Preparing the Mothers of Tomorrow: Education and Islam in Mandate Palestine

Preparing the Mothers of Tomorrow: Education and Islam in Mandate Palestine
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Girls' education in Palestine, Greenberg argues, was shaped by nationalist and modernist processes that initially transformed women's role from mothers to builders of a nation. Greenberg uses rich and diverse Arabic and Western sources and consults state and university archives, private papers, collections of prominent female travelers in the Middle East, oral histories, contemporary news reports and Most users should sign in with their email address.

Israeli-Indian ties reach new heights - Israel News - Jerusalem Post

If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Malek Abisaab. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. All rights reserved. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. By speaking out and challenging discrimination and abuse, the fabric of America, its attitudes and views towards people, slowly changes. Already, we are seeing it become more and more unacceptable to demonize Islam and Muslims, and I can only see it getting better.

Whenever the nation goes off course, an organization such as CAIR has the platform - the freedoms to assemble, speak, and advocate - to steer the nation back on course. Working for CAIR is thinking globally and acting locally. I cannot think of a greater effort to be a part of. These methods include organizing demonstrations, filing complaints with the appropriate authorities, extensive use of the Civil Rights Act of , leafleting, issuing press releases, media appearances, letter writing, running public awareness campaigns, producing public service announcements, launching educational campaigns designed to improve understanding about Islam, hosting panel discussions and town hall meetings, training the Muslim community in advocacy tactics, non-partisan voter registration drives, direct meetings with elected officials, and calls for Muslims to vote on election day.

From its beginning, CAIR focused its efforts on training American Muslims to be effective in their dealings with the media.

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This focus resulted in media training events across the nation in which Muslims learned how to write and issue press releases, how to formulate talking points and even what types of clothes to wear when going on television for instance, avoiding clothes with stripes or wearing sunglasses. It is an early example of CAIR's strong belief in providing community members tools with which to empower themselves.

CAIR's "Civic Participation Handbook" similarly contains practical steps for community members who wish to work on government affairs issues. In , CAIR announced the opening of its Leadership Training Center, which was designed to offer instruction "in faith-based political lobbying, grass-roots activism, public relations, community leadership, and organizational management, to Muslim activists, students and leaders. To use one year as an example, 24 interns worked in CAIR's national office in Congress, State Department, and other government agencies.

During the summer of , interns observed interviews at CNN and FOX, attended a national progressive youth conference, met with their congressional representatives to discuss racial profiling, attended Friday prayers at the U. Capitol building, and much more. CAIR's civil rights coordinators--the caseworkers who intake, investigate, mediate and resolve complaints from the community--make extensive use of the Civil Rights Act of Title VII of the Act prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals because of their religion or national origin in hiring, firing, and other terms and conditions of employment.

Most cases are resolved simply by contacting the employer and reminding them of Title VII. Ignorance is a major factor in many of these cases. Therefore, education is a key in preventing their occurrence. CAIR's guides to Islamic religious practices are an early example of prevention through education. Educational efforts have included asking mosques to host open houses, giving away free material about Islam and frequent presentations to interested groups, ad campaigns such as "I am an American Muslim," and the placement of books about Islam in public libraries.

CAIR has commissioned surveys of American attitudes regarding Muslims, surveys of Muslim concerns and attitudes and election-day exit polls. CAIR's advocacy toolbox includes its action alert network. Action alerts will typically inform recipients of an issue and ask them to contact the source of the concern, often a corporation or a public official. These alerts are known to generate an overwhelming volume of phone calls, faxes and e-mails. If public advocacy does not obtain a just resolution to a particular case, CAIR will generally outsource legal action.

However, CAIR does at times conduct its own litigation. The jury sent a clear message that no one is above the law in this matter, including the Cook County Sheriff.

Starting now. CAIR is willing to conduct assertive advocacy campaigns that make use of all legal tools typical of American advocacy work. Results that can be seen as a win for all are those CAIR's staff most prefer. Following a campaign concerning a NIKE shoe with a design on it that resembled the word "Allah" in Arabic, CAIR was able to get the product recalled and received an apology from the corporation.

The agreement includes a NIKE-sponsored community development project involving construction of playground facilities at several Islamic centers and Muslim schools nationwide. In consultation with CAIR, NIKE also adopted sensitivity training for its design teams and made changes in the design process to help ensure that a similar incident would not occur in the future. Of the 1, CAIR press releases reviewed for this document, dealt with issues relating to civil rights. Anti-defamation releases accounted for of the documents surveyed.

