Radcliffe, S. Rea, K. The Political Economy of the Canadian North. Rich, E. Said, E. Vintage Press, New York. Saxinger, G. Boom back or blow back? Edward Elgar Publishing Cheltenham. Science Council of Canada. Scott, J. Sergeev, M. Vol 1, Sidaway, J. D,, Blunt and C. McEwan Eds. Continuum New York: Continuum. Shields, R. Slavin, S. Progress Publishers, Moscow.
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Siberians Sitting on Their Suitcases. Problems of Economic Transition, 48, Introduction The opening Arctic and its wealth of resources inspire sweeping claims that the region represents a new emerging market. However catchy, these claims are not backed by data nor based in theory regarding what constitutes an emerging market. Ryan R. The problem of defining what is—and what is not—an emerging market EM goes well beyond the Arctic.
There are more than a dozen definitions of what constitutes an EM, but no single framework is widely accepted by economists, statisticians, and investors. We propose that emerging markets do not necessarily exist exclusively at the nationallevel in developing nations but can also be found at the subnational level within jurisdictions of developed countries.
We determine which EM definitions hold up when applied to the Arctic, and which do not. We then argue that the Arctic can in fact be considered an EM by using a novel EM definition that we propose is more germane to the Arctic than traditional frameworks. With this proposed definition in mind, we conclude by discussing mechanisms that can better facilitate the flow of investment capital to the Arctic.
Existing EM Definitions and How they Apply to the Arctic There are many ways to define emerging markets, and investors, researchers, and financial service providers have found myriad ways to classify, categorize, and package them. Traditionally, EMs have been considered low- or middle-income countries with low average standards of living, where capital markets are underdeveloped, and a process of economic liberalization is taking root or expected Mody, Since then, economists, financial firms, development organizations, governments, and news agencies have developed their own definitions and classifications of which countries deserve the EM designation.
Below we examine three of the most prominent frameworks and assess whether they would consider the Arctic an EM. The IMF deems an economy an emerging market if it does not meet its definitions of an advanced economy or a LIDC, which makes it one of the more inclusive EM definitions. The IMF distinguishes between advanced economies, EMs, and LIDCs based on 1 per capita income levels, 2 export diversification, and 3 degree of integration into the global financial system.
First, statistical bureaus generally do not track gross national income GNI at the regional level which would be gross regional income GRI , thus making a comparison between subnational Arctic jurisdictions and countries based on these metrics difficult. The IMF does not, however, provide a similar statistical income cutoff to distinguish between advanced economies and EMs.
See Appendix 1 for a full breakdown of average per capita GRP for all 25 Arctic jurisdictions. It is important to note that there are shortcomings in using per capita GRP in the Arctic to measure economic activity and output. The IMF also evaluates markets based on export diversification, a metric devised primarily to prevent oil exporters that have high per capita GDP from entering the advanced economy classification.
The IMF does not publish a standard threshold for export diversification, instead using it as a qualitative measure. In the Arctic, data related to export diversification is scarce. The last major study of export diversification in the region was conducted in The study found that petroleum and mining accounted for Furthermore, qualitative evidence since suggests that the share of GRP derived from these sources has increased Forbes, On this measure the pan-, North American, and Russian Arctic all exhibit poor export diversification, which is typically associated with EMs and not advanced economies IMF, Agosin, Here, we use the country classifications issued by MSCI, a financial indexing company that produces indices covering hundreds of market segments including emerging markets.
The World Bank defines emerging markets as having 1 lower-than-average per capita GDP, 2 rapid growth, 3 high volatility, 4 immature capital markets, and 5 higher-than-average returns for investors World Bank. In both Table 1 and Appendix 1 we note that the pan-Arctic, as well as all 25 Arctic jurisdictions in our study, have a per capita GRP higher than the world average. Once again, on this metric the Arctic does not qualify as an EM. Rapid Growth From to , the Arctic averaged 2. Therefore, we must infer reference growth rates from other markets.
Similarly, the average growth rate for the pan-Arctic area outpaced growth in the United States 1. It is worth noting that when we expand the time series to include the period to , the pan-Arctic has an average annual growth rate in GRP per capita of 5. Table 3 Arctic per capita GRP growth, Based primarily on growth rates in the Russian Arctic in comparison to our reference markets, we assess that both the Russian Arctic 3. Due to sample size concerns, we expand the time series to include the period from to In the year study period the pan-Arctic exhibits a volatility in GRP growth rates 4.
We find that the North American Arctic exhibits the highest volatility in growth rates among Arctic regions 6. Higher-than-Average Returns for Investors Quantifying investor returns in the Arctic is difficult due to a lack of publicly available data. As yet, no financial indices of public equities with operations in the Arctic have been published that could serve as proxies for total expected returns.
Furthermore, whether the North American Arctic, for example, provides higher-than-average returns compared to the Russian Arctic is similarly difficult to observe in the absence of regional Arctic equities indices. In the private investment space, including private equity investments, returns data are proprietary and generally not made publicly available.
The Russian Arctic exhibits the most EM criteria given its high growth rates and immature capital markets. Financial Index Providers A third major classifier of the state of national economies is the financial indexing industry. For many in the financial community these classifications are among the most commonly used definitions of emerging markets. However, the methodology that financial index providers use to judge whether a market is emerging is imperfect when applied to the Arctic.
Based on the above data, the pan-Arctic, as well as all 25 sub-jurisdictions, exceed this threshold on a GRP basis and would be considered developed—not emerging—economies. In addition to per capita income, MSCI evaluates markets on nine other dimensions to determine whether they are developed, emerging, or frontier markets. See Table 6 for a full breakdown of how these financial index providers assess the eight Arctic states. In the Arctic, we are assessing sub-national jurisdictions.
However, there are well-known shortcomings to using GDP or GRP to evaluate economies, particularly in a sparsely populated, resource-rich geography like the Arctic. In particular, shortcomings include issues related to residency, government assistance, and subsistence activities. Residency In the Arctic, particularly in the extractive industries, a significant portion of the workforce can be composed of non-resident seasonal workers. Similarly, physical capital and profits from these activities can be controlled by owners outside of the region.
Much of the income produced in the Arctic leaves the region through rents, taxes, and wages paid to owners of resources and extraction processes who are located in non-Arctic regions. Rural jurisdictions in the Arctic, particularly in the North American Arctic, often do not generate sufficient tax revenue to pay for all public services needed in the region, requiring central governments to provide assistance. GRP does not include direct transfers such as welfare Lounsbury, Consequently, the per-capita GRP figures featured in this study are inflated in comparison to their relative purchasing power.
Such indices exist for certain Arctic regions and are lacking in others. In our study we concluded that using price adjusting indices where available would distort the data on a pan-Arctic level and introduce new and unknown data reliability issues. Overall, the results are mixed: neither the pan-Arctic nor the three sub-regions of the Arctic meet all the definitions of an EM. We propose that a definition of EMs more germane to the Arctic comes not from the standard definitions issued by large intergovernmental organizations or financial service providers, but from the literature of international business management and strategy.
The concept introduced by Khanna and Palepu offers a number of advantages over traditional EM definitions when applied to the Arctic. First, it avoids defining EMs strictly at the nation-state level, and instead focuses on transactional arenas. This distinction allows us to better apply the framework to a collection of sub-national jurisdictions spread across eight nations, as is the case in the Arctic. Second, it is not bounded by the application of metrics such as economic size, growth rate, or length of time since emergence into the global economy.
Instead, Khanna and Palepu. Finally, this definition captures the realities and difficulties of working and investing in the Arctic, particularly for companies and portfolio managers from outside the area with little or no experience operating in the region. Transaction costs unique to the Arctic include challenges related to physical access, including a lack of infrastructure in comparison to the natural resources present.
Challenges related to physical access are manifested in the need for specialized equipment at higher cost. Among the most notable examples of this phenomena include Shell's failed drilling efforts in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, which required the company to build a specialized light icebreaker at a cost of million USD Uljua, Reducing transaction costs for businesses, investors, and residents of the Arctic will result in improved living and economic conditions as well as greater ease of doing business Andreassen, 21 Len, In the case of Arctic capital markets, we argue that the most glaring institutional void is a lack of financial intermediaries.
A financial intermediary is an entity that acts as middleman between two parties to facilitate a transaction. In July David Rubenstein, co-founder of the billion USD money manager Carlyle Group, assessed that the Arctic would need an increase in financial intermediaries in the coming decades to better facilitate the flow of capital through the Arctic Rubenstein, Rubenstein called for Arctic-focused investment funds, including private equity funds and vehicles for institutional investors to gain exposure to the Arctic.
