxpayers; our economic analysis for Washington indicates that evidence-based—and reasonably priced— programs that achieve even relatively small reductions in crime can produce attractive returns on investment. The right to education of persons in detention.
These should aim also to minimize the negative impact of incarceration, improve prospects of reintegration, rehabilitation, self- steem and morale. Supplemento ai nn. Crisis now defines the core of the English and Welsh penal system. Penal policy and the criminal justice system as a whole have been primarily responsible for driving up numbers.
We have experienced over 15 years of intense criminal justice hyperactivity. This intense and punitive political activity has had the effect of encouraging a more fearful and insecure population. It has raised unrealistic expectations about the role prison can play in securing a safer society.
Prisons have become the stand-in for a health and welfare system which is also failing. Prisons have become vast warehouses for the dumping of people with problems society has failed to deal with - those with mental health needs, with histories of neglect and abuse, with drug and alcohol addictions. The penal system is a huge drain on the public purse Amy L. Solomon, Jenny W. We believe parole administrators and practitioners have reached an important moment in time. The strategies represent the best thinking on sound supervision practice. In making this claim, we appreciate how hard engaging in change of this magnitude will be, and how difficult it is to accomplish meaningful and durable reforms in both policy and practice.
We also acknowledge how much time it will actually take to evaluate the results and know whether the modifications in policies and strategies made a difference in the outcomes achieved. The challenges, however, are not insurmountable. Osborne, Stefa F. Virtually all inmates experience reentry, irrespective of their method of release or the presence of community supervision.
Our assumption is that successful reentry strategies would translate into public safety gains, in the form of reduced recidivism, and the long-term reintegration of the formerly incarcerated individual. Reentry is not a program, not a form of supervision, not an option. Steven Raphael, Michael A. Raphael and M. Stoll eds. The Benefits and Costs of the Prison Boom", For the fifty year period spanning the s through the mid s, the number of state and federal prisoners per , varied within a 10 to 20 unit band around a rate of approximately Beginning in the mid s, however, state prison populations grew at an unprecedented rate, nearly quadrupling between the mid s and the present.
Concurrently, the rate of incarceration in local jails more than tripled. Why are so many Americans incarcerated? Institut Montaigne Comment rendre la prison enfin utile. Volpini, T. Mannello, G.