These two categories alone account for 50 percent of the releases. Only 10 percent of CAIR releases dealt with international issues. The core of CAIR's work is, and always has been, ensuring that the rights guaranteed to everyone in this nation are enforced. If someone is discriminated against because of their Islamic faith that person can call CAIR and we will provide advocacy and sometimes legal services to help them obtain a satisfactory resolution to their concern. In the interfaith section of this document we also provide some of the numerous instances in which CAIR has defended members of other faith traditions.

Civil Rights In , CAIR took on its first discrimination case involving an employer refusing to reasonably accommodate an employee's choice to wear the hijab, or Islamic headscarf. CAIR has addressed issues of profiling, torture, efforts intended to marginalize Muslim participation in American civil and political life, citizenship delays, denials of service or access, deportations, denial of due process, FBI harassment, unduly harsh sentencing, immigrants' rights, overly intrusive government surveillance, double jeopardy, secret evidence, and workplace accommodation.

Targeting Individuals Visible signs of an individual's Muslim faith--headscarves, prayer and beards in particular--number among the most frequent triggers of discrimination. CAIR has dealt with cases ranging from individual Muslims being killed, beaten, stabbed, fired for having an accent or fired for observing religious obligations to deeply troubling indications of widespread American public support for forcing the entire American Muslim community to register with the federal government. While the group's annual status of Muslim civil rights report presents this reality in detail, we present a few specific examples here.

In , seven men approached a Muslim husband and wife as they picnicked at the Cook County Forest Preserve in the Chicago area. The wife, who was wearing a headscarf, reported that one of the men stood approximately five to six feet away from her and began urinating. The men then allegedly began cursing the woman's religious attire and what they assumed to be her national origin the woman is a European-American convert to Islam. In Springfield, Virginia, a woman wearing an Islamic headscarf was attacked from behind in a K-Mart parking lot in The white male teenage attacker allegedly shouted, "You terrorist pig," before running away.

The year-old woman, a convert to Islam, was treated at a local hospital for a inch deep wound on her lower back. CAIR worked to reunite a Texas Muslim family whose two children were taken from their home following false accusations of child abuse against their father. The children had been adopted by a Christian family and were allowed no contact with their biological parents, despite the fact that the father was ultimately cleared of all charges.

Sabahete "Kathy" Krasniqi, the children's mother, said that people of all faiths had offered her family moral support but added, "I came to this country for freedom. A survey by the Media and Society Research Group in Cornell University's Department of Communication found that 44 percent of Americans believed the government should curtail the civil rights of American Muslims in some manner. About 22 percent said the federal government should profile citizens as potential threats based on the fact that they are Muslim or have Middle Eastern heritage.

Destruction and Defilement of Places of Worship Islamic sanctuaries are frequent targets of Islamophobic hatred. Since , CAIR has detailed at least 64 acts of destruction and defilement of Islamic places of worship--including shootings, vandalism, arson, and bombings. These cases include the following sample incidents. Three men entered a mosque in Illinois, squirted lighter fluid on a worshipper, then began flicking matches at him. Shots were fired into a Maryland mosque and at a Miami mosque and Islamic school. Two explosive devices were set off outside a mosque in Ohio. A small explosive device was set off in the mailbox of a Texas mosque.

A bus used for an Islamic school was burned. Fire investigators say they found a container of gasoline at the site and another container some feet away under a tree. In Texas, firebombs were thrown at an El Paso mosque. Following two loud bangs, worshippers at a mosque in Illinois found two holes, which they assumed were made by bullets, in windows of the building.

Islamic Foundation Director Abdul Hameed Dogar called the attack "a deliberate attempt to kill worshipers" because those praying were clearly visible to the attackers through the large windows of the mosque. After a police sergeant noticed a suspicious vehicle outside a Colorado mosque, a car chase ensued. The suspect, Jack Merlyn Modig, was apprehended and said, "I am an enemy against the Islamic nation and I was going to take care of business. In , Robert Goldstein, 37, was arrested after authorities found a stash of explosives and weapons in his home.

The arsenal included two anti-armor rockets, a. Police also discovered a list of some 50 Florida mosques and detailed plans for destroying an Islamic education center using bombs. Attached to the list were three pages that included a schematic drawing of an unknown Islamic center and instructions on what to wear and how to carry out an attack. Set timers for approximately minutes to allow for enough time to get out of the area, but to confirm explosions has [sic] been successful Hand to hand is unlikely but be prepared to liquidate [Muslims] up close.

Anti-Defamation Parallel with the need to provide a voice for victims of bias, bad policies or misunderstandings triggered by an individual's faith is the need to defend the good name of the Muslim community and faith from those who would smear it through a lack of understanding or more nefarious political agendas. CAIR's first campaign against a corporation involved a greeting card that read, "So you're feeling like Shiite. Don't Mecca big deal out of it. Anti-Islamic views have led an editor of the National Review and a Republican member of Congress to independently advocate "nuking" the Islamic holy city of Mecca.