Rubenstein offered a forecast: such firms and funds would proliferate in the Arctic in the next five to ten years to fill this institutional void. Seven years later, Mr. Despite hinting at the creation of an Arctic infrastructure investment vehicle since , Guggenheim Partners Investment Management, a large manager of institutional wealth, has yet to. PT Capital, a small, Alaska-based boutique private equity firm focused exclusively on the Arctic, was only founded in There are a handful of regional funds that invest in bonds and equities in the Nordic region, but these vehicles do not focus specifically on the European Arctic.
Beyond that, few other financial intermediaries exist in the Arctic. The lack of financial intermediaries in the region is compounded by difficulties in securing traditional financing for Arctic business activities. The Business Index North BIN , a publication that tracks business activity in the European Arctic and parts of the Russian Arctic, found: Companies [in the Arctic] find it difficult to grow organically because of lack of financing.
In countries like Germany and Japan companies are supported to a greater extent by banks. Many banks in the [European and Russian Arctic] area, however, are reluctant and have fewer opportunities to support businesses. Investors are therefore crucial to support any business From a capital markets standpoint, in order to channel funds to attractive investment opportunities and facilitate access to capital for Arctic entrepreneurs and established companies, an increase in the size and innovative capacity of intermediaries is necessary.
Intermediaries needed include Arcticfocused private equity, venture capital, commercial banks, mutual funds, and insurance companies. Given the operating and investing challenges unique to the Arctic, creative, unique solutions will be needed. The PSI, which launched in March , provides Arctic projects with additional financing in order to reduce costs of pollution mitigation programs. What role these institutions play in Arctic economies, and how they could fill or exacerbate institutional voids, warrants further academic research.
Despite the challenges in developing business and investing activity in the Arctic, we believe there is reason to be optimistic about the future development of such intermediaries in the region. In the process of financial innovation in EMs, a key factor in capital markets is the presence of financial regulatory bodies and central banks, which reduce risk for investors and thereby lower the cost of capital for entrepreneurs and capital-needy companies. In most emerging markets, these government and regulatory institutions are absent or slow to develop, often lagging behind the development of financial intermediaries.
American and European Arctic, the opposite is true: regulatory infrastructure on the national-level is among the most highly developed in the world, and only the Arctic-focused intermediaries are lagging behind. A Framework for Placing Arctic Economies in the Global Context The Arctic is physically emerging due to climate change, technological improvements, and geoeconomic shifts. Despite intuitively feeling like the Arctic, with its trove of untapped resources and valuable geopolitical position, should be considered an emerging market, the region itself does not meet many of the traditional, albeit stale, definitions of an EM.
Based on the quantitative analysis performed in the beginning of this study, we concluded that the Arctic is not a EM by traditional standards. However, based on the qualitative analysis in the second part of this study, which looks at the Arctic through the lens of institutional voids, we do believe that the Arctic can be considered an EM. This inherent contradiction prompts the recommendation of a new framework for evaluating the Arctic economy, which borrows from both the traditional and the alternative methods of evaluation.
We propose that the Arctic should be thought of as a nascent transactional arena nestled inside of stable, highly developed economies where buyers and sellers nonetheless have difficulty coming together to conduct transactions, particularly in capital markets. In this sense, the Arctic is an emerging market, at least until the high transaction costs of investing and conducting business in the region are reduced.
The introduction of new, more sophisticated market intermediaries, derivatives, and investment vehicles tailored for the Arctic will be key. Notes 1. Due to government reporting practices, we include five Russian sub-national jurisdictions that are only partly located in the Arctic: Magadan, Komi Republic, Karelia Republic, Krasnoyarsk Krai, and Sakha Republic. Other regions that are excluded due to inadequate data coverage include Nunavik Canada and Svalbard Norway. Source: authors. Note: Study period is ; longer than the period referenced in the prior table. Source: See Appendix 2. References Agkyridou, N.
Agosin, M. Santiago: University of Chile. Andreassen, N. Energy in a Changing North. The Circle. World Wildlife Foundation 1. Andersson, C. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Aplin, J. What Future for the Arctic? Business Index North. Issue 02, p. Burnham, T. The National Bureau of Economic Research,th ser. Capitalizing on Good Times Publication No. Washington, D. Chatterjee, P. Working paper No. Bank of Canada. Conley, H. Economy and Industry in Greenland. Emerging Markets Brochure [Brochure]. Emmerson, C. Lloyd's of London and Chatham House. Establishing Emerging Markets. Eyraud, L.
Forbes, B. Impacts of Energy Development in Polar Regions. Encyclopedia of Energy, Retrieved March 23, Retrieved from www. Comparative analysis of Arctic economies at macro level Box II. In Askksen, I. Financial Times. Harris, R. Lecture presented at Global Challenges in D. Henriksen, S. Dialogue Review. Hickman, L. Guggenheim Partners announces Arctic investment fund. The Guardian. Huskey, L. Economic systems. Fondahl Eds. Regional processes and global linkages. TemaNord Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.
Jones, B. The Arctic as an Emerging Market [Audio blog post]. Kababi, A. Karlsson, P. Is the Arctic the Next Emerging Market? Strategy Business, Khanna, T. Boston: Harvard Business Press. Larsen, N. The Arctic as an Emerging Market. Scenario Magazine. Len, C. Policy brief. Energy Studies Institute. Lounsbury, J. International Monetary Fund. Market Classification Framework.
Mody, A. What is an Emerging Market? IMF Research Department. Nalimov, P. Socio-economic problems of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug development. Procedia Economics and Finance, 24, Poppel, B, Kruse, J. Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic Results. Rubenstein, D. Tett, G. The Story of the Brics. The Financial Times. Is the Arctic an Emerging Market? Uljua, R. Anchorage Daily News. Defining Emerging Markets. Wheatley, J. World Bank. Reported in current USD. Reported in current basic prices, billions of rubles. The decision not to grant a license for resource development based on a technical uncertainty AREVA was not able to provide a start-date for the mining project due to a depressed uranium market underlies a far more complex and ongoing negotiation with uncertainty.
Sites of uncertainty are spaces — physical, temporal, emotional, material, discursive and so on—that are occupied by a state of not knowing. Based on recent qualitative fieldwork in Baker Lake, this paper will identify key sites of uncertainty where AREVA, government officials, Inuit organizations, and community residents constructed, negotiated, expressed, transformed, experienced, and responded to uranium mining as a resource development controversy. This paper will demonstrate how this epistemological approach resulted in claims to certainty that were deeply contested and deconstructed when positioned against the contextual and relational knowledge of local residents.
Inuit Interviewee, December 12th, , Baker Lake. Myra J. As a result, AREVA was not able to provide a specific start date or development schedule during the final review process. The NIRB contended that this served to amplify existing knowledge uncertainties in the assessment, stemming from current limitations in scientific data related to the impacts on caribou, fish, and marine wildlife NIRB, a. This said, the NIRB explicitly stated that its recommendation did not preclude future approval, as AREVA may resubmit their proposal once they are able to provide a start date.
In this paper, we will argue that the Kiggavik Project deliberations, hotly contested and at times acrimonious, demonstrate diverging engagements with uncertainty. Studies in Baker Lake have focused on exploring the diverse, heterogeneous, and conflicting socio-economic and socio-cultural impacts related to relatively recent experiences with the mineral economy, and more specifically focused on the development of the Meadowbank Mine Czyzewski et al. This theoretical framework will enable an exploration of diverging engagements with, and responses to, uncertainty in the context of resource development conflicts.
Our empirical study employed qualitative research methods, including archival research5, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews. This paper draws on fieldwork conducted in Baker Lake during November and December of This study consisted of 22 interviews. All interviewees were Baker Lake residents, 19 identified as Inuit and three identified as Qablunaat. Following this, we introduce the concept of sites of uncertainty. Nunavut is the largest northern territory in Canada. Baker Lake is located close to the geographic centre of Canada and has a population of fewer than 2, people Ladik, As an inland community, local residents rely heavily on terrestrial wildlife including barren-ground caribou and to a lesser extent muskox, as well as Arctic char, lake trout, and other fish from Baker Lake Scottie, However, it was not until after the Second World War that Inuit experienced intensive Canadian government interest, control, and governance.
By the end of the s, most Inuit in the Kivalliq region had relocated into settlements in large part because of the forced settler colonial education of their children Bernauer, ; McGregor, Increased dependency on government economic support, cultural and economic transformation, and loss of political autonomy, land and resource control has had acute and ongoing economic, social and cultural implications.
Many Inuit communities, including Baker Lake, now face severe challenges such as marginal access to health services, overcrowded housing, and high rates of food insecurity, unemployment, substance abuse, and suicide Billson, Yet, its entanglement with mineral exploration activities, caribou habitat, and the Kivalliq region is particularly relevant for contextualizing the Kiggavik Project controversy. Since the late s the region has experienced extensive and ongoing uranium exploration, which has resulted in the identification of multiple high-grade uranium deposits beneath sensitive caribou habitat McPherson, Opposition to mineral exploration began in the early s, mostly out of concern that these activities were adversely impacting caribou herds.
