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Sepetinizi inceleyiniz. Published in According to Wikipedia: "Troilus and Cressida is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in It was also described by Frederick S. Boas as one of Shakespeare's problem plays. The play ends on a very bleak note with the death of the noble Trojan Hector and destruction of the love between Troilus and Cressida.
Throughout the play, the tone lurches wildly between bawdy comedy and tragic gloom, and readers and theatre-goers have frequently found it difficult to understand how one is meant to respond to the characters. However, several characteristic elements of the play the most notable being its constant questioning of intrinsic values such as hierarchy, honour and love have often been viewed as distinctly "modern" The title means "Love-struck", and refers not only to Troilo, but to the anonymous, probably autobiographical narrator, who has been dumped by his mistress, and is writing her an extended poem comparing his misery to Troilo's in the hope that he can persuade her to return.
The war alternately throbs away in the background and jolts the characters from their erotic idylls and back to reality. In the process, he invented the often disquieting figure of Pandaro, Criseida's cousin and the go-between who brings the lovers together, but whose failures of emotional imagination also exacerbate Troilo's anguish after Criseida's desertion.
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In Il Filostrato, however, he's an attractive young man, roughly Troilo's age, professing love for an unnamed - or possibly non-existent - woman, and disturbingly given to vicarious participation in other men's emotional and sexual lives. Criseida, meanwhile, is a widow, and therefore, in Boccaccio's eyes, an experienced, practical woman, who muses on her right to erotic pleasure without remarrying.
Once she has encountered Diomede, whom she considers as being "by nature inclined to love", Boccaccio leaves her to focus entirely on Troilo's growing awareness of her betrayal and his increasing emotional vulnerability. Chaucer's discovery of Il Filostrato was the trigger for his own Troilus and Criseyde, completed in the mid s. The two works are frequently compared, usually to emphasise the expansive subtlety of Chaucer's version. As in Boccaccio, Criseyde is a widow capable of voicing her emotional and sexual longings.
Yet in Chaucer we are more conscious of how her desires are circumscribed by a world that not only wages war for women but uses them for political trade. Her relationship with Diomede, which she views as emblematic of her own moral failure, is also motivated by a need for survival. Chaucer's Troilus has lost the tendency to self-pity that we find in Boccaccio's Troilo, and his expressions of grief have an often excruciating intensity.
Much of the poem's force, however, derives from its authorial stance. Chaucer's ability to swerve from the demotic to the spiritual allows him both to view his characters through the eyes of a knowing, slightly world-weary narrator and to surround their story with metaphysics of considerable complexity. Where Boccaccio is consistently, and gloriously worldly, Chaucer presents his pagan characters as possessing insights into a Christian revelation that is forever beyond their grasp.
Troilus talks to Pandarus as if he is in the confessional, and after Criseyde's desertion adopts a standpoint derived from the 6th century philosopher Boethius.
The characters are subject to fortune as God's instrument of earthly transience, yet are unable to understand the counterbalancing force of his grace. The ending is extraordinary. After Troilus's death at the hands of Achilles, his soul ascends to the eighth sphere of heaven, where he is able to look down on the Earth and laugh at all its woes before being guided by Mercury to his last resting place.
The final palinode contrasts the fragility of earthly desire with the eternal love of God. Troilus and Criseyde's greatness is often emphasised at the expense of both Boccaccio's originality and the furious power of Henryson's The Testament of Cresseid, written in Scots around and all too frequently referred to, erroneously, as a sequel to Chaucer's poem.
In chronological terms, its narrative runs parallel to Chaucer's fifth and final book.
Henryson invents a horrific close to Cresseid's life, and in the process takes the story's moral and metaphysical questioning to startling levels. Dumped by Diomede, Cresseid turns to the "court commoun" of prostitution, before reviling Venus and Cupid for ruining her life.
In one of the poem's many disquieting set pieces, the classical gods associated with the seven planets of medieval astronomy and astrology descend from their spheres and infect her with leprosy as punishment for blasphemy. The lovers are permitted one horrendous final meeting. Cresseid is reduced to earning her living by begging indiscriminately from Greek and Trojan soldiers as they return from battle. Troilus one day drops his purse into her lap. Neither recognises the other, though the leper-woman vaguely reminds Troilus of his lost love.
Cresseid dies after being told his identity, but not before she has returned a ring that Troilus once gave her. At the poem's close we find Troilus, his love untouched by circumstances, devotedly, perhaps obsessively, tending Cresseid's grave. The remorseless narrative is balanced by deep ambiguities within the poem. Leprosy was believed to be sexually transmitted in the late middle ages, though the anguish and disfigurement it entailed was also thought to bring the sufferer into a close relationship with God.
Anger and compassion pulse through Henryson's verse. Cresseid's extreme suffering is an outrage greater than any offence she may have committed. The morally balanced medieval world-view is beginning to buckle and break. When we encounter Troilus and Cressida in Shakespeare, we find them teetering on the brink of nihilism. Even here, they are shrouded in ambiguities: once read as an examination of an idealist's catastrophic passion for a tart, the play is nowadays viewed as a study of the futility of war, in which female sexuality has become a primary instrument of survival.