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CAIR has challenged a magazine editor who claimed the Prophet Muhammad did not uphold treaties, children's books that would have misinformed young people about the faith, websites that violate the internet service provider's guidelines regarding hate speech and a magazine ad calling the Islamic faith "virulent. Defamation of Islam and Muslims in the Media A number of media personalities engage in anti-Muslim rhetoric.

Pat Robertson, Dr. They do not live for life, they live for death. Only through death can they believe they can be with those 72 virgins in heaven and have sex with children for eternity, which is the goal of that religion. In Southern California on the Bill Handel show on KFI AM , a pretend "Muslim" allegedly reading from the new Iraqi constitution referred to "hairy Iraqi women," "lovely Japanese schoolgirls," the "infidel custom of bathing on a regular basis," and "civil unions" between Iraqis and "loving camels and goats.

Controversial conservative pundit Ann Coulter wrote: "Being nice to people is, in fact, one of the incidental tenets of Christianity as opposed to other religions whose tenets are more along the lines of 'kill everyone who doesn't smell bad and doesn't answer to the name Mohammed'. Defamation of Islam and Muslims by Public Officials Public officials have made numerous statements that trouble the conscience of people in reasonable society.

CAIR called on Sen. Joseph Biden, Jr. In a discussion of possible American attacks on Iraq, Biden said bombing that country might "embolden Islam to become more aggressive with the United States. It is an unfortunate reality that much of the anti-Muslim rhetoric in the political sphere comes from members of the Republican Party. CAIR urged Republicans to repudiate two Washington state representatives who walked out of an opening session invocation that was offered by a Muslim religious leader.

One of the representatives, Louise McMahan said she did not remain in the chamber because, "It's an issue of patriotism The Islamic religion is so I just didn't want to be there, be a part of that My god is not Mohammed.

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Christopher H. Smith R-NJ "denounced Islamophobic sentiments expressed by the International Christian Concern" ICC , but pointedly refused a demand to repudiate the group itself and did not rule out future collaboration with the group. ICC listed Smith as an "honorary board member. On ICC's web site, the group's president claimed that African-Americans are attracted to Islam because of "two primeval lusts: power and possessions. Ballenger said that proximity to CAIR "bugged the hell" out of his wife. Peter T. King R-NY claimed that the vast majority of American Muslim community leaders are "an enemy living amongst us" and that "no American Muslims" cooperate in the war on terror.

In , King said "we have too many mosques in this country. Tancredo made the remarks during an interview on the Pat Campbell Show in Florida, discussing what should be done in response to an attack on this country by "extremist fundamentalist Muslims. Extremist and anti-Muslim Internet bloggers had associated the design's semi-circular shape with Islam, despite the fact that the designer, the park service and relatives of crash victims said the shape represented a circle broken by the flight pattern of Flight 93 when it crashed near Shanksville, Penn.

The crescent itself has no religious significance in Islam, but is commonly associated with that faith. In a letter sent to the National Park Service, Tancredo opposed the design's shape "because of the crescent's prominent use as a symbol in Islam. CAIR called on Rep. Goode's letter to the head of the local Sierra Club chapter slammed the planned use of a Quran for the ceremonial swearing-in of Keith Ellison, the first Muslim elected to Congress.

In fact, no religious texts of any kind are used for the official swearing-in ceremony. Goode wrote:. In , Rep. Petersburg Times, "It's historically accurate that every terrorist has been a Muslim. Paul Broun R-GA to add a balancing perspective to an upcoming congressional briefing on Islamic finance that featured a presentation by the head of a racist anti-Muslim group. Broun's invitation letter claimed that Islamic finance "violates U.

One of the presenters at that briefing, David Yerushalmi, is the president and founder of the Society of Americans for National Existence SANE , a group that has advocated imposing prison terms for "adherence to Islam" and questions whether women and African-Americans should be allowed to vote. Government through the abrogation, destruction, or violation of the U. Constitution and the imposition of Shari'a on the American People It shall be a felony punishable by 20 years in prison to knowingly act in furtherance of, or to support the, adherence to Islam.

The New York Jewish Week reported in that Yerushalmi "condemns democracy in the United States and, in comments that evoke classical anti-Semitic stereotypes, says he finds truth in the view that Jews 'destroy their host nations like a fatal parasite. Defamation of Islam in Other Venues Many advertisers have produced ads that run contrary to Muslim sensitivities. A singular example was a print advertisement produced by aerospace giants Boeing Co. The ad for the CV Osprey tiltrotor aircraft, published in the September 24, issue of National Journal magazine, depicted soldiers rappelling onto the roof of a building, labeled "Muhammad Mosque" in Arabic.