In , the Hamlet of Baker Lake, the Baker Lake Hunters and Trappers Association, and many local residents launched a court case to halt mineral exploration on Inuit hunting grounds, based on the claim that exploration was infringing on Aboriginal rights, including the right to hunt, fish, and move freely on traditional Inuit land Bernauer, ; Elliot, While this court case recognized Aboriginal title, setting the stage for future land claim negotiations, it highlighted that unless Inuit could prove that their rights were being infringed upon, they had little control over land use management in the region: mineral exploration continued in the Baker Lake area Bernauer, ; McPherson, The Agreement stipulates that Inuit organizations receive defined rights and benefits in exchange for the abolishment of their Aboriginal title.
These rights and benefits include 1. The Agreement further outlines protocols for rights concerning non-Inuit lands, resource development environmental assessments, and land-use planning Cameron, It is in this compromised social and economic context that Baker Lake residents have repeatedly found themselves at the centre of multinational extraction industry attention.
Globally, Canada is the second largest producer of uranium. Historically, uranium mining proposals have been met with resistance from Baker Lake residents. In , the German company Urangesellschaft UG proposed the construction of two open-pit uranium mines, a transportation corridor, a work camp, and a two-kilometer-long airstrip McPherson, On two separate sites, the Kiggavik Project proposed to develop four open-pit mines and one underground mine. Had it been approved, the Project would have extracted and processed approximately 44, tonnes of uranium, consumed 1.
All of this would have occurred in a permafrost environment with extremely high winds, which undermines the stability of long-term tailings storage and facilitates the rapid dispersion of contaminants if an accident were to occur. Essentially, AREVA wanted to secure extraction and long-term uranium tailings storage rights indefinitely and begin its operations in a more economically profitable climate.
As this paper will demonstrate, this controversy underlies a complex and ongoing negotiation with uncertainty, one that calls for a cautionary and reflexive approach to claiming knowledge about the future. These are situations in which: We cannot anticipate the consequences of decisions that are likely to be made; we do not have sufficiently precise knowledge of the conceivable options, the description of the constitution of possible worlds comes up against resistant cores of ignorance, and the behavior and interactions of the entities making them up remain enigmatic. The conditions required for it to be relevant to talk of risk are not met.
As Callon et al. Drawing on Callon et al. Indeed, this framework helps to reveal the unique and diverse dimensions of uncertainty that constitute these spaces and so too the controversy. More importantly, it helps us to trace the dimensions of uncertainty that are of interest or not to different actors and why. In the following sections, we further refine this framework through an exploration of two key sites of uncertainty: the environmental impacts of the proposed project and its socio-economic costs and benefits.
Through our empirical analysis, we identified these two sites as key areas of concern both at the community-level and during the environmental review process. We will investigate the various ways through which AREVA, government officials, Inuit organizations, and community residents negotiated, expressed, transformed, experienced, and responded to uncertainty at these sites.
Our analysis contrasts two epistemological approaches to knowledge that were embedded in these sites: a western epistemology anchored by certainty gained through reason provisioned by a stable and unchanging environment, and an Inuit epistemology that forefronts provisional actions within the context of a constantly changing environment.
First, we demonstrate how AREVA attempted to maintain a consistent western epistemological approach to uncertainty. Lastly, we argue that local residents resolved this entangled. This anthropocentric worldview considers nature to be both separate from humans and ultimately amenable to human intervention and control Klein, In western epistemologies, not knowing tends to refer to an absence, lack, or failure of knowledge Cameron, Therefore, the response to uncertainty is to enhance the quality and scope of the knowledge base, as Shelia Jasanoff emphasizes: The great mystery of modernity is that we think of certainty as an attainable state.
Uncertainty has become the threat to collective action, the disease that knowledge must cure. It is the condition that poses cruel dilemmas for decision-makers; that must be reduced at any cost; that is tamed with scenarios and assessments; and that feeds the frenzy for new knowledge, much of it scientific 33, emphasis added.
Uncertainty is understood to be both a threat and a barrier to rational decision-making and effective action. As such, predictive methods, such as those used by the extractive industry, have been developed to manage, control, and ultimately reduce what is deemed to be uncertain Jasanoff, Yet, as Callon et al.
For instance, the approaches are overly fixated on what can be known, and, consequently, downplay uncertainties that escape prediction and calculation Jasanoff, , As such, these methods fail to address and adequately respond to uncertainties that exist outside of their explicit as well as tacit framing assumptions Jasanoff, According to AREVA , its framework for environmental protection and management was based on the view that inadequate control over environmental uncertainties is largely related to knowledge inadequacies, and, consequently, focuses on increasing that knowledge i.
NIRB, b: Specifically, AREVA displaced the uncertainties concerning the effects on caribou mortality and movement onto the harvesting practices of local residents and the variability in caribou migration patterns. Paradoxically, while this externalizing technique meant that AREVA necessarily acknowledged ongoing uncertainty, it also determined that the Kiggavik Project would not have significant impacts on caribou herds. It is the result not only of a given project, but of the interaction of that project with the broader, continuously evolving economic, social, and cultural environment.
Other projects, government initiatives, improved technologies, and other factors continuously influence the socioeconomic environment. It is important to recognize that any future changes in the socioeconomic environment will not be the result only of the project but also of other forces of change in NIRB, c: While this statement appears to recognize the difficulty in establishing causal relationships between the proposed project and socio-economic impacts, AREVA was nevertheless confident in their determination that the project would have overall positive and significant socio-economic impacts.
AREVA contended that this determination was based on their assessment of positive and significant effects within the following major socio-economic components: community economies; community well-being; public infrastructure and services; non-traditional land use and land use planning; and the economy of Nunavut ibid.
The positive and significant impacts attributed to community economies were related to predicted which became certain increases in employment, income, contracting, education and training opportunities AREVA, This strategy attempts to create certainty surrounding the positive benefits, specifically employment and the consequential increases in income. In the Final Hearings, an AREVA representative expanded upon their determinants of well-being: The effects on well-being were predicted to be overall positive and significant.
The negative effects on culture may erode well-being for some people but broadening choices and opportunities for livelihoods are counteracting factors. Generally, reductions in income poverty are associated with improved well-being. Well-being is influenced by many factors including culture, employment, education, personal-health habitats, but socioeconomic status is generally agreed to be the most important determinant to well-being NIRB, c: As such, AREVA conceptualized well-being in a way that emphasizes the importance of employment, while minimizing the importance of culture, enabling AREVA to determine that the project would have overall positive and significant effects on community well-being.
Inuit have lived in the Arctic for thousands of years and have developed practices that support an intimate relationship with a changing environment Kuptana, Jose Kusugak emphasizes how Inuit cosmologies do not view humans and nature as separate entities: The Arctic has sustained us and defined us. We are part of the Arctic landscape and seascape and the Arctic landscape are a part of us The epistemological approach that follows characterizes the environment as constantly changing, which requires ongoing human adaptation.
Knowledge of the land, of living is always, therefore, provisional and based on experience. Teachers who visit the website can view a selection of SNAP-developed IEAs and their supporting materials, including student and teacher versions of each assessment, scoring rubrics, and sample student work. The 4-H Science in Urban Communities website has a checklist to help K—12 teachers and informal educators evaluate the quality and effectiveness of after-school science, technology, engineering, and math STEM programs. Developed as part of a national initiative to enhance the quality and quantity of 4-H science programs, the checklist asks questions such as these: Does the program support national science learning standards?
Are learning experiences led by trained adults who believe youth are partners and resources in their own development? Do activities use inquiry to foster natural creativity and curiosity? Appropriate for K—12 students, the Phylo Trading Card Game highlights species that live on planet Earth while addressing threats to ecosystems such as wildfires, oil spills, and climate change. Printable card decks feature themes like pond biodiversity, microbes, and dinosaurs. Access card templates and rules at the website. Explore genomics in everyday life with digital resources developed by Illumina Foundation and Discovery Education.
Targeted for middle and high school levels, the curriculum program features ready-to-use digital lessons and activities that show students how genes interact with each other and the environment through genomics. In addition, the lessons introduce students to potential careers. Empower students ages 8—15 to address climate change issues using the games, articles, and information on this Canadian-based website.
Climate Kids introduces climate science and presents action steps for students to take in their homes, schools, and communities. In addition, teachers can download a PDF of simple conservation measures to help protect the planet and reduce the impacts of climate change. Designed to be completed within a minute period, lessons incorporate brief narrated videos and include student activities. Science Education International, a publication of the International Council of Associations for Science Education, published a learning progression LP on climate change created by faculty from the University of Maryland and University of Delaware.
The first dimension of the LP is titled Human Activity. The LP is based on data from more than middle school students and provides a map of how learner understanding of climate change develops. The organization has assessed the major areas of public health employment to identify prominent occupations and relevant specializations, and provide employment and salary data. It shows cited arguments for and against [hu]man-made climate change," said an NSTA member about this website. Teachers, librarians, university faculty, and educators worldwide have used www.
The site's Teachers' Corner provides studies, articles, lesson plan ideas, national standards, and other teacher resources related to the impact of critical thinking. All are posted in a searchable format by country, state, grade level, or subject. George Washington University's online Masters of Public Health program has created this online guide, which provides some of the most effective ways individuals can help the planet in their daily life, as well as teach others about reducing harm to the environment. With the option to filter how much time, money, and effort a person can dedicate, individuals are able to see how they can contribute in a meaningful way that fits into their budget and lifestyle.
Young Voices for the Planet YVFP , a nonprofit organization, is committed to empowering youth to fight climate change through uplifting success stories. The YVFP website has short films of youth across the country and planet who are catalyzing the fight against climate change in their communities.
She rallied a community to successfully close a power plant that gave her and her peers asthma and other medical conditions. It provides educators with success stories to help develop students' self-efficacy: their belief in themselves to make change in their own lives and in the world at large. Eco believes that monumental changes begin with the youngest members of society. He has combined his passions for sustainability, wildlife conservation, and hip-hop to create an environmental rap hero that uses music to empower children to become activists called EcoHeroes.
Eco uses his blend of "edutainment" to teach our youth that their local actions impact ecosystems and wildlife globally. See also www. He has written an autobiography that presents some of the work he has done, including the invention of the concept map tool now being used in schools, businesses. The book has been posted online for anyone to read at no cost. The website also offers a PowerPoint summary of Novak's career. Once matched, teacher and volunteer collaborate to decide how to share experiences with each other, such as through pictures, letters, or webchats or by co-authoring a blog.
To learn more and register, visit the website. Created as an accessible and engaging way for middle and high school students and others to learn about STEM occupations, the table features information e. Teachers can also join the PSEP Education Community to participate in monthly webinars and stewardship—themed book club discussions. Lessons and extension materials accompany each tour. Learn more and download the program at the website. Mint Education Outreach department has released a collection of resources—including lesson plans, commemorative coins, games, and videos—to generate interest in space exploration and coins among K—12 audiences.
For example, Sunny Symbols, a lesson for grades 4—6, teaches students the meaning of the Zia Sun symbol on the quarter, then provides opportunities to investigate relationships among the Earth, Moon, and Sun. Similarly, Amazing Auroras, a lesson for grades 7—8, uses the Voyageurs National Park Quarter as a starting point to learn how the Northern Lights are formed. Space Supply, an arcade-inspired game for all ages, challenges players to race the clock to deliver supplies to space colonies from a space shuttle, while dodging asteroids, space debris, laser beams, and UFOs.
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The report—A Snapshot of Women of the USGS in STEM and Related Careers—presents profiles of more than 70 women, past and present, engaged in STEM roles at the agency, including biologist, biological science technician, cartographer, chemist, ecologist, geographer, geologist, hydrologist, hydrologist technician, and physical scientist.
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Visit the CTE Online Help Pages to watch introductory videos explaining how to navigate the site and maximize its capabilities. Imagine having a personal planetarium at your fingertips! With the recently updated Night Sky, an augmented reality—enabled app for iOS platforms, stargazing and science enthusiasts of all ages can study the stars, planets, constellations, and satellites above by simply aiming an iPhone, iPad, or Apple Watch skyward. Day or night, the app provides users with a live 3-D map of the sky, complete with illustrated constellation overlays, stars, planets, and satellites.
Developed by the Concord Consortium with NSF funding, these online curriculum modules for middle and high school levels explore issues facing scientists today, including climate change, the availability of fresh water, land management, air quality, space science, and energy choices. Each module contains six guided activities with embedded assessments that examine various sides of the topic and provide opportunities for students to work with data while learning to construct an argumentbased on evidence.
Parts of the planet struggle to get enough water. Students can use the game to build pipes, desalinate water, and conduct research based on different regions of the world. Most appropriate for the middle level, Aquation supports the NGSS for Earth Science and includes supplementary information about the benefits of using digital games in educational settings to build critical-thinking, systems thinking, problem-solving, and creativity skills. Access a game tutorial and play at the website. The California Academy of Sciences has created a professional development toolkit to help K—12 teachers demystify the Next Generation Science Standards NGSS and facilitate professional development workshops for colleagues.
The activities can stand alone or be used in progression to give educators a complete picture of the CCCs. Looking for resources to support goals in K—12 reading and science literacy? Then check out the website www. The literacy-themed website has resources like lesson plans, calendar activities, and videos to enhance STEM instruction.
To access them, choose a theme e. Teaching Gardens Network and Recognition Program. Sponsored by the American Heart Association AHA , this garden education initiative celebrates schools and organizations involved in implementing instructional gardens for preK—5 audiences. Teachers who join the Teaching Gardens Network receive a curriculum guide, naming recognition on the AHA website, and a certificate. Watch this web seminar to learn about the benefits of and best practices for teaching in an outdoor classroom.
The minute presentation highlights the Compass to Nature program, a universally applicable adaptable for any location, season, and age group outdoor education program developed by the U. The program centers on building relationships with nature through four components: place, journals, phenology, and naturalists. The seminar discusses each component of the place-based program and provides suggestions to spark ideas for adapting it to a specific site.
The article also includes advice for young scientists from women recently inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for their innovations in STEM fields such as bioengineering Frances Ligler , computer programming Radia Perlman , and chemistry Carolyn Bertozzi. Interested in engaging middle level students in climate change issues and caring for the environment? Developed at San Jose State University with funding from a National Science Foundation NSF grant, the Green Ninja Show is a series of short 1- to 3-minute humorous videos that inspire environmental awareness and teach students about the factors impacting climate change and what can be done about them.
These K—12 conservation lessons for the classroom were produced by the National Wildlife Federation and distributed through the Los Angeles Times in Education program and Newspapers in Education Online. The lessons are organized by themes such as habitat, ecosystems, and wildlife. In Go With the Flow grades 6—8 , students learn about watersheds, then map their own local watershed. In Massive Migration, students in grades 9—12 map and calculate the migration routes of Arctic species to learn about animals that spend part of their lives in the Arctic and how they are connected to other parts of the world for food and shelter.
Excite middle level students about science, and involve them in the search for solutions to the problem of plastics pollution in the oceans with these resources from Earth Echo International. The classroom lessons focus on helping students explore solutions such as developing alternatives to single-use plastics and engineering solutions to waste in schools, while the videos introduce students to careers in science fields and promote environmental stewardship.
Created by the Association of Science-Technology Centers and BP America—with input from educators, museum professionals, and scientists—the Energy Teacher Resource website offers a vetted collection of energy literacy activities, videos, websites, and other resources for professional developers, K—12 teachers, and parents. Educators can filter the database e. Of particular interest is the Argumentation Toolkit: How It Works, a simple exercise from the Denver Museum of Nature and Science that provides hands-on practice in evaluating pieces of evidence to support a claim and teaches middle level students how to discuss and argue with one another in a meaningful way.
Other notable resources include engineering design challenges for all ages, such as Sun Powered Cars and Designing and Testing Turbines, and hands-on activities to inspire creative thinking in elementary and middle level students, such as Zip Lines, Electric Scribbles, and LED Creations. Every month, Science, Naturally! Available in both English and Spanish, the one-page, literature-based, math- and science-themed brainteasers help students learn how to extract the important data needed to solve science, math, and logic problems while also strengthening reading skills.
The mysteries can be used as independent reading assignments, bell ringers, and assessment tools for math and science knowledge and literacy. Visit the website to read sample mysteries and register for the monthly e-mail. According to Nursing. At its worst,only one school nurse is available for every 4, students in those schools. For students living in poverty, school nurses often act as their primary, if not only, channel of accessing healthcare.
On top of this, children's chronic illnesses are at an all-time high, and a broader RN shortage is on the horizon. To encourage students to pursue a career in school nursing. They offer curated PBL projects for elementary, middle, and high school levels. The projects address various subjects and are meant to inspire your ideas or be adapted to fit the needs of your classroom. After nearly 15 years of offering Earth science data to educators and students, NASA continues to refine the My NASA Data program to better suit the needs of teachers and students in engaging students in authentic data analysis.