The building had a dome, crescent moon and minaret, all common features of a mosque. Headlines on the ad read: "It descends from the heavens. Ironically it unleashes hell. In a letter to Textron Chairman Lewis B. This gives the impression that 'the insertion points never thought possible' are Islamic places of worship This advertisement reflects poorly on Bell Helicopter, Textron and Boeing, and offers a questionable picture of your companies' collective opinion of Islam and Muslims.

General William Boykin came under scrutiny when media reports revealed that in a public discussion of his efforts to capture a Muslim Somali warlord, he said, "I knew my God was bigger than his. I knew that my God was a real God and his was an idol. He took pleasure in seeing the heads of his enemies torn from their bodies by the swords of his soldiers.

He hated Christians and Jews, poets and painters, and anyone who criticized him. Once he had a Jewish prisoner tortured in order to learn the location of the man's hidden treasure. Then, having uncovered the secret, he had his victim murdered and added the dead man's wife to the collection of women in his harem.

However, the following section allows readers to make an assessment on CAIR's positions for themselves. International releases account for a mere 10 percent of statements issued by CAIR. The organization joined the wider American Muslim community in issuing a statement saying, "We believe the bombing in Afghanistan is not in the long-term interest of our country or the world at large.

The bombing victimizes the innocents, exacerbates the humanitarian disaster and creates widespread resentment across the Muslim world. Bangladesh : A statement was issued "seeking information on the condition of an American Muslim who was reportedly detained" in that nation. The organization supported Congressional efforts to lift an arms embargo on the legitimate Bosnia government as it sought to defend itself against brutal attacks by neighboring nations.

Chechnya : CAIR called for Russia to withdraw its forces from Chechnya, saying: "For some years, the Chechen people struggled to determine their own fate, free from the dictates of Russian and Soviet colonial masters. It is time the world community offered its support for the freedom and independence of Chechnya. Egypt : CAIR raised concerns about civilians being sentenced in Egyptian military courts and called on the Egyptian government to "not only uphold the human rights of all of its citizens, but to grant them the right to participate peacefully in an open democratic process.

The release states, "The meeting was hosted by the Institute on Religion and Public Policy in coordination with the United States Institute of Peace and the Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding, and focused on inter-cultural, interreligious, and fundamental rights issues. The problem of consulates denying women visas over their headscarves repeated in CAIR opposed riots in France in calling for an "immediate and peaceful end to the violence" and asking French authorities to "employ 'dialogue and mutual respect' in efforts to end rioting and violence in suburbs of Paris.

The panel featured France's ambassador to the United States. We demand that Indian law enforcement authorities ensure the safety of all citizens, regardless of religious affiliation. Perpetrators of violence must be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. And finally, we call for a just and comprehensive resolution to the Ayodhya mosque dispute.

Concerted action must be taken immediately to deal with this inflammatory issue. The construction of a Hindu temple at the mosque site could serve as a spark to ignite a renewed cycle of violence. The effort expanded following revelations that Modi's administration distributed a social studies textbook praising Adolf Hitler.

Iran : CAIR welcomed the Clinton administration's decision to lift a ban on imports of Iranian goods such as carpets, nuts and caviar. The organization urged Iran to release detained American journalist Roxana Saberi in , asked for help in locating an FBI agent missing in that country since , and requested the release of three American hikers detained in Iraq : In , CAIR called on American policy makers to base decisions regarding Iraq on several key points: 1 There should be no bombing of innocent people in Iraq who have no say in what their government does or does not do.

They had little impact on Saddam Hussein. Later that year, the group condemned American bombing in Iraq, "not because we support Saddam Hussein or his policies, but because it is innocent civilians who will suffer. Any American invasion and occupation of Iraq will fuel anti-American sentiment and would thereby harm our nation's image and interests in areas outside the Middle East. The council called on Sunni and Shia leaders in Iraq to help stop the cycle of sectarian violence in that nation.

The organization urged American forces to avoid attacking the Imam Ali Shrine in the Iraqi city of Najaf, a site revered by millions of Shia Muslims in Iraq and around the world, called for a probe into the Abu Ghraib abuses and called for the resignation of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld over reports that U. Marines had killed 24 Iraqi civilians in the city of Haditha. As we enter the sixth year of this war, it is time to finally withdraw our troops. Israel and Palestine : CAIR's strongly-worded stance on Israel's decades-long military occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as well as that nation's aggressive posture toward other Middle East nations, is well reflected in some ninety-nine media releases issued on the subject between and the end of Israel's wall of separation must come down, humiliating roadblocks must be removed, the illegal settlements must be dismantled, food and other essential supplies must flow freely, Palestinian rights must be restored, and a viable and independent Palestinian state must be created and supported.