The site has been updated to include resources related to the 3 Dimensions of the Next Generation Science Standards. New for , DiscoverWater now works on all operating systems and devices. Produced by Project WET, this website features nine learning units designed for students at upper-elementary and middle levels. Topics covered include freshwater habitats, the water cycle, oceans, watersheds, water conservation, and healthy hydration, as well as concepts such as how soap and water interact to remove germs and how water is used in the production of everyday items.
New short videos introduce each topic. Resources for educators and parents, as well as assessment tools, are available for each unit. Featured channels have videos on general science, physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. In addition to popular channels like Veritasium and TED Science, the site introduces channels like Minute Earth "Science and stories about our awesome planet! Definitely a deep dive into the topic. Use this video and associated activity to teach students in grades 6—8 about wildfires and their impacts. The activity also teaches students how to interpret computer simulations of wildfire dynamics.
Science research involves finding solutions, which makes scientists excellent problem solvers. Help students in grades K—5 stay engaged in health and environmental topics and practice solving problems like scientists with the games, puzzles, and brainteasers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIEHS website.
Each game page includes links to additional resources about environmental and health topics, such as articles about river and stream pollution, wildlife, ecology, air pollution, and other issues. Looking for genomics or health-related images? The gallery features scientific illustrations, infographics, and photographs of NHGRI staff to encourage middle level through college educators and the public to learn more about genomics research and related medical breakthroughs.
The images are intended for presentations, school projects, news reports, and other publications and include highlights such as an online family health history tool created by the U. Users can click images to access details and a short caption about each one, scroll without clicking to view image titles, mark image favorites, or comment on the images.
The images are free to download; users are asked to credit the organization and artist or photographer when using the images. Students can learn fishing safety protocols, identify the parts of a fish and fish habitats, and discover helpful tips on being a respectful angler. Other activities discuss fishing gear and different types of fishing. The booklet concludes with a crossword puzzle that reinforces program content and promotes environmental stewardship. Interested students can turn in the completed booklet at a participating site and receive a Junior Ranger fishing badge. Generate excitement for space exploration with these lessons, inspired by the Mars InSight mission, for K—12 students.
In the Heat Flow Programming Challenge, students in grades 5—12 use microcontrollers and temperature sensors to measure the flow of heat through a soil sample; this experience helps students better understand the purpose of the InSight Mission, which employs similar kinds of equipment and methods to study the interior of the Red Planet.
A colorful infographic from the CDC presents information about the symptoms of frostbite and hypothermia, along with tactics for avoiding these dangers and guidance on when to seek medical attention. In addition to creating original artwork, the calendar artists shared their thoughts about what can be done to prevent or reduce the impact of marine debris on the oceans. These ideas included organizing events such as beach cleanup days, recycling metal and plastic products to keep them out of the oceans, and creating signs to inform people about how trash impacts the oceans.
Use this resource to help advanced high school and undergraduate students review and learn math fundamentals needed to solve calculations and succeed in first-year college chemistry courses. Module One addresses the topic of scientific notation; Module Two addresses the metric system. To access the materials, click on the link in the upper-right corner Download Free Chapters , and follow the prompts.
These short, standards-based inquiry activities can be used for teaching map-based content found in commonly used textbooks in grades 4— Click on a theme e. Most lessons can be completed in about 15 minutes and require only internet access and the lesson plan; however, some more in-depth lessons in each collection require a free school subscription to ArcGIS online. All of the activities engage students in working with data and interpreting maps.
Targeted for grades 8—12, this simple activity from Edutopia. As students build their models, they work through several key steps in engineering design: defining problems, making models, carrying out investigations, interpreting data, constructing and designing solutions, and communicating information. Find the activity, which includes teacher instructions, whirligig templates, a student reflection sheet, and links, at the site. Learning Through Performance Curriculum. The curriculum centers on the project-based learning instructional model and incorporates rigorous, curriculum-embedded performance assessments in every unit.
Teacher and student versions of each unit, as well as task cards, are provided. The teacher versions include unit overviews, standards connections, and other supplementary materials that support the instruction of each unit. Learn more andaccess the curriculum at the website.
The videos are meant to guide teachers as they shift instruction to support the NGSS. Longer, more extensive videos—such as Collaborative Learning With Earth and Moon and Scientific Inquiry With Mirrors—enable viewers to virtually experience popular hands-on activities and workshops at the Exploratorium e. Published in by the Paleontological Research Institution, this page book for high school Earth and environmental science educators addresses basic climate change science and offers perspective on teaching a subject that has become socially and politically polarized.
Visit the website to download a PDF version of the book. Note: Print copies of the publication are available for purchase. Developed by CenterPoint Energy, and targeted for K—12 students, educators, and families, this interactive website explains where natural gas comes from, how natural gas is used, and how to stay safe around natural gas. Click on the Teachers Tab to access a glossary of natural gas terms, fun facts, quizzes, and activities for upper-elementary and middle level.
High school students can access information about various careers in the energy industry. Help K—12 audiences and the public learn about the critical role of soil in our lives with this collection of resources compiled by the education team at the Soil Health Institute SHI. The resources include videos, infographics, interdisciplinary lessons, PowerPoint presentations, publications, and fact sheets produced by leading soil organizations such as Sustainable Agriculture and Research and Education, the U. Access the annotated catalog—which features information e.
The website features resources for educators interested in starting a club; research on gender equity and on the impact of clubs like GEMS; tips for teachers and parents; and links to activities that encourage students to learn more about careers in STEM. Educators can access a database—produced by the National Geographic Society and partners—featuring thousands of educational materials for teaching science and other subjects.
The resources—which include a wide assortment of activities, articles, collections, infographics, lessons, maps, photographs, videos, and more—address learners from all levels, K—college, and cover numerous subjects e. Search for materials by topic, grade level, content type, or subject. CRISPR—a novel genome editing tool—has been hailed as arguably the biggest biological breakthrough of the past century, as it enables scientists to precisely alter the genetic code of nearly any organism.
At the Innovative Genomics Institute IGI web-site, high school and college educators can access a host of resources e. Gates and anthropologist Nina Jablonski worked with biologists, geneticists, anthropologists, historians, artists, genealogists, and educators to create this curriculum see www. The document defines what STEM means, details research backed benefits of early learning in science and mathematics, and suggests ideas for early educators to support STEM learning and discovery in their classrooms.
The brief also includes action steps for establishing inclusive STEM learning environments, such as articulating a clear vision for broadening STEM participation, involving families and administrators in the effort to broaden STEM participation, and recognizing that other things besides grades and test scores can show success in STEM.
Through a collection of videos, demonstrations, and Next Generation Science Standards NGSS —supported classroom activities and accompanying materials, students explore physics concepts related to car crashes e. Visit the website to view an interactive guide to kinetic and potential energy. Targeted for middle and high school levels, the guide presents brief definitions of potential energy and its types, kinetic energy and its types, and how these forms of energy work together.
The guide is easy to follow and contains several explanatory graphics to help students visually comprehend each concept. In addition, there are links to resources to learn more about energy topics. The National Human Anatomy and Physiology Teachers Facebook Group has tons of education resources to offer, whether you are a middle level or high school biology teacher dabbling in anatomy or a high school or college instructor teaching courses in anatomy and physiology.
This highly active group of educators posts a wide variety of engaging and classroom-tested projects, teaching resources, videos, and more. Members can upload files and photos, join discussions, get advice from fellow educators, and share successes about teaching anatomy and physiology. Recent file uploads have included a student work sheet exploring the function of brain structures and the nervous system; an activity on learning to interpret PET scans; and a packet of sample open-response questions for a Human Bio midterm.
Visit the website to access this unit as well as other adaptable lessons exploring climate change and resiliency topics. Explore plate tectonics and the processes that occur at plate tectonic boundaries with this map-based, data rich activity developed by Dale Sawyer, an Earth science professor at Rice University in Texas. In the activity, students examine maps and sets of data relating to plate boundaries—e. With its inquiry-based approach, the activity works well with a wide range of levels, from middle level to college, and provides students valuable practice in observing and classifying data.
Includes downloadable global data maps, Teachers' Guide, and student worksheets. Dino Doom is an immersive virtual field trip and accompanying lesson for grades 9—12 that engages students in exploring fossil and rock evidence relating to the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, otherwise known as the Cretaceous—Paleogene K-Pg extinction event. In the lesson, which was developed by Arizona State University with data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, students virtually explore various sites around the world, searching for clues to the mass extinction event and collecting evidence from each site to tell a piece of the K-Pg story.
Throughout the virtual field trip, scientists share their research and provide students with a glimpse of authentic scientists at work. At the end of the lesson, students combine all of the evidence to explain how natural events impact life on Earth. Check out this collection of multimedia animations and learning simulations developed by science faculty at California State Polytechnic University, Ponoma. The simulations are appropriate for use in high school and introductory college chemistry courses and help students develop understandings about atomic electron configurations, visible light wavelengths absorption v.