The organization supported the Palestinian right of return to homes and lands from which they were expelled by Israel, a common position among those seeking justice for Palestinians. Of the issue, Executive Director Nihad Awad said, "The ethnic cleansing that Palestinians have experienced, and continue to experience, is an affront to people of conscience worldwide. CAIR has repeatedly questioned Israel's apparent violations of America's Arms Export Control Act of , which requires that foreign governments receiving American weaponry use it solely for internal security and legitimate self-defense.

For instance, CAIR condemned "Israel's use of American-supplied F fighter aircraft in attacks on Palestinian targets that left at least eight dead and many more wounded" and "Israel's use of American taxpayer-supplied weapons to massacre at least 11 Palestinians, including women and children, in an attack on a residential building in the Gaza Strip. The latest list of dead released by a nearby hospital included two babies ages 18 and 2 months, five children ages , an year-old and three adults. CAIR has opposed many of the congressional resolutions passed supporting Israel's occupation policies.

Following one congressional vote in support of Israel's brutal invasion of Palestinian territory--the impending vote had caused White House spokesman Ari Fleischer to note that President Bush was concerned that "no foreign policy can survive different secretaries of state"--a statement by CAIR Executive Director Nihad Awad read in part:. Perhaps these same politicians should be reminded that they were elected by American, not Israeli voters.

CAIR supported President Bush's request that Israel end both its settlement activity and its ongoing assaults on Palestinian towns and villages. The President has accurately identified the real sources of conflict in the Holy Land; the settlements, the occupation and the 'daily humiliation' suffered by ordinary Palestinians. While asking Muslims to contact the U. Department of State to "demand an end to blind American support for Israel's brutal policies against Palestinian Muslims and Christians," CAIR noted that "there are signs that efforts of this kind are paying off.

United Press International reports that the United States has canceled a regularly scheduled live-fire training exercise with Israeli forces. A Pentagon spokesman said he wanted to make it clear that America does not endorse Israel's tactics against Palestinian populated areas. Even the lone dissenting judge on the member panel, American Thomas Buergenthal, acknowledged that Israel's wall might violate international law.

In its statement, CAIR said:. Unfortunately, we once again see our own government swimming against the tide of world public and legal opinion to defend Israel's neo-Apartheid policies. How long will America's international image and interests be held hostage by a powerful domestic lobby for a foreign government? This includes a call that President Bush "demand that Israel stop bombing civilian areas in Lebanon at least long enough to safely evacuate some 25, U.

The highest duty of any president is to protect the lives of Americans. The year-old mother and her 8 and year-old sons, all of whom are U. All three family members were wounded by what was presumed to be Israeli sniper fire. When the victims were taken to a nearby hospital, the facility reportedly came under Israeli air attack.

The family was then forced to walk eight miles to another hospital and ultimately left Lebanon on a Canadian ship that evacuated refugees from Tyre. According to family members, Israeli officials forced them to obtain Palestinian passports with Israeli-issued passport numbers before leaving the West Bank to Jordan. The mother of the Muslim family said she and her children were visiting the West Bank during a summer break. When they attempted to return through Tel Aviv airport on their scheduled flight, Israeli authorities denied travel to seven young family members.

The mother was allegedly told that, despite her children's U.

Umar bin al-Khattab, the Second Khalifa of the Muslims

Bawatna, who were both visiting the Washington, D. CAIR is not alone in its strong criticism of Israel, nor is the organization averse to offering potential steps to bring just and lasting peace to Palestinians, Israelis and all others who seek to stabilize the region. Call for immediate and unconditional ceasefires in Lebanon and Gaza. This will not only facilitate the evacuation of the thousands of American trapped in Lebanon, it will also allow humanitarian aid to reach innocent victims of this disaster.

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The first study to examine the education of Muslim girls in Palestine in the first half of the twentieth century. Preparing the Mothers of Tomorrow: Education and Islam in Mandate Palestine [ Ela Greenberg] on lirodisa.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. From the .

Implement all relevant UN resolutions without picking and choosing those we like and those we wish to ignore. Send former Presidents George Bush and Jimmy Carter to mediate not just ceasefires and delivery of humanitarian aid, but to also bring all parties to the negotiating table. In , CAIR collected and delivered to Congress more than 12, letters calling for an end to Israel's "collective punishment" of Palestinian civilians in the Gaza Strip.

The issue of Kashmir will only be resolved through a political solution that meets the legitimate needs of all parties to the conflict.