Visit the website to preview all the learning objects in the collection. To use an object, copy the URL from the "link" text-box to a course or website, and go! Districts, schools, and teachers across the country are creating new curriculum materials that reflect the three-dimensional approach to science learning envisioned by the Next Generation Science Standards NGSS.
The Next Generation Science Storylines project, an initiative developed by educators at Northwestern University and partners, is one such effort. This project offers lesson sequences—i. The project has produced more than a dozen storylines for elementary, middle, and high school levels so far. Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory offers a wide variety of programs and resources to engage K-college educators and students in science, technology, engineering, and math STEM pursuits.
Visit the website to access information about STEM mentoring programs for high school students; simulation apps for students of all ages e. The website also includes links and resources to help teachers locate funding for STEM supplies and projects for the classroom; access STEM-related professional development opportunities and educator awards programs; and find supporting research about the value and importance of STEM jobs for our future economy.
New videos will appear monthly. Where Did the Universe Come From? How Did Life Begin on Earth? Teachers are free to embed these videos from Quanta Magazine's YouTube channel on their class websites. The magazine also features a puzzle column that might be fun for advanced math students or math clubs. A free T-shirt is awarded for the best answer each month. Learn about current research in science and engineering, and release your inner artist with ColorMePhd, a page activity book created by a group of doctoral candidates in chemical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley.
Designed for students of all ages, the book features hand-drawn coloring pages along with research descriptions in accessible language on a wide range of topics, such as developing lightweight batteries, genetically engineering plants, converting plants to plastics, investigating polymer batteries, understanding hydrogen fuel cells electrodes, creating sustainable fuels from plant waste, exploring the biological uses of carbon nanotubes, and more.
Each page includes a brief biographical blurb about the contributing scientist as well as a link to a scientific article about the research topic. The mysteries are literature-based math and science brainteasers that take just one minute to read. The brainteasers work well as independent reading for students, a bell ringer for teachers, or an assessment tool for math and science knowledge and literacy. Aimed primarily at high school forensic science, chemistry, and biology teachers, the magazine features lesson plans, reproducibles, rubrics, labs, and inquiry-based activities, many of which can be adapted for elementary and middle school levels.
The magazine also includes puzzles, mini-mysteries, interviews, and a feature about stupid criminals. Sign up for a free subscription. These are now recognised to include pesticides such as DDT and endosulphan; other chemicals that can disrupt oestrogen pathways in the body include lindane, widely used in the UK.
Because of our concern that these chemicals might be contributing to the high death rate from breast cancer in the UK, we became involved with the UK Breast Cancer Coalition. The petition called for the government to pour more money into research into the prevention of breast cancer as well as into treatment and aftercare. We had an amazing response from people all over the country and collected 80, signatures. People wanted to do something to publicise the breast cancer issue and they wanted to do more than just sign their name on a piece of paper.
It aims to give people the skills to investigate possible causes of high breast cancer incidence and death rate in their areas. Environmental pollutants seemed to have substantial links not only with breast cancer but with a variety of other diseases and illnesses that affect women. To campaign on each illness was beyond our scope, both physically and financially, so a rational way of choosing a manageable issue was needed.
We chose breast cancer because it is a serious and often fatal disease affecting one in twelve women, and because tackling it would also help remove the causes of other health problems. Polluted air, soil and water can contribute to a myriad of health problems including allergies, male reproductive disorders, fertility problems, asthma, cancer, etc. If we clean up the environment for breast cancer then this will generate a healthier and cleaner environment for all. Even the dietary changes that are recommended for cancer prevention eating lower in the food chain could improve the environment by reducing agricultural pollution.
Breast cancer could be an indicator that our way of living is unsustainable. Perhaps it has been allowed to rise partly because the opinions of women about illness and the environment have been shut out of the mainstream of society. By beginning to reinstate them in this project, we will bring in new ideas for action that will contribute to a new sustainable culture. Breast cancer rates vary from country to country, and immigrants rapidly acquire the risks of their adopted country. This suggests that there are factors we can change.
These include chemicals, reproductive history and breast-feeding, radiation and electromagnetic fields, and factors such as alcohol, the Pill and hormone replacement therapy.
Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Charles D. Hayes is a self- taughtphilosopher and one of Extreme Conditions: Universal Lessons about Workplace Safety Learned in an Arctic Environment - Kindle edition by Extreme Conditions: Universal Lessons about Workplace Safety Learned in an Arctic Environment by [Hayes. Extreme Conditions: Universal Lessons about Workplace Safety Learned in an Arctic Environment eBook: Charles D. Hayes: lirodisa.tk: Kindle Store.
The debate on what to do about breast cancer is usually confined to medical and scientific experts. They are effectively taking decisions about prevention and cure influenced by their own unspoken assumptions. For example they frequently treat women as passive patients who are not expected, for example, to be able to change their lifestyles. In fact, our experience indicates that women want to be active in tackling causes, and often find that experts are unwilling to discuss them. A new channel of communication is needed. The UK has the highest death rate from breast cancer in the world.
If we change the conditions and lifestyle that cause it, a more sustainable society will be born. The project aims to: - act as a channel of communication for women concerned about the environment in which they live and the adverse impact it is having on their health and that of their family, friends and community; - create a map of various "hot-spots" around the country which show a specific increase in breast cancer incidence and death rates while also mapping the local area for sources of pollution; - raise awareness, stimulate discussion and participation and generate a network of organisations, individuals and groups who want to prevent breast cancer but who may be looking at different causes among the range of likely contributors; - increase access to information by sharing information between groups: sometimes everyone has a different piece of the jigsaw; - put emphasis on true prevention of breast cancer.
Screening is often portrayed as prevention but real prevention involves looking at the causes and finding ways to change them; - give information about all known aspects of breast cancer prevention, including changes in diet, more exercise for young women and girls, breast-feeding, as well as avoidance of suspect chemicals in the home and workplace; and - produce evidence and awareness that will result in a rapid phase out of chemicals and pollutants suspected of instigating or promoting illness especially those associated with breast cancer.
The ultimate vision of the project is to bring about a drastic reduction in the incidence and deaths from breast cancer in this country. Project Activities The objectives will be achieved by providing individuals and local communities with information and a questionnaire to create a map of their own locality. The project has two full time staff the co-ordinator and an administrator with scientific knowledge and IT skills.
There is also a part-time local groups' co-ordinator who promotes the project to WEN local groups, and works with them on other WEN issues. They became involved through the petition and through WEN's past work. The project has advice from research organisations, scientists and medical statisticians who have vetted the questionnaire and in one case added questions , which will enable the results to be drawn upon by university based researchers. Advice is also available from an expert in geographical information systems GIS , which will enable the local maps to be made and put together into a UK map at the end of the project.
The maps can be compiled from either a personal or community perspective. They can be used as a campaigning tool for women who want to make an extensive study of their own localities and any suspected sources of pollution influencing health. All information collected will be compiled onto a database and used to draw attention to certain areas that display considerable circumstantial evidence of environmental links. An information pack will be provided covering mapping skills, campaigning skills and positive preventative information as well as relevant local and national organisations.
Its contents are as detailed below: - Background to project - Risk factors associated with breast cancer - Questionnaire, with explanatory notes - Steps to help people to map their area - Contacts - useful organisations; groups already active; websites; useful journals and directories; book list - Publicity information: how to write press release and sample; poster for local publicity - Funding sources - WEN's general advice sheet on healthy living with lower environmental impact - Evaluation sheet Results Expected The culmination of this part of the project will be the production of a report and map that will highlight any links identified between breast cancer and environmental pollution in the UK.
The results depend on the active groups that respond to it. This is an open-ended project which may produce results we do not expect, and creative ideas that surpass our expectations. We hope that the project will build a cohesive network of groups that support each other.
We also hope that the project will stimulate other awareness raising and campaigns. It could provide publicity, by approaching the issue from a different angle, for the many existing women's groups campaigning for something to be done about the high toll from breast cancer Lessons Learned Over the course of our work on dioxins, we have become aware that it is very difficult to interest illness support groups in the idea that an environmental cause may be involved.
Individuals may be receptive to these ideas, but the group as a whole often resists them. Likewise, research scientists and medical experts are generally resistant not only to the suggestion that environmental pollution is implicated, but also the idea that sufferers should discuss the causes of their illnesses.
Some are very sceptical about women's power to change their own lifestyles. The project started in April , and time has been taken in appointing staff and preparing the mapping system. During this time we have modified our ideas about what is practicable in mapping. Individual communities may also learn in a similar way and gain from our experience, but the potential is there for them to invent new techniques of their own that can be shared and publicised. This project is like much of our previous work in that it involves a fairly abstract purpose, but has a strong practical element the mapping with which people can engage.
This approach has generally been successful for our organisation. The community is in urgent need of providing the people of Morata, and most critically the youths, with income-generating activities. However, to accomplish this they need skills training that is unavailable to them. Project Activities The project provides women and youth from Morata with the skills and attitudes they need in order to start their own small entrepreneurial venture. It then assists them in the development of their business, especially in terms of business design according to environmentally sustainable practice, financing and monitoring principles.
Close monitoring of and assistance to these ventures once they have been created represents an important stage of the project. The people participating in the project will be developing into community leaders, as their ventures will contribute to the common good, creating jobs, satisfying needs and raising living standards. Through exchange programmes of the type described in this case, the trainees are exposed to very different social and cultural realities.
These empower them to bring about positive change, both in the community they visit and in their own communities after they return home. The time frame adopted is sufficient to see significant improvement in areas. The evaluation of these improvements will be carried out on an ongoing basis.
Objectives Sustainable development issues specifically addressed by the project are as follows: - poverty eradication in indigenous communities - capacity building for women, youth and local leaders, by providing education and training in support of sustainable development - partnership with local business Further very important objectives of the project relate to the empowerment of the community through the Morata Local Community Development Foundation.
This means that the project and through it the Foundation must become sustainable by late , in at least two ways: - Financial sustainability: all costs unrelated to the YDEP trainees but including one full-time salary for a national person must be met by the project's generated revenues training fees and interests on the credit scheme. A trained, full-time national person should be able to take over the overall management. Another important aspect of this project is the link that AIESEC establishes between existing companies and the small businesses of Morata, through a godparent system.
Through this, Project Morata develops a sense of social awareness and responsibility among Papua New Guinea's business community who support the start-up businesses in Morata. Two more followed in July and August. Another is planned for early February As a result, eleven small businesses are currently being set up, after which they will be monitored for a period of at least one year.
Assistance is being provided to the entrepreneurs in terms of access to credit, for which a small scale credit scheme is being implemented. Another very important aspect is that these small businesses must answer a need in the Morata community, which will be their primary market. These workshops have been mostly focused on the development of vocational skills such as food processing, handicrafts or gardening, and have been resulted in the creation of micro enterprises, that require very little capital.
The results of this survey were used to carry out a preliminary feasibility study for each of the businesses proposed during the pilot workshop. Lessons learned Implementing the project has taught us a lot: - The concept of micro enterprise development fits the need of community women, who often lack even basic education.
It was a better approach than the standard SYB scheme. Frank Kepson, Project Co-ordinator P. The network is continuously expanding as a result of the success of the "Rescue Mission Planet Earth" book - a children's edition of Agenda 21 that to date has sold , copies in 18 languages, generating new inquiries daily. Currently, many Rescue Mission groups are engaged in the creation of a children's book of human rights which attempts to link the disciplines of sustainable development and the field of human rights.
Most of our groups are composed of activists with a keen interest in getting the job done. As such they are generally not much impressed by UN conferences except insofar as they free up new resources, point in new directions, and spur governments to support them. Rescue Mission has always followed closely the work of CSD, hoping to persuade governments to do more to re-orient education towards teaching sustainability studies as they promised in Agenda In preparing for the Youth Intersessional for CSD in , we decided to monitor whether governments were fulfilling their promises effectively especially in the area of enabling young people to participate in decision-making.
The CSD Secretariat invited Rescue Mission to do for indicators what it had done for Agenda that is, simplify them, make them accessible to young people, and enable young people to use them to participate in sustainable development processes. Although the task was daunting, the young people of the Rescue Mission network readily accepted the challenge. The "Rescue Mission Youth Sustainability Indicators Project" has since become a massive response from Children and Youth, one of the Agenda 21 Major Groups who have an immediate stake in the field of education for sustainable development.
By creating the indicators through a partnership between young people from different parts of the world and top environment and development experts, it was intended that the project would promote the concept of partnership between youth and adults in decision-making.
An estimated 45, people took part in the "Indicators for Action" project, learning about and monitoring the sustainability of their communities. In 17 countries they organised national evaluation meetings to share the results of their findings and to discuss further plans. Results from a few countries include: - Pakistan - the go-ahead has been given for a project called the Pakistani Girl Child Project which will be setting up an Agenda 21 for Pakistani girls.
Nation-wide girl councils are being set up to empower marginalised young girls and provide a platform for their opinions. This will be officially recognised by the local government, - Benin - The local Rescue Mission Group, Mission Terre Benin, has established a waste collection system as a result of doing the Indicators programme. The group is recycling biodegradable waste to use as compost for the village vegetables. The money generated from the vegetable sales is paying for the cost of collecting the rubbish, - Senegal - Rescue Mission group on this country published a report on the sustainability of Senegal with the assistance of the Dutch Embassy, which involved a nation-wide consultative process, - Zanzibar, Tanzania - Rescue Mission has been working with local village-women to implement a solar-box cooker project which was in response to findings that the need for fire-wood has devastated forest reserves on the island.
The project was developed as a partnership between the local women and this group of young Tanzanians who were building the solar-box cookers. These projects and many others have been carried out by dedicated young people from around the world. The effects of their work in assisting schools with education for sustainability is immeasurable and we hope that generations of young people will grow up educated in the skills that they need to build sustainable futures in their countries.
Feedback from thousands of students showed that the Youth Indicator Pack helped them learn for the first time about Agenda 21 and sustainable development as well as about concepts such as "Factor Four". Lessons Learned We learned three interesting things from the first two stages. First, Secondary School Students do not have much time for extra- curricular activities. Their minds are focused on their examination and classes. At a Youth meeting held to discuss this two courses of action were recommended, both of which we have taken up. These were to: - prepare a Junior Indicator Pack for primary school students.
They have more time and are equally adept at getting out and finding out what is happening in their local communities. This we have done, and have had the joyous experience of working in partnership with some very talented year olds, who have ideas every bit as practical about the disciplines of sustainability as older young people with whom we have typically worked, - prepare an Examination Course in Sustainability Studies. Ten pilot schools are being selected and the examination course will be created in partnership between the teachers, students and examiners.
New Text Books are being created, and hands-on action projects based on the Indicators Programme included as course-work which earn examination credits. Both these initiatives are being prepared for the UK initially but may be quickly adapted to other country situations. Another part of the feedback, this time from the teachers, was that they would find it useful to know how their local indicators related to national trends.
Specifically, AREVA displaced the uncertainties concerning the effects on caribou mortality and movement onto the harvesting practices of local residents and the variability in caribou migration patterns. Many ongoing actions are critical to successful implementation of the ABA recommendations. However, the Arkhangelsk development strategy Arkhangelsk City Government, prioritizes only sectors, such as transport infrastructure, health care, education and cultural heritage preservation and almost completely ignores food, environmental, community, personal and political security. Although there have been significant efforts to infuse environmental education into curricula, the results have not been very positive because of a lack of community-specific environmental education resources, networking among government and NGOs, overburdened teachers, and lack of funding. Peterson, K.
Our new indicator packs and exam courses are linked directly to national information and conditions. The second lesson that we learned was that getting young people to create their own indicators and take action based on their findings is hard. Like pulling teeth!! The representatives of participating groups discussed this at length at last year's planning meeting: they were all extremely frustrated as they are all from activist backgrounds and they had a problem with the indicators as young people and teachers felt that just by doing them, they were contributing to sustainable development - which of course, they were not!
They might have learned the meaning of sustainable development - but until they took action, they had not made any contribution. The New Indicator Packs were designed to build action integrally into the programmes - and they have done, but, of course, the funds need to be there to ensure it works.
The third lesson, however, was the most depressing; currently, we cannot distribute these Indicator Packs, as we have no funding for the project. We have learned from the past three years the enormous difficulty in attempting to undertake a major international education programme without commitments to "sustainable funding". Many young people continue pressing for sustainable development education and support from governments and international organisations for their efforts in this direction.
As Sheku Syl Kamara, co-ordinator of Rescue Mission Sierra Leone said when he spoke to the Special Session of the General Assembly on Agenda 21 in June "Young people need to learn the principles of sustainable development and we are anxious that Education for this noble concept does not remain a "forgotten priority" for the next five years.
In the absence of a formal curriculum, we have found in Sierra Leone that doing the Rescue Mission indicators of sustainable development in our communities, we learn very well the meaning of the concept. But I come here today to issue an ultimatum to governments: particularly in Africa, you have to do more to educate us in this concept. You are failing us. If we are going to learn how to sustain life on this planet, you have to work education on this concept into school curricula. Through the World Bank's InfoDev programme and the EU, we are hoping to receive funding to set up Sustainable Development Training Centres - Internet Cafes which provide sustainable development training to schools via the internet and hands on activities, while at the same time earning their keep by providing business services for profit to business and individuals.