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Laqueur, Walter ; Rubin, Barry M Among the Nazi leadership, the greatest interest in the idea of creating Muslim units under German command was shown by Heinrich Himmler, who viewed the Islamic world as a potential ally against the British Empire and regarded the Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatia as a 'ridiculous state'. CAIR said the ruling would limit the free speech of students and could have a negative impact on Muslim students who are obligated to pray during the school day. In Jordan, professional associations regulated by law support their members and provide retirement benefits. Arab narratives read the heightened agitation of certain Jewish groups over the Wall as an attempt to revive diaspora interest in Zionism after some years of relative decline, depression and emigration. You will receive emails containing news content , updates and promotions from The New York Times.

Shortly after that statement, CAIR issued an action alert calling on American Muslims to contact their elected officials to request that they "do all they can to prevent war in South Asia by promoting an even-handed approach to the current conflict between Pakistan and India and supporting self-determination for the people of Kashmir. Pervez Musharraf to restore the constitution of his country and return to civilian rule in that nation. In a statement, CAIR said:. Musharraf immediately return Pakistan to civilian control and to reverse the unconstitutional actions that he has taken since the declaration of the state of emergency.

American taxpayer dollars should not be spent in support of such anti-democratic measures. Subsequently, CAIR announced that it had joined with more than 70 other faith-based, humanitarian and human rights groups in signing a "Unity Statement and Call to Action" in response to the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Darfur, Sudan. Hooper also cautioned against portraying the crisis in terms of ethnic stereotypes or allowing exploitation of the suffering to promote political or religious agendas. The Council called for both the release of a British teacher jailed in Sudan for "insulting Islam" and for stepped up dialogue between the West and the Muslim world.

Gibbons should never have been charged and she should be released immediately. Even if there was intent to cause insult, which does not seem to be the case, Islamic traditions include a number of instances in which the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him had the opportunity to strike back at those who attacked him, but refrained from doing so. Tunisia : The Muslim civil rights and advocacy organization called on the government of Tunisia to respect the religious rights of women in that nation who choose to wear an Islamic headscarf, or "hijab.

People of all faiths must be granted the right to freely practice their religion without government interference or intimidation. Department of State about the organization's concerns regarding religious freedom in Turkey. Religious practices as simple as the wearing of a head scarf or going on pilgrimage to Mecca are viewed as acts of political subversion," said CAIR Executive Director Nihad Awad, one of the participants in the discussion.

The council later asked for the release of an American detained in Turkey saying, "Turkey has a long history of human and religious rights violations, including banning Islamic attire in government offices and universities, and labeling normal religious activity as 'extremist. Education Recognizing that the more people know about Islam the less likely they are to discriminate against Muslims, CAIR has undertaken numerous educational efforts.

The organization has issued surveys and reports, as well as hosted panel and town hall forums to increase knowledge and awareness of Islam. CAIR's educational efforts have also included developing a portrait of the American Muslim community. Marines and other institutions first-hand training on Islam and those who practice the faith. In the same vein, CAIR worked for years hosting Department of State sponsored delegations from dozens of majority and minority Muslim countries. In , the organization joined with the Islamic Media Foundation to begin Ramadan by launching a first-ever public service announcement campaign.

The two PSAs focused on "the importance of being kind to mothers and on hijab, the Muslim women's attire that is often stereotyped and misunderstood. In , to counter the growing numbers of cases involving workplace discrimination, CAIR sought to educate the public about Muslim practices and to educate Muslims about their rights.

The "Employer's Guide to Islamic Religious Practices" booklet addresses issues employers of Muslims may face in the workplace. Topics discussed included Islamic attire in the workplace, minimum requirements for Islamic prayers, Muslim dietary laws and legal precedents for accommodating religious practices. This guide series now contains similar guides for educators, law enforcement officials, health care professionals and correctional institutions. The study was the largest and most comprehensive survey of its kind to be conducted in the United States.

Bagby noted that 93 percent of all mosques are attended by more than one ethnic group. Some major findings contained in the survey included:. In CAIR launched a billboard campaign "designed to promote tolerance, unity and kindness" The billboards had the message "Even a smile is Charity - a message from your Muslim neighbor" written on them. In the research department published a survey that found that "1-in-4 Americans believes a number of anti-Muslim stereotypes and negative images of Muslims are 16 times more prevalent than positive ones" Two years later a follow-up survey showed "that some one-fourth 23 to 27 percent of Americans consistently believe stereotypes such as: 'Muslims value life less than other people,' and 'The Muslim religion teaches violence and hatred.

CAIR's year-long campaign, launched in , called "Explore Islamic Civilization and Culture," encouraged Muslim individuals and groups to sponsor item "library packages" of books, videos and audio cassettes about Islam and Muslims, which were then distributed to public libraries nationwide. Other library package materials included a copy of the Quran, Islam's revealed text; children's books on Ramadan and mosque architecture; and a book describing the experiences of African-Muslim slaves brought to America. Launched in November , CAIR's "Beyond Stereotypes" educational campaign aimed at members of the media raised awareness about Islam and Muslim through the publishing of "American Muslims: A Journalist's Guide to Understanding Islam and Muslims," over 40, copies of which have been distributed to members of the media.

Both the Explore the Quran and Explore the Life of Muhammad campaigns, in which free materials about Islam are given to people who request them, were launched as a way to turn a negative event into a positive. Explore the Quran was initiated following allegations that a Quran was flushed down a toilet at the Guantanamo Bay detention facility; Explore the Life of Muhammad came in the wake of cartoons published in Denmark that defamed Islam's prophet.

Civic Engagement Non-partisan voter registration drives and civic forums are a hallmark of CAIR's civic engagement campaigns. CAIR has called voting a "civic duty. CAIR Executive Director Nihad Awad had this to say about Muslim civic engagement: "Muslims have a duty to make a positive impact on this society, and voting is one of the most effective means to accomplish this goal. In , CAIR asked Muslim prayer leaders, or imams, to encourage voting in their sermons during communal Friday prayers. The centers used phone banks staffed by volunteers to urge eligible Muslim voters to go to the polls on Election Day.

CAIR, with the indispensable assistance of individual Muslim activists, responded to the need for more proactive initiatives in the elections by:. CAIR also provided information about voter registration, polling station locations, and absentee ballots and issued voter guides detailing the candidates' stances on issues of importance to Muslims. CAIR's election website contained the most comprehensive picture of the successes and concerns of the Muslim community in the campaign season.

The website included frequent updates on media reports, original content in the form of opinion articles, a list of Muslims who ran for public office and a record of anti-Muslim rhetoric throughout the primaries and general election. The site also included a universal voter guide that provided general information about the election, such as candidate positions and biographies and voter guides specific to twenty states and the District of Columbia to inform citizens of polling times and locations, absentee voting, and voter rights in their places of residence.

CAIR conducted 42 civic participation training events for the community nationwide in The organization worked with like-minded groups to bring candidates to speak directly to the Muslim community in California, Florida, New Jersey, Ohio and Oklahoma. One hundred twenty-three organized voter registration drives were held, along with an uncounted number of informal voter registration efforts at community functions.

One of CAIR's core messages to Muslims during election season was to volunteer for the campaign or party of their choice. CAIR began by releasing publicity kits about Islam. The Ramadan and Hajj publicity kits contained media relations tips, news release templates and creative ideas for events to assist local communities in publicizing and improving the understanding of Islamic holidays and practices.

The organization joined with other Muslim groups in calling on Imam Jamil Al-Amin to turn himself in to federal authorities following news that an warrant for his arrest had been issued in Georgia. That statement noted: "In order that all the facts in this case be known and that justice be allowed to take its course, we ask that Jamil Al-Amin surrender immediately to the FBI.

A fair and impartial trial can then move forward based, as always, on the presumption of innocence. The release accompanying the announcement read, in part:. CAIR-MN facilitated the offer after inaccurate reports surfaced of cab drivers refusing to serve passengers with guide dogs. Shirley quoted Islam's Prophet Muhammad, who said: "There are many doors to goodness Muslim taxi drivers claim that they have been misunderstood and misrepresented in the media.

Their rights come first. In , CAIR ventured into anti-smoking efforts by calling on Muslims to use the month of Ramadan as an opportunity to quit smoking permanently. Muslims Care, an annual program designed to promote volunteerism in the Muslim community, was launched in Through the program, Muslim leaders are encouraged to give sermons about volunteerism and community members receive ideas on suggested volunteer activities such as blood drives, health awareness fairs and student tutoring.

Part of the program has included urging Muslims to participate in annual Komen Race for the Cure events, which raise breast cancer awareness. CAIR was among the organizations that helped mobilize more than 2, Muslims to serve food, work registration tables and provide "solace to storm-displaced victims at the George R.

Brown Convention Center" following Hurricane Katrina. The organization urged Muslims to donate to a fund created to aid victims of the DC sniper shootings. The organization has asked Muslims to spend their charity in aid of victims of many disasters. Often during Ramadan, CAIR chapters will coordinate drives to provide clothes and food to the needy in their neighborhoods. CAIR also called on Muslims to pray for those who died as a result of an earthquake in Turkey and, along with New York Muslim leaders, coordinated a prayer service to memorialize those who died in the EgyptAir Flight tragedy.