We are also seeking to mainstream education for sustainable development by making an attractive course for students to study alongside other mainstream subjects. Without such mainstreaming, we fear the impetus for education in this area will be lost. An earth quake in the s, coupled with guerrilla activity that continued until recently, caused a virtual cessation of further development in the region. The project contributes to the development of the Tierradentro region, through the international action and co-operation of youth.
The focus of the project is community- and youth-based. After conducting a joint investigation into the community needs, Protierradentro and AIESEC decided to focus their work on: - development of leadership and entrepreneurial skills among local youth; - awareness building for sustainable use of natural resources; and, - improvement of participation in local political institutions. During the nine month duration of the project, three teams of students worked for three months each. These included how to set up micro-enterprises, and how to become aware of the potential for sustainable use of the natural environment.
Entrepreneurship is more than creation of enterprises, it empowers the community to address local development issues for itself. The trainees developed a complete cycle of leadership workshops with the following groups: students, community leaders, and community organisations.
Main topics were the development of personal potential, the motivation of others in teams, the strategies for an independent assessment of community needs and education about the ways and means of political participation such as bringing community issues and claims to local and regional government. Participants were taught how to effectively design community based projects and how to access international and national funding for those initiatives. The "local community" learned how to link their projects into national, regional, and international efforts of government and aid agencies, as well as basic skills such as application for funding and technical support.
Lessons Learned The project provided important experiences about the tremendous power that can be generated when people of different backgrounds youth and indigenous people co-operate with local government and international agencies. Project Tierradentro clearly showed that youth initiatives can have lasting impact on community development of communities and on the development of the youth who participate in the process.
The importance of a continuing and built-in evaluation process was recognised.
On-going feedback from participating community leaders, NGOs and trainees helped to resolve problems and bottlenecks quickly. The partner indigenous youth association, Protierradentro, has been working on issues of community education before this project, but it found that co-operation with AIESEC and its global network and contacts made a significant difference. All in all, the project showed the importance to develop individuals as such and their communities in general.
Personal leadership development and business creation went hand in hand with the development of local government involvement and the formulation of civil-society needs and pressures. At the heart of this aim is the need to educate the youth, the future of the tribe, in traditional knowledge. Therefore it was decided that IMPECT would become involved in the development and implementation of local curricula, to be taught alongside the Thai curricula already being taught in all village schools. Obviously these curricula are incredibly complex and completely different for each of the tribes concerned.
They involve not only the language and beliefs of each tribe but the site-specific agricultural systems that have evolved within each community. This threat is posed by the influx of consumerism, lack of land security, large migrations to the cities, and to the formal schooling being used at present in these communities. This schooling has some very basic problems that must be addressed if the children are to get the education they need.
Three main problems can be seen with formal schooling, i the teachers are not hilltribe persons and lack basic understanding of the traditions and way of life of the communities, ii the communities themselves have no input into the education given them, and iii the curriculum is biased towards industrialisation and has no provision for the retention of traditional knowledge. These problems with the existing curriculum have led to community children becoming alienated from the local wisdom and values. In some communities there are large gulfs between parents and their children in terms of what is held as valuable and what is considered unworthy.
Such gulfs feed the "unsustainability" of the communities. One way to ensure this was to institute a curriculum designed by members of the community that can address the real and distinct problems facing hilltribe youth as they try to become part of the Thai society while retaining the values and wisdom of their culture. In the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development at its Fourth Session, focusing on education in support of sustainable development, called for education programmes for indigenous peoples that valued traditional knowledge.
The present project contributes to the implementation of that policy. Objectives The development and implementation of a locally based curriculum had seven main objectives, namely; - To provide the children with the educational opportunities as a basic right. For each of the hilltribes of Northern Thailand, and especially for the Pgakenyaw living in the villages where this project was implemented, the relationship between the traditional lifestyle and the conservation of their natural surrounding is integral.
By supporting the retention of these agricultural systems in the locally developed curriculum, sustainable management of natural resources of the villages can be ensured. It is hoped that the curriculum will ensure that these farming practices are able to continue, by being supported by knowledge about the importance of maintaining the environment. Towards this end additional activities were held to educate the youth in environmental issues. Project Activities In the area of Mae Wang the idea of a local curriculum was new; therefore the initial emphasis for the project was on educating and strengthening the community organisations in the area.
Once the support for the curriculum was in place there were two distinct stages to be carried out. Firstly the curriculum itself had to be developed, involving the development of the learning media itself and the training of the teachers who were to use it. The second stage was the actual implementation of the new curriculum. In this state, it was found necessary that the curriculum be used with not only the children still in school but also with young people who had left the school system.
Details of Specific Activities towards the development and testing of the curriculum: - A series of meetings six in total were held with peoples' organisations in the five villages of the project - Data collection throughout the area and translation from the local dialect into Thai and production of the teaching materials. Results Achieved The process of implementing the curriculum is just beginning with the project advancing to its completion in May The results expected at the completion of the project will be far reaching with the knowledge gained by the children standing them in good stead for the difficult decisions that lie ahead.
To analyse the results at this early stage, then, is perhaps a little presumptive. Nonetheless, it can be said that there is an increased feeling of the value of traditional knowledge among the children and youth in the target villages. Additionally, strengthening peoples' organisations in the Mae Wang district has resulted in a revitalisation of the traditional respect systems, such as the respect traditionally accorded to the elders of the villages as the chief educators of the young.
Lessons Learned The process of formulating a local curriculum is long and difficult. Its success in Mae Wang district must be taken as an encouraging sign. However the very nature of "a local curriculum" means that there are no rules for easy transfer to other communities, peoples or areas, as each place different values on aspects of their cultures. Perhaps the most valuable lesson learned was the importance of information collected on which to base the curriculum.
The community needs to see that the curriculum is truly reflecting their culture and their needs for it to foster a closer link between the schools and the communities. It was clearly seen in the Mae Wang area that the local curriculum would succeed only if it had the support of the community. This is a lesson that is transferable to other communities. The forest provides them with food, shelter, medicine and clothing. Unlike most other countries where most of the land and forests are owned by the state, ownership by people is more than 80 per cent.
Logging operations started in the s, and by the s it had become a major concern for both the government and the indigenous peoples of the Solomon Islands. Since then, despite many awareness campaigns on sustainable development, both the number of logging companies, and the unsustainable rate of harvesting of timber resources have been increasing. The local communities resource owners are determined that they can carry out sustainable logging and milling once proper training and financial assistance are made available.
Established in , it has more than ten years of experience in outreach, extension, training and awareness programmes in eco-forestry. Lack of investment capital to buy the equipment necessary to start sustainable milling projects was identified as a serious obstacle. In , the Eco-Forestry programme was launched to give communities training on forest management, resulting in 17 projects being assisted. In , a small revolving fund was established to assist resource owners.
Although this island province has been out of reach by loggers until recently, it is now threatened as logging companies look for new forest resources. A partnership has been created as a model for future eco-forestry activities, not only in Isabel and in the Solomon Islands at large, but also for neighbouring countries facing similar situations.
As part of its design, the partnership will also test the applicability of the timber certification programme, initiated by the Forest Stewardship Council in the Solomon Islands. Timber certification is envisaged by Project Activity The planned training and activities were conducted.
These five officers had to spend the period of three months September - December , training in all aspects of starting and continuing their milling operations. At the end of the three months, the community will be able to master the skills needed for managing the project themselves. Also, this period of time will give enough time to produce enough timber to meet the cost of machines and part of the training costs. Training sessions were held on: - Forest Management - land demarcation, forest inventory and selecting the trees to be felled.
A production target of 40 cubic metres was targeted which was an order for Holland. Recording of timbers produced for timber certification purposes chain of custody, etc is also part of this training. Results Achieved - 28 m3 of timber was produced within the time specified. Of this 18 m3 was of export quality and sold to Germany. The remainder was sold locally. The six trainees are also able to identify among themselves which roles each of them will play in their operations.
Rarade community is able to understand better what forest certification is and why it is important. Lessons Learned As a result of this case study, a lot has been learned as important areas to be considered for sustainable small scale milling projects. These areas were identified during general discussions with members of the Rarade Community in the course of training.
Such developments are new to the people, and their operations as well as the success of their projects depend on the training given. Follow-up training also has to be organised and arranged according to need. Such an operation would require planning and training to minimise damage. Financial and technical expertise would also be needed. The resource owners have the natural resources but are unable to harvest them due to the lack of investment capital to purchase the required equipment for their operations. The resource owners are more than willing to harvest their own timber resources in a sustainable manner.