Muslims were also called upon to pray for miners trapped after a cave-in in West Virginia. Terror Condemnations [Note: This subject is covered more fully in the document on CAIR's persistent and consistent condemnation of terrorism ]. During the period from covered by this review, CAIR issued 84 releases that condemn terrorism. CAIR's formula on terrorism is simple and comprehensive: CAIR condemns terrorism whenever it happens, wherever it happens, whoever commits it.

In , CAIR made the following statements in the wake of the arrest of an Algerian man who was allegedly attempting to smuggle bomb-making materials into the United States from Canada:. CAIR coordinated a fatwa, or Islamic religious ruling, against terrorism in The fatwa was issued by the Fiqh Council of North America and endorsed by more than American Muslim organizations, mosques and imams.

Amin al-Husseini

Among the statements in the fatwa are the following:. CAIR has condemned specific terrorist groups by name. Department of State as a 'Foreign Terrorist Organization. CAIR called a attack on Israeli civilians " In , CAIR hosted a press conference at its Capitol Hill headquarters at which a number of Muslim religious leaders issued a statement saying, "The targeting of civilians has always been prohibited in Islam. Those who kidnap and murder civilians are violating Islamic norms and deserve to be repudiated by Muslims in America, in Iraq and throughout the Islamic world.

As it states in the Quran, Islam's revealed text: 'If anyone slays a human being Following a series of bombings in Spain that left almost people dead CAIR called on prayer leaders, or Imams, in mosques across America and the Muslim world to use sermons at Friday congregational prayers Jumah to convey the message that terrorists are destroying the image of their faith. CAIR sent two of its senior staff to Baghdad, Iraq in to appeal for the release of Jill Carroll, an American journalist who was kidnapped and being held there.

Also in , responding to the reported mutilation of two U. These problems will not be solved by eliminating references to God from public discourse. The statement 'With God, all things are possible' is not, as the court stated, 'a uniquely Christian thought.

For example, verse of chapter 2 states: 'Know you not that God is able to do all things? CAIR was critical of a U. Supreme Court ruling that barred student-led prayers at high school sporting events. CAIR said the ruling would limit the free speech of students and could have a negative impact on Muslim students who are obligated to pray during the school day. CAIR's statement read in part:.

While we would not support school-imposed prayers, we agree with Justice Rehnquist's dissent in which he states that today's decision 'bristles with hostility to all things religious in public life. Similarly, CAIR welcomed a Supreme Court ruling allowing after-hours meeting space for school religious groups saying, "Equal treatment for people of faith is not government endorsement. The organization supported a Christian bus driver's right to wear what she believed to be a religiously-mandated headscarf. The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority had announced its intent to fire driver Kim Harris because she would not wear a standard uniform cap.

Harris cited 1 Corinthians as saying "that a woman must be covered. If she's not covered, it dishonors her head, which is God. CAIR also criticized as "tasteless and insensitive" a television commercial promoting professional wrestling that shows "Jesus" gambling with the devil in a sports bar, condemned a political advertisement that attacked the Church of Christ of Latter-day Saints, or Mormons, and offered condolences and called for interfaith solidarity following the brutal murder of an Egyptian Coptic Christian family.

While condemning a attack on a California Jewish center, CAIR noted, "Unfortunately, this incident is just the latest entry in a long list of attacks on Jewish, Christian and American Muslim houses of worship and, along with the other incidents, must be seen as a product of prejudice and stereotyping. CAIR condemned an Iranian cartoon contest mocking the Holocaust, an anti-Semitic article published in a British Columbia Muslim newsletter and called on an Arab publication that printed excerpts of the protocols of the Elders of Zion to apologize.

The organization has also condemned an apparent bias attack on a rabbinical assistant in Brooklyn in which the attackers were apparently Muslim , racist and anti-Semitic comments made by a Columbus, Ohio police officer, an apparently anti-Semitic attack on a Penn State Jewish student and the vandalism of a Chicago synagogue. CAIR called on the government of Afghanistan to release Abdul Rahman, a man facing the death penalty for converting from Islam to Christianity, noting that the man's conversion is a personal matter not subject to the intervention of the state.

CAIR condemned the burning of churches in Nigeria by people angered over the publication of cartoons defaming Prophet Muhammad. The organization called on Muslims in America and worldwide to donate to help repair Palestinian churches that were damaged following remarks by Pope Benedict XVI perceived as critical of Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. They experience apartheid-like policies such as: forced expulsions, home demolitions, land confiscation, massacres, discrimination, humiliation, harassment, torture, ethnic segregation, and denial of basic human and religious liberties.

The Christian population of Jerusalem drops daily.